Fisher Island, Florida
Fisher Island is a census-designated place in Miami-Dade County, United States, located on a barrier island of the same name. As of 2015, Fisher Island had the highest per capita income of any place in the United States; the CDP had only 218 households and a total population of 467. Named for automotive parts pioneer and beach real estate developer Carl G. Fisher, who once owned it, Fisher Island is three miles off shore of mainland South Florida. No road or causeway connects to the island, accessible by private boat, helicopter, or ferry. Once a one-family island home of the Vanderbilts, several other millionaires, it was sold for development in the 1960s; the property sat vacant for well over 15 years before development was begun for limited and restrictive multi-family use. The island was created in 1905 by a dredging and land reclamation projects in and around Miami Beach. Construction of Fisher Island began in 1919 when Carl G. Fisher, a land developer, purchased the property from businessman and real estate developer Dana A. Dorsey, southern Florida's first African-American millionaire.
In 1925 William Kissam Vanderbilt II traded a luxury yacht to Fisher for ownership of the island. After Vanderbilt's death in 1944, ownership of the island passed to U. S. Steel heir Edward Moore. Moore died in the early 1950s, Gar Wood, the millionaire inventor of hydraulic construction equipment, bought it. Wood, a speedboat enthusiast, kept the island a one-family retreat. In 1963, Wood sold to a development group that included local Key Biscayne millionaire Bebe Rebozo, Miami native and United States Senator George Smathers and former U. S. Vice President Richard Nixon, who had promised to leave politics. During his subsequent presidency from 1968–1973, during the Watergate scandal, Nixon maintained a home on nearby Key Biscayne known as the "Key Biscayne Whitehouse", the former residence of Senator Smathers and next door to Rebozo, but none of the three resided on Fisher Island; the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami maintained the Comparative Sedimentology Laboratory on Fisher Island from 1972 to 1990 under the leadership of Robert Ginsburg.
After years of legal battles and changes in ownership, further development on the island was started in the 1980s, with architecture matching the original 1920s Spanish style mansions. Although no longer a one-family island, in 2005, Fisher Island still remains somewhat inaccessible to the public and uninvited guests, is as exclusive by modern standards as it was in the days of the Vanderbilts, providing similar refuge and retreat for its residents; the island contains mansions, a hotel, several apartment buildings, an observatory, a private marina. Boris Becker, Oprah Winfrey, Mel Brooks are among the celebrities with homes on the island. In 2005, the island attempted to incorporate as a town, but the Miami-Dade County Commission did not support this initiative. In 2006, the Service Employees International Union began organizing the workers on Fisher Island in preparation for a petition for recognition as those employees' bargaining representative; the campaign culminated on June 15, 2007 with a march to the mainland ferry terminal that ended with a worker's arrest.
The New York Times wrote an exposé on the situation. In the article, residents were portrayed as not caring about the welfare of the community, but residents dispute this characterization, insisting that the island includes financially successful, compassionate people who have established several charitable activities on the island, provide health insurance to their employees and are involved in various arts organizations in the Miami-Dade area; the union argues that the wages provided by the island are too low for employees to care for their families and that the health insurance provided is out of the reach of most island employees. One of the last developable parcels of land on the island, a 15-acre site approved for residential development facing the shipping channel that separates the island from Miami Beach, was for a number of years subject to a protracted legal battle between Inna Gudavadze, the widow of the late Georgian billionaire Badri Patarkatsishvili, investors aligned with his distant relative and former business associate, Joseph Kay.
A judgement handed down by the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida on 16 October 2013 upheld in the US a previous 2010 judgement from the Supreme Court of Gibraltar that comprehensively dismissed the "wholly unconvincing" case brought by Joseph Kay. The development is now being completed under the supervision of Inna Gudavadze and the Patarkatsishvili family. Fisher Island is located at 25°45′41″N 80°8′39″W. According to recent census data, the CDP has a total area of all of it land; the entire island, is larger at 0.938 km2. As of the census of 2000, there were 467 people, 218 households, 149 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,362.6 people per square mile. There were 532 housing units at an average density of 1,552.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 92.08% White 3.21% African American, 2.14% Asian, 0.64% from other races, 1.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 14.8% of the population. There were 218 households out of which 19.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.5% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families.
26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average famil
Mount Pleasant, South Carolina
Mount Pleasant is a large suburban town in Charleston County, South Carolina, United States. It is the fourth largest municipality and largest town in South Carolina, for several years was one of the state's fastest-growing areas, doubling in population between 1990 and 2000; the population was 67,843 at the 2010 census. The estimated population in 2014 was 77,796. At the foot of the Arthur Ravenel Bridge is Patriots Point, a naval and maritime museum, home to the World War II aircraft carrier USS Yorktown, now a museum ship; the Ravenel Bridge, an eight-lane highway, completed in 2005, spans the Cooper River and links Mount Pleasant with the city of Charleston. The site of Mount Pleasant was occupied by the Sewee people, an Algonquian language-speaking tribe; the first white settlers arrived from England on July 6, 1680, under the leadership of Captain Florentia O'Sullivan. Captain O'Sullivan had been granted 2,340 acres, which included not only the island that bears his name, but the land, to become Mount Pleasant.
On the earliest map of the time this area was called "North Point". In 1696, 51 new settlers arrived; each family was allotted several hundred acres in the area that became known as Christ Church parish. In 1706 the Province of Carolina withstood several attacks by the Spanish and the French from their settlements to the south and were victorious in defeating French invaders in an area known as "Abcaw"; the area of "Abcaw" was Hobcaw Plantation, located between the Wando River. It was known as Shipyard Plantation, its deep water and abundance of good timber made it ideal for the development of a prosperous shipbuilding enterprise. Lands adjacent to Hobcaw Point were owned at different times by several different families, many of which maintained ferries which served Mount Pleasant. By 1721, 107 families were living including 400 whites and 637 slaves; as the area was developed for plantations, enslaved Africans and African Americans made up the chief labor force of the slave society. They and the following freedmen comprised a majority of the population through the 19th and early 20th centuries.
In 1754, Charles Pinckney acquired a 715-acre plantation, cultivating the commodity crops of rice and indigo. It became known as Snee Farm near here, his son Charles retained the plantation until 1817. It was operated as a plantation through the 19th century. On September 24, 1860, a public meeting was held in Mount Pleasant; the secession convention met in Charleston on December 20, 1860. With the advent of the Civil War, Battery Guerry and an adjacent floating battery between Mount Pleasant and Sullivan's Island were instrumental in defense of the city, they were bases for attacks on Fort Sumter. The city was defended by a line of fortifications from Elliot's Creek at Boone Hall to Copahee Sound. Mount Pleasant was the secret training ground for the nine-man crew of the Confederate submarine H. L. Hunley, H. L. Hunley; this small vessel was launched from Breach Inlet in 1864 to sink the USS Housatonic. The original plank-and-barrel footbridge known as the Pitt Street Bridge at the foot of the Old Village area in Mount Pleasant, was used by the crew of the H.
L. Hunley to cross to Breach Inlet to test the submarine. In 1899 the original wooden plank bridge was replaced by a trolley bridge. A generation in 1929 a steel drawbridge was built for vehicle access between Sullivan's Island and Mount Pleasant; the Pitt Street bridge was dismantled in 1945, but the remains can still be seen in the Intracostal Waterway. The area has been maintained since as the Pickett Bridge Recreation Area, it was named for Charleston doctor Otis Pickett. The "Old Village" is Mount Pleasant's oldest neighborhood. In the early 21st century, the Old Village is centered on the Pitt Street Shops at the northwestern end of the street. Among them is the Pitt Street Pharmacy, featured on the Food Network, it has operated at this location for more than 60 years. As a result of emancipation after the Civil War, the numerous slaves were freed. Continuing their numerical dominance of the population, in 1875 African Americans made up 73% of the population in Charleston County; some of the freedmen developed Scanlonville, one of the first African-American communities to be formed after the Civil War in the Charleston area.
It continues today as a neighborhood within Mount Pleasant. Robert Scanlon, a freedman carpenter, purchased the 614-acre property known as Remley's Plantation, bordering Charleston harbor along the Wando River in Mount Pleasant. Scanlon was the president and founder of the Charleston Land Company, formed by 100 poor local freedmen who pooled their resources and paid $10 per share, in order to purchase large tracts of land in the area; the Charleston Land Company divided this tract into smaller lots so that freedmen could have their own land. Remley's Plantation was divided into farm lots and city lots to form the community of Scanlonville; the Charleston Land Company and Scanlonville are one of four known cooperative real estate development ventures among African-American freedmen after the Civil War. West of Scanlonville is Riverside, during the Jim Crow years of the 20th century known as the largest and oldest of five "black beaches" in Charleston County, it was established. Riverside opened in 1930 and featured a dance pavilion, athletics field, playground, a boardwalk along the Wando River.
Riverside Pavilion was
Florida State Road A1A
State Road A1A is a north-south Florida State Road that runs along the Atlantic Ocean, from Key West at the southern tip of Florida, to Fernandina Beach, just south of Georgia on Amelia Island. It is the main road through most oceanfront towns. Part of SR A1A is designated Historic Coastal Byway, a National Scenic Byway. A portion of A1A that passes through Volusia County is designated the Ormond Scenic Loop and Trail, a Florida Scenic Highway, it is called the Indian River Lagoon Scenic Highway from State Road 510 at Wabasso Beach to U. S. Route 1 in Cocoa. A1A is famous worldwide as a center of beach culture in the United States, a scenic coastal route through most Atlantic coastal cities and beach towns, including the unique tropical coral islands of the Florida Keys. A1A serves as a major thoroughfare through Miami Beach and other south Florida coastal cities. Other than SR A1A Alternate, only two other Florida state roads have begun with a letter: SR A19A, SR G1A; the road was designated as State Road 1 in the 1945 renumbering replacing the former State Road 140 designation.
The number reflected its location in the new grid as the easternmost major north–south road. About a year and a half in November 1946, the State Road Board resolved to renumber the route due to confusion with the parallel U. S. Highway 1; the new designation, A1A, was chosen to keep the number 1 in its place in the grid. The East Coast Greenway, a system of trails that connects Maine to Florida, travels along sections of State Road A1A. SR A1A is associated with Florida beach culture and is known for its lush tropical and subtropical scenery and ocean vistas. In many places, the highway runs directly along the waterfront of the Atlantic Ocean, but in other places, it runs one to five blocks inland from the beachfront. For most of its length, A1A runs along Florida's East Coast Barrier Islands, separated from the mainland of the state by the Intracoastal Waterway; because of the proximity of the highway to the ocean and its susceptibility to storm surges, sections of A1A are closed or damaged by hurricanes and tropical storms.
A1A has been a backbone of Florida's Spring Break serving as "the strip" in both Fort Lauderdale – a popular spring break destination during the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s – and Daytona Beach, which became a popular destination for college spring breaks during the 1970s. Today, A1A serves as more a main coastal highway that connects beach towns for more than 375 miles along Florida's East Coast; the southern terminus of SR A1A is at the southern end of Bertha Street, where SR A1A begins as a two-lane a four-lane highway along the Straits of Florida in Key West, known locally as South Roosevelt Boulevard. The road heads east past East Martello Tower and Key West International Airport, before curving north with an intersection with CR 5A, followed by the northern terminus of the Key West section of SR A1A, U. S. Route 1 and State Road 5. Running along the south shore of Key West, SR A1A is the southmost numbered highway in the lower 48 states. SR A1A reappears at Interstate 395 and US 1 in Miami, beginning at MacArthur Causeway before becoming Collins Avenue at Fifth Street in Miami Beach, serving as one of Miami Beach's main north — south thoroughfares.
Just north in the town of Surfside, the northbound is Collins Avenue, the southbound is Harding Avenue. In Bal Harbour it is called Bal Harbour Boulevard. In Golden Beach it is called Ocean Boulevard, it serves Hallandale Beach, Hollywood Beach, Dania Beach. It joins with US 1 for 3.4 miles, passes the Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood International Airport, it divides and serves Ft. Lauderdale Beach, Pompano Beach, continuing north, it serves as the main road throughout much of the exclusive Palm Beach, further to the north. In the area of Vero Beach, A1A is called the Robert C. Spillman Memorial Highway, it spans Sebastian Inlet at the Sebastian Inlet Bridge. A1A next passes just to the west of the John F. Kennedy Space Center. Two miles of A1A were used as part of the well-known Daytona Beach Road Course. A1A passes through St. Augustine, the oldest continuously-inhabited city on the mainland of the United States. A1A is called 3rd Street in Neptune Beach. Just south of Atlantic Beach, A1A turns inland for several blocks, following Atlantic Boulevard, before resuming a northward course along Mayport Road that ends at the St. Johns River.
A ferry takes traffic to the northern section of A1A that continues along the coast to just south of Fort Clinch State Park on the estuary of the Saint Mary's River. At that point A1A hooks back south to Fernandina Beach and turns west, going inland 20 miles through Yulee and crossing I-95 and U. S. Highway 17, it ends at U. S. Highway 1, U. S. Highway 23, U. S. Highway 301 in Florida; this section west of Fernandina Beach, is marked as SR 200, but SR A1A signs are displayed at every cluster of signs, though a designated direction is only above the SR 200 signs. Prior to the 1945 renumbering, the route that became SR 1 had the following numbers: SR 1 was defined in the 1945 renumbering as: Since the following changes have been made: The Jungle Trail was part of A1A in northeastern Indian River County, Florida; the narrow, 7 1⁄2-mile-long road is located between Old Winter Beach Road and the current A1A, along the western side of Orchid Island, is unpaved. It is part of the Indian River Lagoon Scenic Highway system, the southernmost road in the highway system
Abraham D. Lavender is a professor of Sociology at Florida International University in Miami, where his special areas of interest include ethnic relations, political sociology, urban sociology, the sociology of sexuality, social deviance, he is Editor in Chief of the'Journal of Spanish and Italian Crypto Jews', is past president of the Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies. He has been a professor of sociology at St. Mary's College in Maryland, at the University of Miami, he has taught at FIU since 1990. Born in New Zion, South Carolina, Lavender's formal education started at Salem Elementary School in New Zion, he graduated from East Clarendon High School in Turbeville, South Carolina, he received his B. A. and M. A. degrees in psychology from the University of South Carolina at Columbia, in 1963 and 1965 respectively. While at USC, he was a member of Phi Epsilon Pi fraternity, the AFROTC's Arnold Air Society, was president of the Hillel Foundation, was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, he served from 1964 to 1968 in the United States Air Force and completed his service as a Captain, serving at Whiteman Air Force Base in Warrensburg, where he was a Personnel Casualty Officer, in Izmir, Turkey, as part of NATO.
After completing his military service, Lavender began his doctoral studies and earned a Ph. D. in sociology in 1972 from the University of Maryland, College Park, with a doctoral dissertation on generational changes in Jewish identity. A prolific author, Lavender "has written dozens of books and academic articles about ethnicity and Sephardic Jews", as well as other scholarly publications including journal articles, reference book/encyclopedia articles, book reviews, or research reports, on a wide variety of sociology-related topics. In addition to his books listed below, among his major publications linking multiple areas of interest are "A History of Jewish and Hispanic Interaction in Miami-Dade County" and "Jews, Hispanics and Others in Miami Beach: An Ethnically Divided City or a Cosmopolitan Multiethnic City?" to which the answer is "Cosmopolitan Multiethnic City." In 1977, Lavender published a collection of studies on non-mainstream Jewish people in the United States titled A Coat of Many Colors.
As of 2014, he was completing a seventh book, "Early Social Life in Miami Beach: From Mangroves and Mosquitoes to Mansions and Millionaires". He was selected to write the article on "Judaism" for the "Encyclopedia of Sociology", to write seven articles on the relationship between anthropology and DNA for the "Encyclopedia of Anthropology". Lavender "has argued that since Sephardic Jews constitute a separate group, they should be granted the same attention bestowed on other ethnic groups". On six occasions Lavender has been honored for his civic activities in Miami Beach. Lavender has close ties to Charleston, South Carolina, his "second home," where he has lived part-time, has many relatives and friends, visits has been a speaker at the historic Kahal Kadosh Beth Elohim Synagogue, has conducted extensive research at the Huguenot Society, was involved with the International Huguenot Conference held in Charleston in 1997. Lavender has been active in civic and political affairs, serving as advisor to Miami Beach mayor, Seymour Gelber, serving as vice-chair and Commissioner of the Miami Beach Housing Authority, chairing the city's Homeless Committee, serving as a member of the city's Safety Committee.
He served on the Board of Directors of the Jewish Genealogical Society of Greater Miami, has conducted extensive genealogical research. An academic and personal area of interest, used in genealogical and historical research, is DNA, his strongest personal genetic matches are in Spain among the chuetas of the island of Mallorca. His direct paternal ancestor, Benjamin Lavender, settled in the Sumter, New Zion areas of South Carolina c. 1790, among Lavender's recent presentations is “Where in the World are Benjamin Lavender’s Distant Male Cousins?”, presented in Turbeville, S. C. in August 2010. With thirteen Y-chromosome markers, the answers are, in order, Italy. Lavender is a frequent speaker to academic and genealogical groups, with frequent presentations about the Sephardic Jews of Spain and Portugal, their descendants in North America and South America. Recent presentations have included "The Secret Jews of Brazil." Other favorite topics include Miami Beach history, political behavior, DNA, recent presentations include "The Secret Society of Moses according to Flavio Barbiero."
His academic visits have included Portugal and Israel. Lavender is president of the Miami Beach Historical Association and president of the South Florida Association of Phi Beta Kappa, he is a member of Temple Beth Tov in West Miami, is president of the Men's Club. He is a member of a 32nd degree Scottish Rite Freemason, he has been a member of Mensa, the board of directors of the Miami chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union. He is a life member of the Jewish War Veterans of the United States. Mi
Miami Beach, Florida
Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, United States. It was incorporated on March 26, 1915; the municipality is located on natural and man-made barrier islands between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay, the latter of which separates the Beach from Miami. The neighborhood of South Beach, comprising the southernmost 2.5 square miles of Miami Beach, along with downtown Miami and the Port of Miami, collectively form the commercial center of South Florida. Miami Beach's estimated population is 92,307 according to the most recent United States census estimates. Miami Beach is the 26th largest city in Florida based on official 2017 estimates from the US Census Bureau, it has been one of America's pre-eminent beach resorts since the early 20th century. In 1979, Miami Beach's Art Deco Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Art Deco District is the largest collection of Art Deco architecture in the world and comprises hundreds of hotels and other structures erected between 1923 and 1943.
Mediterranean, Streamline Moderne and Art Deco are all represented in the District. The Historic District is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the East, Lenox Court on the West, 6th Street on the South and Dade Boulevard along the Collins Canal to the North; the movement to preserve the Art Deco District's architectural heritage was led by former interior designer Barbara Baer Capitman, who now has a street in the District named in her honor. Miami Beach is governed by six commissioners. Although the mayor runs commission meetings, the mayor and all commissioners have equal voting power and are elected by popular election; the mayor serves for terms of two years with a term limit of three terms and commissioners serve for terms of four years and are limited to two terms. Commissioners are voted for citywide and every two years three commission seats are voted upon. A city manager is responsible for administering governmental operations. An appointed city manager is responsible for administration of the city.
The City Clerk and the City Attorney are appointed officials. In 1870, a father and son and Charles Lum, purchased the land for 75 cents an acre; the first structure to be built on this uninhabited oceanfront was the Biscayne House of Refuge, constructed in 1876 by the United States Life-Saving Service at 72nd Street. Its purpose was to provide food, a return to civilization for people who were shipwrecked; the next step in the development of the future Miami Beach was the planting of a coconut plantation along the shore in the 1880s by New Jersey entrepreneurs Ezra Osborn and Elnathan Field, but this was a failed venture. One of the investors in the project was agriculturist John S. Collins, who achieved success by buying out other partners and planting different crops, notably avocados, on the land that would become Miami Beach. Meanwhile, across Biscayne Bay, the City of Miami was established in 1896 with the arrival of the railroad, developed further as a port when the shipping channel of Government Cut was created in 1905, cutting off Fisher Island from the south end of the Miami Beach peninsula.
Collins' family members saw the potential in developing the beach as a resort. This effort got underway in the early years of the 20th century by the Collins/Pancoast family, the Lummus brothers, Indianapolis entrepreneur Carl G. Fisher; until the beach here was only the destination for day-trips by ferry from Miami, across the bay. By 1912, Collins and Pancoast were working together to clear the land, plant crops, supervise the construction of canals to get their avocado crop to market, set up the Miami Beach Improvement Company. There were bath houses and food stands, but no hotel until Brown's Hotel was built in 1915. Much of the interior land mass at that time was a tangled jungle of mangroves. Clearing it, deepening the channels and water bodies, eliminating native growth everywhere in favor of landfill for development, was expensive. Once a 1600-acre, jungle-matted sand bar three miles out in the Atlantic, it grew to 2,800 acres when dredging and filling operations were completed. With loans from the Lummus brothers, Collins had begun work on a 2½-mile-long wooden bridge, the world's longest wooden bridge at the time, to connect the island to the mainland.
When funds ran dry and construction work stalled, Indianapolis millionaire and recent Miami transplant Fisher intervened, providing the financing needed to complete the bridge the following year in return for a land swap deal. That transaction kicked off the island's first real estate boom. Fisher helped by organizing an annual speed boat regatta, by promoting Miami Beach as an Atlantic City-style playground and winter retreat for the wealthy. By 1915, Collins and Fisher were all living in mansions on the island, three hotels and two bath houses had been erected, an aquarium built, an 18-hole golf course landscaped; the Town of Miami Beach was chartered on March 26, 1915. After the town was incorporated in 1915 under the name of Miami Beach, many visitors thought of the beach strip as Alton Beach, indicating just how well Fisher had advertised his interests there; the Lummus property was called Ocean Beach, with only the Collins interests referred to as Miami Beach. Carl Fisher was the main promoter of Miami Beach's development in the 1920s as the site for wealthy industrialists from the north and Midwest to and build their winter homes here.
Many other Northerners were targeted to vacation on the island. To accommodate the wealthy tourists, several grand hotels were built, among them: The Flamingo Hotel, The Fleetwood Hotel, The Floridi
U.S. Route 1 in Florida
U. S. Highway 1 in Florida runs 545 miles along the state's east coast– from Key West to its crossing of the St. Marys River into Georgia north of Boulogne –and south of Folkston. US 1 was designated through Florida when the United States Numbered Highway System was established in 1926; the road is maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation. From its national southern terminus in Key West, US 1 carries the Overseas Highway– the Keys main highway –north to the mainland, entering South Florida. From South Florida to Jacksonville, US 1 runs close to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean and the Intracoastal Waterway east of Interstate 95 and west of State Road A1A, running parallel with both roads. North of Jacksonville, US 1 curves inland towards the St. Mary's River as it enters Georgia; as is the case with all Florida roads with national designations, the entirety of US 1 has a hidden FDOT designation: SR 5 from Whitehead Street / Fleming Street in Key West to US 1 Alternate/US 17 in Jacksonville with one exception: SR 805 from Federal Highway in Lantana to Belvedere Road in West Palm Beach.
SR 15 from the I-95 interchange in Jacksonville to the Georgia state line near Boulogne. Among other designations, US 1 is a designated Blue Star Memorial Highway along its entire route through the state. Markers are placed including one in Rockledge and Fort Lauderdale. US 1 begins at the Monroe County courthouse at the intersection of Whitehead and Fleming Streets, Key West, it proceeds south as Whitehead Street, a two-laned street, until the intersection with Truman Avenue, which takes it east through central Key West. Truman Avenue becomes North Roosevelt Boulevard about a mile east, remains so until leaving the island; the road follows the northern shore of this section of Key West after curving southward, it meets State Road A1A head-on at a T-intersection before continuing east. This intersection marks the southern terminus of the Overseas Highway, which US 1 is known by between here and mainland Florida. After crossing to Stock Island and forming the boundary between the eponymous district and incorporated Key West, US 1 proceeds through unincorporated Monroe County on Boca Chica Key, past the Naval Air Station Key West, Rockland Key, where the Overseas Highway drops down to a two-laned road.
It crosses East Rockland Key, Big Coppitt Key, Saddlebunch Keys, Sugarloaf Key, Park Key, Cudjoe Key, Summerland Key, Ramrod Key, Middle Torch Key, Little Torch Key, Big Pine Key, Scout Key, Spanish Harbor Key. The highway expands to four lanes as it crosses the Bahia Honda Bridge reduces to two lanes as it traverses Bahia Honda Key, Ohio Key, Missouri Key, Little Duck Key. After Little Duck Key, US 1 enters Knight's Key, Boot Key, Key Vaca and the town of Marathon via the Seven Mile Bridge, thus leaving the lower Keys. US 1 runs through Marathon as a four-laned road. After Key Vaca, the road becomes two-laned once more and runs through Fat Deer Key, where it forms the northern boundary of the city of Key Colony Beach, it continues wholly in Marathon through Long Point Key, Crawl Key and Grassy Key. The road crosses to Little Conch Key and Conch Key, both part of the Duck Key district. US 1 crosses to and traverses Long Key, unincorporated except for the city of Layton, which the highway passes through.
The road reaches Craig Key, the village of Islamorada including Lower Matecumbe Key, Tea Table Key, Upper Matecumbe Key and Windley Key. US 1 crosses a drawbridge onto Plantation Key, where it expands to four lanes and leaves Islamorada as it crosses to Key Largo; the Overseas Highway enters Tavernier, where it temporarily splits into a pair of one-way roads through the community. Soon the road enters the community of Key Largo, which features another pair of one-way roads. At the northern end of the Key Largo district, about two-thirds of the way along the island, US 1 intersects County Road 905, which offers an alternative route out of the Keys via North Key Largo and the Card Sound Bridge. Signage approaching the intersection directs northbound motorists to take this alternative route if the lights on it are flashing. US 1 swings to the northwest, forms the southern boundary of North Key Largo, becomes a two-laned divided road after the intersection. After crossing the Jewfish Creek Bridge and travelling along Cross Key, US 1 crosses Manatee Creek, along with the Miami-Dade County boundary, reaches the mainland.
For the first 14 miles in Miami-Dade County, US 1 is a divided two-lane road bordering the Everglades National Park on the west. It is named South Dixie Highway from the county line to Miami, its first major intersection is with the north end of Card Sound Road south of Florida City. To the south, signage directs southbound travelers approaching this intersection to take Card Sound Road if the lights on it are flashing, rather than taking US 1 south to Key Largo. Just north of the Card Sound Road intersection, US 1 meets the southern end of Krome Avenue, enters Florida City. Here, US 1 intersects State Road 9336. From here northbound, the South Dixie Highway is paralleled by the South Miami-Dade Busway along the former Florida East Coast
Douglas MacArthur was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II, he received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Philippines Campaign, which made him and his father Arthur MacArthur Jr. the first father and son to be awarded the medal. He was one of only five to rise to the rank of General of the Army in the US Army, the only one conferred the rank of field marshal in the Philippine Army. Raised in a military family in the American Old West, MacArthur was valedictorian at the West Texas Military Academy, First Captain at the United States Military Academy at West Point, where he graduated top of the class of 1903. During the 1914 United States occupation of Veracruz, he conducted a reconnaissance mission, for which he was nominated for the Medal of Honor. In 1917, he became chief of staff of the 42nd Division. In the fighting on the Western Front during World War I, he rose to the rank of brigadier general, was again nominated for a Medal of Honor, was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross twice and the Silver Star seven times.
From 1919 to 1922, MacArthur served as Superintendent of the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, where he attempted a series of reforms, his next assignment was in the Philippines, where in 1924 he was instrumental in quelling the Philippine Scout Mutiny. In 1925, he became the Army's youngest major general, he served on the court-martial of Brigadier General Billy Mitchell and was president of the American Olympic Committee during the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. In 1930, he became Chief of Staff of the United States Army; as such, he was involved in the expulsion of the Bonus Army protesters from Washington, D. C. in 1932, the establishment and organization of the Civilian Conservation Corps. He retired from the US Army in 1937 to become Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines. MacArthur was recalled to active duty in 1941 as commander of United States Army Forces in the Far East. A series of disasters followed, starting with the destruction of his air forces on 8 December 1941 and the Japanese invasion of the Philippines.
MacArthur's forces were soon compelled to withdraw to Bataan, where they held out until May 1942. In March 1942, MacArthur, his family and his staff left nearby Corregidor Island in PT boats and escaped to Australia, where MacArthur became Supreme Commander, Southwest Pacific Area. Upon his arrival, MacArthur gave a speech in which he famously promised "I shall return" to the Philippines. After more than two years of fighting in the Pacific, he fulfilled that promise. For his defense of the Philippines, MacArthur was awarded the Medal of Honor, he accepted the Surrender of Japan on 2 September 1945 aboard the USS Missouri, anchored in Tokyo Bay, he oversaw the occupation of Japan from 1945 to 1951. As the effective ruler of Japan, he oversaw sweeping economic and social changes, he led the United Nations Command in the Korean War with initial success. Following a series of major defeats, he was removed from command by President Harry S. Truman on 11 April 1951, he became chairman of the board of Remington Rand.
A military brat, Douglas MacArthur was born 26 January 1880, at Little Rock Barracks, Little Rock, Arkansas, to Arthur MacArthur, Jr. a U. S. Army captain, his wife, Mary Pinkney Hardy MacArthur. Arthur, Jr. was the son of Scottish-born jurist and politician Arthur MacArthur, Sr. Arthur would receive the Medal of Honor for his actions with the Union Army in the Battle of Missionary Ridge during the American Civil War, be promoted to the rank of lieutenant general. Pinkney came from a prominent Norfolk, family. Two of her brothers had fought for the South in the Civil War, refused to attend her wedding. Arthur and Pinky had three sons, of whom Douglas was the youngest, following Arthur III, born on 1 August 1876, Malcolm, born on 17 October 1878; the family lived on a succession of Army posts in the American Old West. Conditions were primitive, Malcolm died of measles in 1883. In his memoir, MacArthur wrote "I learned to ride and shoot before I could read or write—indeed before I could walk and talk."
MacArthur's time on the frontier ended in July 1889 when the family moved to Washington, D. C. where he attended the Force Public School. His father was posted to San Antonio, Texas, in September 1893. While there MacArthur attended the West Texas Military Academy, where he was awarded the gold medal for "scholarship and deportment", he participated on the school tennis team, played quarterback on the school football team and shortstop on its baseball team. He was named valedictorian, with a final year average of 97.33 out of 100. MacArthur's father and grandfather unsuccessfully sought to secure Douglas a presidential appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point, first from President Grover Cleveland and from President William McKinley. After these two rejections, he was given coaching and private tutoring by Milwaukee high school teacher Gertrude Hull, he passed the examination for an appointment from Congressman Theobald Otjen, scoring 93.3 on the test. He wrote: "It was a lesson I never forgot.
Preparedness is the key to success and victory."MacArthur entered West Point on 13 June 1899, his mother moved there, to a suite at Craney's Hotel, which overlooked the grounds of the Academy. Hazing was widespread at West Point at this time, MacArthur and his classmate Ulysses S. Gr