A figurine or statuette is a small statue that represents a human, deity or animal, or in practice a pair or small group of them. Figurines have been made in many media, with clay, wood and today plastic or resin the most significant. Ceramic figurines not made of porcelain are called terracottas in historical contexts. Figures with movable parts, allowing limbs to be posed, are more to be called dolls, mannequins, or action figures. Figurines and miniatures are sometimes used in board games, such as chess, tabletop role playing games. In China, there are extant Neolithic figurines. European prehistoric figurines of women, some appearing pregnant, are called Venus figurines, because of their presumed connection to fertility; the two oldest known examples are made of stone, were found in Africa and Asia, are several hundred thousand years old. Many made of fired clay have been found in Europe that date to 25-30,000 BC, are the oldest ceramics known. Olmec figurines in semi-precious stones and pottery had a wide influence all over Mesoamerica about 1000-500 BC, were usually kept in houses.
These early figurines are among the first signs of human culture. One can not know in some cases, they had religious or ceremonial significance and may have been used in many types of rituals. Many are found in burials; some may have been intended to amuse children. Porcelain and other ceramics are common materials for figurines. Ancient Greek terracotta figurines, made in moulds, were a large industry by the Hellenistic period, ones in bronze very common. In Roman art bronze came to predominate. Most of these were religious, deposited in large numbers in temples as votives, or kept in the home and sometimes buried with their owner, but types such as Tanagra figurines included many purely decorative subjects, such as fashionable ladies. There are many early examples from China religious figures in Dehua porcelain, which drove the experimentation in Europe to replicate the process; the first European porcelain figurines, were produced in Meissen porcelain in a plain glazed white, but soon brightly painted in overglaze "enamels", were soon produced by neally all European porcelain factories.
The initial function of these seems to have been as permanent versions of sugar sculptures which were used to decorate tables on special occasions by European elites, but they soon found a place on mantelpieces and side tables. There was some production of earthenware figures in English delftware and stoneware, for example by John Dwight of the Fulham Pottery in London, after 1720 such figures became more popular. By around 1750 pottery figures were being produced in large numbers all over Europe. Genre figurines of gallant scenes, beggars or figurines of saints are carved from pinewood in Val Gardena, South Tyrol, since the 17th century. Modern figurines those made of plastic, are referred to as figures, they can encompass modern action figures and other model figures as well as Precious Moments and Hummel figurines, Sebastian Miniatures and other kinds of memorabilia. Some companies which produce porcelain figurines are Lladró and Camal Enterprises. Figurines of comic book or sci-fi/fantasy characters without movable parts have been referred to by the terms inaction figures and staction figures.
There is a hobby known as mini war gaming in which players use figurines in table top based games. These figurines are made of plastic and pewter. However, some premium models are made of resin. For more images related for "Figurine", see Category:Figurines on Commons Olmec figurine Psi and phi type figurine Animal figurines Model figure Bric-a-brac
Titanic (1997 film)
Titanic is a 1997 American epic romance and disaster film directed, written, co-produced and co-edited by James Cameron. A fictionalized account of the sinking of the RMS Titanic, it stars Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet as members of different social classes who fall in love aboard the ship during its ill-fated maiden voyage. Cameron's inspiration for the film came from his fascination with shipwrecks. Production began in 1995; the modern scenes on the research vessel were shot on board the Akademik Mstislav Keldysh, which Cameron had used as a base when filming the wreck. Scale models, computer-generated imagery, a reconstruction of the Titanic built at Baja Studios were used to re-create the sinking; the film was funded by Paramount Pictures and 20th Century Fox. It was the most expensive film made at the time, with a production budget of $200 million. Upon its release on December 19, 1997, Titanic achieved commercial success. Nominated for 14 Academy Awards, it tied All About Eve for the most Oscar nominations, won 11, including the awards for Best Picture and Best Director, tying Ben-Hur for the most Oscars won by a single film.
With an initial worldwide gross of over $1.84 billion, Titanic was the first film to reach the billion-dollar mark. It remained the highest-grossing film of all time until Cameron's Avatar surpassed it in 2010. A 3D version of Titanic, released on April 4, 2012, to commemorate the centennial of the sinking, earned it an additional $343.6 million worldwide, pushing the film's worldwide total to $2.18 billion and making it the second film to gross more than $2 billion worldwide. In 2017, the film was re-released for its 20th anniversary and was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. In 1996, treasure hunter Brock Lovett and his team aboard the research vessel Akademik Mstislav Keldysh search the wreck of RMS Titanic for a necklace with a rare diamond, the Heart of the Ocean, they recover a safe containing a drawing of a young woman wearing only the necklace dated April 14, 1912, the day the ship struck the iceberg. Rose Dawson Calvert, the woman in the drawing, is brought aboard Keldysh and tells Lovett of her experiences aboard Titanic.
In 1912 Southampton, 17-year-old first-class passenger Rose DeWitt Bukater, her fiancé Cal Hockley, her mother Ruth board the luxurious Titanic. Ruth emphasizes that Rose's marriage will resolve their family's financial problems and retain their high-class persona. Distraught over the engagement, Rose considers suicide by jumping from the stern. Discovered with Jack, Rose tells a concerned Cal that she was peering over the edge and Jack saved her from falling; when Cal becomes indifferent, she suggests to him. He invites Jack to dine with them in first class the following night. Jack and Rose develop a tentative friendship, despite Ruth being wary of him. Following dinner, Rose secretly joins Jack at a party in third class. Aware of Cal and Ruth's disapproval, Rose rebuffs Jack's advances, but realizes she prefers him over Cal. After rendezvousing on the bow at sunset, Rose takes Jack to her state room, they evade Cal's bodyguard, Mr. Lovejoy, have sex in an automobile inside the cargo hold. On the forward deck, they witness a collision with an iceberg and overhear the officers and designer discussing its seriousness.
Cal discovers Jack's sketch of Rose and an insulting note from her in his safe along with the necklace. When Jack and Rose attempt to inform Cal of the collision, Lovejoy slips the necklace into Jack's pocket and he and Cal accuse him of theft. Jack is arrested, taken to the master-at-arms' office, handcuffed to a pipe. Cal puts the necklace in his own coat pocket. With the ship sinking, Rose flees Cal and her mother, who has boarded a lifeboat, frees Jack. On the boat deck and Jack encourage her to board a lifeboat. After Rose boards one, Cal tells Jack; as her boat lowers, Rose decides that she jumps back on board. Cal takes his bodyguard's pistol and chases Rose and Jack into the flooding first-class dining saloon. After using up his ammunition, Cal realizes he gave his coat and the necklace to Rose, he boards a collapsible lifeboat by carrying a lost child. After braving several obstacles and Rose return to the boat deck; the lifeboats have departed and passengers are falling to their deaths as the stern rises out of the water.
The ship breaks in half. Jack and Rose ride it into the ocean and he helps her onto a wooden panel buoyant enough for only one person, he assures her. Jack dies of hypothermia but Rose is saved. With Rose hiding from Cal en route, the RMS Carpathia takes the survivors to New York City where Rose gives her name as Rose Dawson. Rose says she read that Cal committed suicide after losing all his money in the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Back in the present, Lovett decides to abandon his search after hearing Rose's story. Alone on the stern of Keldysh, Rose takes out the Heart of the Ocean – in her possession all along – and drops it into the sea over the wreck site. While she is asleep or has died in her bed, photos on her dresser depict a life of freedom and adventure in
Ronin is a 1998 American action thriller film written by John David Zeik and David Mamet, directed by John Frankenheimer. It stars Robert De Niro, Jean Reno, Natascha McElhone, Stellan Skarsgård, Sean Bean, Jonathan Pryce; the film is about a team of former special operatives, hired to steal a mysterious guarded briefcase while navigating a maze of shifting loyalties. Ronin is noted for its realistic car chases in Nice and Paris, its convoluted plot that uses the briefcase as a MacGuffin. Frankenheimer signed to direct Zeik's screenplay, which Mamet rewrote to expand De Niro's role and develop plot details, in 1997. Principal photography was done in France from November 3, 1997, to March 3, 1998, with French native Robert Fraisse serving as cinematographer. Professional racing car drivers coordinated and performed the vehicle stunts, Elia Cmiral scored the film, his first for a major studio. Ronin was premiered at the 1998 Venice Film Festival before its general release on September 25. Critics were positive about the film's action and technical aspects, while the plot attracted criticism.
The film performed moderately well at the box office, grossing $70.7 million on a budget of $55 million. Ronin, Frankenheimer's last well-received feature film, was considered to be a return to form for the director. Film critic and historian Stephen Prince called the film Frankenheimer's "end-of-career masterpiece"; the car chases, which were favorably compared with those in Bullitt and The French Connection, were included on several media outlets' lists as the best depicted on film. At a bistro in Montmartre, Irish operative Deirdre meets with American mercenaries Sam and Larry, French mercenary Vincent, she takes them to a warehouse, where fellow mercenaries, the Englishman Spence and Gregor, a German, are waiting. Deirdre briefs them on their mission; as the team prepares for the task, Deirdre meets with handler Seamus O'Rourke, who says the Russian mafia is bidding for the case and that the team must intervene. After Sam exposes Spence as a fraud and dismisses him, the others leave for Nice.
Sam and Deirdre are attracted to each other during a stakeout. On the day of the sale, Deirdre's team ambushes the convoy at La Turbie and pursues the survivors to Nice. After a gunfight, Gregor disappears, he is forced to kill his contact when he betrays him. Gregor contacts Mikhi, the Russian mafioso in charge of the deal, makes him agree to another meeting; the team tracks Gregor through one of Sam's CIA contacts and corners him in the Arles Amphitheatre, where he is meeting two of Mikhi's men. Gregor is captured by Seamus, who kills Larry and escapes with Deirdre. Sam is shot while saving Vincent's life and is taken to a villa owned by Vincent's friend, Jean-Pierre. After removing the bullet and letting Sam recuperate, Vincent asks Jean-Pierre to help them find Gregor and the Irishmen. In Paris, Gregor is violently interrogated and persuaded to lead Seamus and Deirdre to a post office, where they retrieve the case. Sam and Vincent pursue them. A high-speed chase ensues. Sam and Vincent fire at Gregor, who takes cover behind the flipped car, set ablaze by the gunfire.
Gregor flees with the case while road workers rescue Seamus from the burning vehicle. Sam and Vincent decide to track down the Russians. During Natacha's performance that night, Mikhi meets with Gregor, who says a sniper in the arena will shoot Natacha if Mikhi betrays him. Mikhi kills Gregor and leaves with the case, the sniper kills Natacha. Sam and Vincent leave the arena in time to steal the case. Sam finds Deirdre waiting in the getaway car. Deirdre drives away. Seamus is shot dead by Vincent. Sam and Vincent talk in the bistro where they first met, where a radio broadcast announces that a peace agreement between Sinn Féin and the British government has been reached as a result of Seamus' death. Vincent tells Sam. Sam drives off with his CIA contact. Vincent leaves. Robert De Niro as Sam, an American mercenary associated with the CIA. According to director John Frankenheimer, De Niro "was always dream casting" for the film. Jean Reno as Vincent, a French gunman who befriends Sam. Frankenheimer sought to establish the friendship between Reno's and De Niro's characters, which he considered pivotal to the story, wanted to strengthen the off-screen bond between the actors.
Natascha McElhone as Deirdre, an IRA operative commissioned to steal a briefcase by Seamus O'Rourke. An on-set dialect coach helped. McElhone said she was thrilled to play the role because she portrayed a character that moved the action forward. Sean Bean as Spence, an English firearms specialist associated with the SAS. During production, Frankenheimer did not know what the future held for the character and considered having him killed off-screen after the team drives out of the warehouse, or snatched from a Paris street into a van driven by the IRA, he had Spence dismissed from the team. Bean described the character as egotistic and "a little bit out of his depth". Stellan Skarsgård as Gregor, a German computer specialist associated with the KGB. A fan of S
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Star Trek: The Next Generation
Star Trek: The Next Generation is an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry. It aired from September 28, 1987 to May 23, 1994 on syndication, spanning 178 episodes over the course of seven seasons; the third series in the Star Trek franchise, it is the second sequel to Star Trek: The Original Series. Set in the 24th century, when Earth is part of a United Federation of Planets, it follows the adventures of a Starfleet starship, the USS Enterprise-D, in its exploration of the Milky Way galaxy. After the cancellation of The Original Series in 1969, the Star Trek franchise had continued with Star Trek: The Animated Series and a series of films, all featuring the original cast. In the 1980s, franchise creator Roddenberry decided to create a new series, featuring a new crew embarking on their mission a century after that of The Original Series; the Next Generation featured a new crew that starred Patrick Stewart as Captain Jean-Luc Picard, Jonathan Frakes as Commander William Riker, Brent Spiner as Lt. Commander Data, Michael Dorn as Lieutenant Worf, LeVar Burton as Lt. Commander Geordi La Forge, Marina Sirtis as counselor Deanna Troi, Gates McFadden as Dr. Beverly Crusher, a new Enterprise.
An introductory statement featured at the beginning of each episode's title sequence stated the ship's purpose in language similar to the opening statement of the original Star Trek series, but was updated to reflect an ongoing mission and to be gender-neutral: Space: the final frontier. These are the voyages of the starship Enterprise, its continuing mission: to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no one has gone before. Roddenberry, Maurice Hurley, Rick Berman, Michael Piller, Jeri Taylor served as executive producers at various times throughout its production; the show was popular, reaching 12 million viewers in its 5th season, with the series finale in 1994 being watched by over 30 million viewers. TNG premiered the week of September 28, 1987, drawing 27 million viewers, with the two-hour pilot "Encounter at Farpoint". In total, 176 episodes were made, ending with the two-hour finale "All Good Things..." the week of May 23, 1994. The series was broadcast in first-run syndication with dates and times varying among individual television stations.
Several Star Trek series followed The Next Generation: Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, Star Trek: Enterprise, Star Trek: Discovery. The series formed the basis for the seventh through the tenth of the Star Trek films, is the setting of numerous novels, comic books, video games. In its seventh season, Star Trek: The Next Generation became the first and only syndicated television series to be nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series; the series received a number of accolades, including 19 Emmy Awards, two Hugo Awards, five Saturn Awards, "The Big Goodbye" won a Peabody Award. Some of the highest rated episodes were the pilot, the finale, the two-part "Unification", "Aquiel", "A Matter of Time", "Relics". Four episodes featured actors DeForest Kelley, Mark Lenard, Leonard Nimoy, James Doohan from the original Star Trek reprising their original roles; the Star Trek franchise originated in the late 1960s, with the Star Trek television show which ran from 1966-1969.
Star Trek: The Next Generation would mark the return of Star Trek to live-action broadcast television. As early as 1972, Paramount Pictures started to consider making a Star Trek film because of the show's popularity in syndication. However, with 1977's release of Star Wars, Paramount decided not to compete in the science fiction movie category and shifted their efforts to a new Star Trek television series; the Original Series actors were approached to reprise their roles. By 1986, 20 years after the original Star Trek's debut on NBC, the franchise's longevity amazed Paramount Pictures executives. Chairman Frank Mancuso Sr. and others described it as the studio's "crown jewel", a "priceless asset" that "must not be squandered". The series was the most popular syndicated television program 17 years after cancellation, the Harve Bennett-produced, Original Series-era Star Trek films did well at the box office. William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy's salary demands for the film Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home caused the studio to plan for a new Star Trek television series.
Paramount executives worried that a new series could hurt the demand for the films, but decided that it would increase their appeal on videocassette and cable, that a series with unknown actors would be more profitable than paying the films' actors' large salaries. Roddenberry declined to be involved, but came on board as creator after being unhappy with early conceptual work. Star Trek: The Next Generation was announced on October 10, 1986, its cast in May 1987. Paramount executive Rick Berman was assigned to the series at Roddenberry's request. Roddenberry hired a number of Star Trek veterans, including Bob Justman, D. C. Fontana, Eddie Milkis and David Gerrold. Early proposals for the series included one in which some of the original series cast might appear as "elder statesmen", Roddenberry speculated as late as October 1986 that the new series might not use a spaceship, as "people might travel by some means" 100 years after the USS Enterpris
Casablanca is a 1942 American romantic drama film directed by Michael Curtiz based on Murray Burnett and Joan Alison's unproduced stage play Everybody Comes to Rick's. The film stars Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman, Paul Henreid. Set during contemporary World War II, it focuses on an American expatriate who must choose between his love for a woman and helping her and her husband, a Czech Resistance leader, escape from the Vichy-controlled city of Casablanca to continue his fight against the Nazis. Warner Bros. story editor Irene Diamond convinced producer Hal B. Wallis to purchase the film rights to the play in January 1942. Brothers Julius and Philip G. Epstein were assigned to write the script. However, despite studio resistance, they left to work on Frank Capra's Why We Fight series early in 1942. Howard Koch was assigned to the screenplay. Principal photography began on May 25, 1942, ending on August 3. Studios in Burbank, California with the exception of one sequence at Van Nuys Airport in Van Nuys, Los Angeles.
Although Casablanca was an A-list film with established stars and first-rate writers, no one involved with its production expected it to be anything other than one of the hundreds of ordinary pictures produced by Hollywood that year. Casablanca was rushed into release to take advantage of the publicity from the Allied invasion of North Africa a few weeks earlier, it had its world premiere on November 26, 1942, in New York City and was released nationally in the United States on January 23, 1943. The film was a solid if unspectacular success in its initial run. Exceeding expectations, Casablanca went on to win the Academy Award for Best Picture, while Curtiz was selected as Best Director and the Epsteins and Koch were honored for writing the Best Adapted Screenplay, its reputation improved, to the point that its lead characters, memorable lines, pervasive theme song have all become famous and it ranks near the top of lists of the greatest films in history. In December 1941, American expatriate Rick Blaine owns an upscale nightclub and gambling den in Casablanca.
"Rick's Café Américain" attracts a varied clientele, including Vichy French and German officials, refugees desperate to reach the still-neutral United States, those who prey on them. Although Rick professes to be neutral in all matters, he ran guns to Ethiopia during its war with Italy and fought on the Loyalist side in the Spanish Civil War. Petty crook Ugarte boasts to Rick of "letters of transit" obtained by murdering two German couriers; the papers allow the bearers to travel around German-occupied Europe and to neutral Portugal, are priceless to the refugees stranded in Casablanca. Ugarte plans to sell them at the club, asks Rick to hold them. Before he can meet his contact, Ugarte is arrested by the local police under the command of Captain Louis Renault, the unabashedly corrupt Vichy prefect of police. Ugarte dies in custody without revealing; the reason for Rick's bitterness—former lover Ilsa Lund—enters his establishment. Spotting Rick's friend and house pianist, Ilsa asks him to play "As Time Goes By."
Rick storms over, furious that Sam disobeyed his order never to perform that song, is stunned to see Ilsa. She is accompanied by Victor Laszlo, a renowned fugitive Czech Resistance leader, they need the letters to escape to America to continue his work. German Major Strasser has come to Casablanca to see; when Laszlo makes inquiries, Ferrari, a major underworld figure and Rick's friendly business rival, divulges his suspicion that Rick has the letters. Rick refuses to sell at any price, telling Laszlo to ask his wife the reason, they are interrupted when Strasser leads a group of officers in singing "Die Wacht am Rhein". Laszlo orders the house band to play "La Marseillaise"; when the band looks to Rick, he nods his head. Laszlo starts singing, alone at first patriotic fervor grips the crowd and everyone joins in, drowning out the Germans. Strasser demands Renault close the club, which he does on the pretext of discovering there is gambling on the premises. Ilsa confronts Rick in the deserted café.
When he refuses to give her the letters, she threatens him with a gun, but confesses that she still loves him. She explains that when they met and fell in love in Paris in 1940, she believed her husband had been killed attempting to escape from a concentration camp. While preparing to flee with Rick from the imminent fall of the city to the German army, she learned Laszlo was alive and in hiding, she left Rick without explanation to nurse her sick husband. Rick's bitterness dissolves, he agrees letting her believe she will stay with him when Laszlo leaves. When Laszlo unexpectedly shows up, having narrowly escaped a police raid on a Resistance meeting, Rick has waiter Carl spirit Ilsa away. Laszlo, aware of Rick's love for Ilsa, tries to persuade him to use the letters to take her to safety; when the police arrest Laszlo on a minor, trumped-up charge, Rick persuades Renault to release him by promising to set him up for a much more serious crime: possession of the letters. To allay Renault's suspicions, Rick explains.
When Renault tries to arrest Laszlo as arranged, Rick forces him at gunpoint to assist in their escape. At the last moment, Rick makes Ilsa board the plane to Lisbon with Laszlo, telling her that she would regret it if she stayed—"Maybe not today, maybe not tomorrow, but soon and for the rest of your life." Strasser, tipped off by Renault, drives up alone. Rick shoots him wh
Steven Allan Spielberg is an American filmmaker. He is considered one of the founding pioneers of the New Hollywood era and one of the most popular directors and producers in film history. Spielberg started in Hollywood directing television and several minor theatrical releases, he became a household name as the director of Jaws, critically and commercially successful and is considered the first summer blockbuster. His subsequent releases focused on science fiction and adventure films, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, the Indiana Jones series, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Jurassic Park are seen as archetypes of modern Hollywood escapist filmmaking. Spielberg transitioned into addressing serious issues in his work with The Color Purple, Empire of the Sun, Schindler's List and Saving Private Ryan, he has adhered to this practice during the 21st century, with Munich, Bridge of Spies, The Post. He co-founded Amblin Entertainment and DreamWorks Studios, where he has served as a producer for several successful films, including the Gremlins, Back to the Future, Men in Black, the Transformers series.
He transitioned into producing several games within the video-game industry. Spielberg is one of the American film industry's most critically successful filmmakers, with praise for his directing talent and versatility, he has won the Academy Award for Best Director twice; some of his movies are among the highest-grossing movies of all-time, while his total work makes him the highest-grossing film director in history. His net worth is estimated to be more than $3 billion. Spielberg was born on December 1946 in Cincinnati, Ohio, his mother, was a restaurateur and concert pianist, his father, Arnold Spielberg, was an electrical engineer involved in the development of computers. His family was Orthodox Jewish. Spielberg's paternal grandparents were Jewish Ukrainian immigrants who settled in Cincinnati in the 1900s. In 1950, his family moved to Haddon Township, New Jersey, when his father took a job with RCA. Three years the family moved to Phoenix, Arizona. Spielberg attended Hebrew school from 1953 in classes taught by Rabbi Albert L. Lewis.
As a child, Spielberg faced difficulty reconciling being an Orthodox Jew with the perception of him by other children he played with. "It isn't something I enjoy admitting," he once said, "but when I was seven, nine years old, God forgive me, I was embarrassed because we were Orthodox Jews. I was embarrassed by the outward perception of my parents' Jewish practices. I was never ashamed to be Jewish, but I was uneasy at times." Spielberg said he suffered from acts of anti-Semitic prejudice and bullying: "In high school, I got smacked and kicked around. Two bloody noses, it was horrible." At age 12, he made his first home movie: a train wreck involving his toy Lionel trains. Throughout his early teens, after entering high school, Spielberg continued to make amateur 8 mm "adventure" films. In 1958, he became a Boy Scout and fulfilled a requirement for the photography merit badge by making a nine-minute 8 mm film entitled The Last Gunfight. Years Spielberg recalled to a magazine interviewer, "My dad's still-camera was broken, so I asked the scoutmaster if I could tell a story with my father's movie camera.
He said yes, I got an idea to do a Western. I got my merit badge; that was how it all started." At age 13, while living in Phoenix, Spielberg won a prize for a 40-minute war film he titled Escape to Nowhere... using a cast composed of other high school friends. That motivated him to make 15 more amateur 8 mm films; some of the films he cited as early influences that he grew up watching include the Godzilla kaiju film King of the Monsters, which he called "the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was happening", as well as titles such as Captains Courageous and Lawrence of Arabia. In 1963, at age 16, Spielberg wrote and directed his first independent film, a 140-minute science fiction adventure called Firelight, which would inspire Close Encounters; the film was made for $500, most of which came from his father, was shown in a local cinema for one evening, which earned back its cost. After attending Arcadia High School in Phoenix for three years, his family next moved to Saratoga, where he graduated from Saratoga High School in 1965.
He attained the rank of Eagle Scout. His parents divorced while he was still in school, soon after he graduated Spielberg moved to Los Angeles, staying with his father, his long-term goal was to become a film director. His three sisters and mother remained in Saratoga. In Los Angeles, he applied to the University of Southern California's film school, but was turned down because of his "C" grade average, he applied and was admitted to California State University, Long Beach, where he became a brother of Theta Chi Fraternity. While still a student, he was offered a small unpaid intern job at Universal Studios with the editing department, he was given the opportunity to make a short film for theatrical release, the 26-minute, 35 mm, Amblin', which he wrote and directed. Studio vice president Sidney Sheinberg was impressed by the film, which had won a number of awards, offered Spielberg a seven-year directing contract, it made him the youngest director to be signed for a long-term deal with a major Hollywood studio.
He subsequently dropped out of college to begin pro