Elaine Kontominas Alquist a former Democratic state senator from California's 13th Senate District. Prior to serving in the senate, she served in the state assembly for 6 years; the 13th Senate District is the heart of Silicon Valley in Santa Clara County and includes the cities of San Jose, Santa Clara, Mountain View and Gilroy. She was in office from December 2004 to December 2012, she succeeded John Vasconcellos, who himself succeeded Alquist's husband, the late Al Alquist, who represented the district for 30 years. Alquist graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from MacMurray College in 1966 and a Master of Arts degree from Washington University in St. Louis in 1967, her professional career began as an algebra and trigonometry teacher and a counselor in the public schools. In 1981, she served as PTA president and beginning in 1983 served eight years as a member and president of the board of education of the Cupertino Union School District. Alquist was elected to the California State Assembly's 22nd District in November 1996, was re-elected to two consecutive terms in November 1998 and 2000.
Alquist was elected to the California State Senate in November 2004 and served as state senator for District 13. Alquist was re-elected to a second term in 2008, her final term ended in 2012. Official site
Jacksonville is a city in Morgan County, United States. The population was 19,446 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Morgan County. It is home to Illinois College, MacMurray College, Illinois School for the Deaf, the Illinois School for the Visually Impaired. Jacksonville is the principal city of the Jacksonville Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Morgan and Scott counties. Jacksonville was established by European Americans on a 160-acre tract of land in the center of Morgan County in 1825, two years after the county was founded; the founders of Jacksonville, Illinois consisted of settlers from New England. These people were "Yankee" settlers, to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s, they were part of a wave of New England farmers who headed west into what was the wilds of the Northwest Territory during the early 1800s. Most of them arrived as a result of the completion of the Erie Canal and the end of the Black Hawk War.
The Yankee migration to Illinois was a result of several factors, one of, the overpopulation of New England. The old stock Yankee population had large families bearing up to ten children in one household. Most people were expected to have their own piece of land to farm, due to the massive and nonstop population boom, land in New England became scarce as every son claimed his own farmstead; as a result, there was not enough land for every family to have a self-sustaining farm, Yankee settlers began leaving New England for the Midwestern United States. When they arrived in what is now Jacksonville there was nothing but dense virgin forest and wild prairie, the "Yankee" New Englanders laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes, they brought with them many of their Yankee New England values, such as a passion for education, establishing many schools as well as staunch support for abolitionism. They were members of the Congregationalist Church though some were Episcopalian.
Due to the second Great Awakening some of them had converted to Methodism and Presbyterianism while some others became Baptist, before moving to what is now Jacksonville. Jacksonville, like some other parts of Illinois, would be culturally continuous with early New England culture for most of its early history.</ref>The town grew at a rapid rate, a town square was developed. In 1829, the Presbyterian Reverend John M. Ellis worked to found a new "seminary of learning" in the new state of Illinois. A group of Congregational students at Yale University heard about his plans and headed westward to establish the new school; these students were a part of the famous "Yale Bands," groups of students who established several colleges in the frontier, what is now the Midwest. Illinois College was one of the first institutions of higher learning in the Midwest; the college stimulated the growth of Jacksonville. A new courthouse was built on the square, churches were constructed, railroads were planned, stores and taverns were built.
By 1834, Jacksonville had the largest population of any city in the state of Illinois, vastly outnumbering Chicago. In the 1830s, the town was on the path of Native Americans who were being forcibly removed by the federal government to west of the Mississippi; the Potawatomi passed through here in 1838 on what they called their Trail of Death as they were forced from their traditional homelands to the dry and barren Indian Territory to the west. Jacksonville's education complex and standing in the state was developed by the establishment of state institutions: the Illinois School for the Deaf and the Illinois School for the Visually Impaired; the Illinois Conference Female Academy was founded for education for girls. By 1850, Illinois College had issued Illinois' first college degrees and opened the first medical school in the state; because of this, Jacksonville earned the nickname of "Athens of the West."In 1851, Illinois opened its first state mental hospital in Jacksonville. Now named the Jacksonville Developmental Center, this facility serves developmentally challenged individuals.
The attorney Abraham Lincoln had legal business in Jacksonville acting either as co-counsel or opposing counsel with David A. Smith, a Jacksonville resident. In what is now Central Park Plaza, Lincoln delivered a strong antislavery speech on September 6, 1856 in support of the presidential campaign of John C. Frémont, lasting over two hours. A mural depicting the event has been painted on the side of a building at the southwest corner of the Park. During the antebellum years, Jacksonville was a major stopping point on the historic Underground Railroad, as refugee slaves moved north to freedom, many going into Canada; the city has an annual commemoration of the Civil War, with a reenactment named for the late Jacksonville resident U. S. Army General Benjamin Grierson; this event has been suspended. In 1911 as part of the progressive movement, Jacksonville adopted the city commission form of government, the first mayor being George W. Davis. In the summer of 1965, in order to keep up with customer demand for records by the Beatles, the wildly popular English band, Capitol Records opened a vinyl record pressing plant on the western outskirts of Jacksonville, at 1 Capitol Way.
The plant produced a number of collectible pressings. This plant served the Capitol Records Club, producing vinyl LPs and audiocassettes, CDs, DVDs of a number of artists. At its peak, operating as EMI Records, the plant employed over 1,000 workers, it was a significant location in the music industry. For example, all seven albu
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit organization which regulates athletes of 1,268 North American institutions and conferences. It organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, helps more than 480,000 college student-athletes who compete annually in college sports; the organization is headquartered in Indiana. In its 2016–17 fiscal year the NCAA took in $1.06 billion in revenue, over 82% of, generated by the Division I Men's Basketball Tournament. In August 1973, the current three-division system of Division I, Division II, Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term "Division I-AAA" was added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer used by the NCAA.
In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision. Controversially, the NCAA caps the benefits that collegiate athletes can receive from their schools. There is a consensus among economists that these caps for men's basketball and football players benefit the athletes' schools at the expense of athletes. Intercollegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard and Yale universities met in a challenge race in the sport of rowing; as rowing remained the preeminent sport in the country into the late-1800s, many of the initial debates about collegiate athletic eligibility and purpose were settled through organizations like the Rowing Association of American Colleges and the Intercollegiate Rowing Association. As other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, but the rules of the game itself were in constant flux and had to be adapted for each contest.
The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt in the early 20th century in response to repeated injuries and deaths in college football which had "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport." Following those White House meetings and the reforms which had resulted, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes in football playing rules. The IAAUS was established on March 31, 1906, took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a discussion group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted: the National Collegiate Track and Field Championships. More rules committees were formed and more championships were created, including a basketball championship in 1939. A series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II; the "Sanity Code" – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses.
Postseason football games were multiplying with little control, member schools were concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of those problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership. Walter Byers a part-time executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951, a national headquarters was established in Kansas City, Missouri in 1952. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association. A program to control live television of football games was approved, the annual Convention delegated enforcement powers to the Association's Council, legislation was adopted governing postseason bowl games; as college athletics grew, the scope of the nation's athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Association's membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, III.
Five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed women's collegiate sports in the United States; the AIAW was in a vulnerable position. Following a one-year overlap in which both organizations staged women's championships, the AIAW discontinued operation, most member schools continued their women's athletics programs under the governance of the NCAA. By 1982 all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics. A year in 1983, the 75th Convention approved an expansion to plan women's athletic program services and pushed for a women's championship program. By the 1980s, televised college football had become a larger source of income for the NCAA. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma.
The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football tel
Ultimate Fighting Championship
The Ultimate Fighting Championship is an American mixed martial arts promotion company based in Las Vegas, owned and operated by parent company William Morris Endeavor. It is the largest MMA promotion company in the world and features the highest-level fighters on the roster; the UFC produces events worldwide that showcase twelve weight divisions and abide by the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. As of 2018, the UFC has held over 400 events. Dana White serves as the president of the UFC. White has held that position since 2001; the first event was held in 1993 at the McNichols Sports Arena in Colorado. The purpose of the early Ultimate Fighting Championship competitions was to identify the most effective martial art in a contest with minimal rules and no weight classes between competitors of different fighting disciplines like boxing, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, wrestling, Muay Thai and judo. In subsequent events, fighters began adopting effective techniques from more than one discipline, which indirectly helped create an separate style of fighting known as present-day mixed martial arts.
In 2016, UFC's parent company, was sold to a group led by William Morris Endeavor for $4.025 billion. With a TV deal and expansion in Australia, Asia and new markets within the United States, the UFC has increased in popularity, has achieved greater mainstream media coverage. Art Davie proposed to John Milius and Rorion Gracie an eight-man single-elimination tournament called "War of the Worlds"; the tournament was inspired by the Gracies in Action video-series produced by the Gracie family of Brazil which featured Gracie jiu-jitsu students defeating martial-arts masters of various disciplines such as karate, kung fu, kickboxing. The tournament would feature martial artists from different disciplines facing each other in no-holds-barred combat to determine the best martial art and would aim to replicate the excitement of the matches Davie saw on the videos. Milius, a noted film director and screenwriter, as well as a Gracie student, agreed to act as the event's creative director. Davie drafted the business plan and twenty-eight investors contributed the initial capital to start WOW Promotions with the intent to develop the tournament into a television franchise.
In 1993, WOW Promotions sought a television partner and approached pay-per-view producers TVKO and SET, as well as Campbell McLaren and David Isaacs at the Semaphore Entertainment Group. Both TVKO and SET declined, but SEG – a pioneer in pay-per-view television which had produced such offbeat events as a gender versus gender tennis match between Jimmy Connors and Martina Navratilova – became WOW's partner in May 1993. SEG contacted video and film art director Jason Cusson to design the trademarked "Octagon", a signature piece for the event. Cusson remained the Production Designer through UFC 27. SEG devised the name for the show as The Ultimate Fighting Championship. WOW Promotions and SEG produced the first event called UFC 1, at McNichols Sports Arena in Denver, Colorado on November 12, 1993. Art Davie functioned as the show's matchmaker; the show proposed to find an answer for sports fans' questions such as: "Can a wrestler beat a boxer?" As with most martial arts at the time, fighters had skills in just one discipline and had little experience against opponents with different skills.
The television broadcast featured kickboxers Patrick Smith and Kevin Rosier, savate fighter Gerard Gordeau, karate expert Zane Frazier, shootfighter Ken Shamrock, sumo wrestler Teila Tuli, boxer Art Jimmerson, 175 lb Brazilian jiu-jitsu black belt Royce Gracie—younger brother of UFC co-founder Rorion, whom Rorion handpicked to represent his family in the competition. Royce Gracie's submission skills proved the most effective in the inaugural tournament, earning him the first UFC tournament championship after submitting Jimmerson and Gordeau in succession; the show proved successful with 86,592 television subscribers on pay-per-view. It's disputed whether the promoters intended for the event to become a precursor to a series of future events. "That show was only supposed to be a one-off", eventual UFC president Dana White said. "It did so well on pay-per-view they decided to do another, another. Never in a million years did these guys think they were creating a sport." Art Davie, in his 2014 book Is This Legal?, an account of the creation of the first UFC event, disputes the perception that the UFC was seen by WOW Promotions and SEG as a one-off, since SEG offered a five-year joint development deal to WOW.
He says, "Clearly, both Campbell and Meyrowitz shared my unwavering belief that War of the Worlds would be a continuing series of fighting tournaments—a franchise, rather than a one-night stand."With no weight classes, fighters faced larger or taller opponents. Keith "The Giant Killer" Hackney faced Emmanuel Yarbrough at UFC 3 with a 9 in height and 400 pounds weight disadvantage. Many martial artists believed that technique could overcome these size disadvantages, that a skilled fighter could use an opponent's size and strength against him. With the 175 lb Royce Gracie winning three of the first four events, the UFC proved that size does not always determine the outcome of the fight. During this early part of the organization, the UFC would showcase a bevy of different styles and fighters. Aside from the aforementioned Royce Gracie, Ken Shamrock, Pat
The Illinois Senate is the upper chamber of the Illinois General Assembly, the legislative branch of the government of the State of Illinois in the United States. The body was created by the first state constitution adopted in 1818; the Illinois Senate is made up of 59 senators elected from individual legislative districts determined by population. S. census each senator represents 217,468 people. Under the Illinois Constitution of 1970, senators are divided into three groups, each group having a two-year term at a different part of the decade between censuses, with the rest of the decade being taken up by two four-year terms; this ensures that the Senate reflects changes made when the General Assembly redistricts itself after each census. Depending on the election year one-third, two-thirds, or all Senate seats may be contested. In contrast, the Illinois House of Representatives is made up of 118 members with its entire membership elected to two-year terms. House districts are formed by dividing each Senate district in half, with each senator having two "associated" representatives.
The Illinois Senate convenes at the Illinois State Capitol in Illinois. Its first official working day is the second Wednesday of January each year, its primary duties are to pass bills into law, approve the state budget, confirm appointments to state departments and agencies, act on federal constitutional amendments and propose constitutional amendments for Illinois. It has the power to override gubernatorial vetoes through a three-fifths majority vote; the Illinois Senate tries impeachments made by the House of Representatives, can convict impeached officers by a two-thirds vote. Voting in the Illinois Senate is done by members pushing one of three buttons. Unlike most states, the Illinois Senate allows members to present, it takes 30 affirmative votes to pass legislation during final action. The number of negative votes does not matter. Therefore, voting present has the same effect on the tally as voting no. President of the Senate: John Cullerton Majority Leader: Kimberly A. Lightford Assistant Majority Leaders: David Koehler Terry Link Iris Martinez Don Harmon Antonio Munoz Majority Caucus Chair: Mattie Hunter Majority Caucus Whips: Jacqueline Collins Linda Holmes Martin Sandoval Minority Leader: Bill Brady Deputy Minority Leader: Dave Syverson Assistant Minority Leaders: Jason Barickman Michael Connelly Sue Rezin Chapin Rose Minority Caucus Chair: Dale Righter Minority Caucus Whips: Jim Oberweis Jill Tracy Secretary of the Senate: Tim Anderson Assistant Secretary of the Senate: Scott Kaiser Sergeant-at-Arms: Joe Dominguez Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms: Dirk R. Eilers In 1924, Florence Fifer Bohrer became the body's first female member and Adelbert H. Roberts became its first African American member.
In 1977, Earlean Collins became the first African American woman to serve in the Illinois Senate. Barack Obama the President of the United States, served in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. Ɨ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois Senate during session. ƗƗ Legislator was appointed to the Illinois Senate after being elected, but prior to inauguration day of the General Assembly to which they were elected. Illinois General Assembly – Senate official government website Illinois Senate Republicans official party website Illinois Senate Democrats official party website Legislature of Illinois at Project Vote Smart Illinois campaign financing at FollowTheMoney.org Illinois Senate at Ballotpedia
Bethany College (Kansas)
Bethany College is a small liberal arts college located in Lindsborg, is affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. It was founded in 1881. Bethany College, established by Swedish Lutheran immigrants in 1881, is a college of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Swedish-Lutheran settlers worked with the Rev. Dr. Carl Aaron Swensson, Bethany’s founder, to establish Bethany Academy on October 15, 1881, in the sacristy of Bethany Lutheran Church in Lindsborg, with ten students. Growing Bethany evolved from Academy through 1885, to Bethany Normal Institute in 1887, to Bethany College in 1889. Notable Bethany presidents in the 20th century include Rev. Dr. Ernst Frederick Wilhelm Pihlblad, a professor from 1895 to 1904, president from 1905 to 1941. Under Pihlblad, Bethany was accredited and became a member of the National Association of Schools of Music. Under the watch of Emory K. Lindquist, who took office of president in 1943, Bethany survived war troubles, grew in post-war America and improved its reputation.
He was the author of Bethany in Kansas: The History of a College. The Bethany College Board of Directors announced the appointment of William Jones as Bethany College President on May 13th, 2016. Bethany College has 14 academic departments; the school offers majors focused in education, fine arts and social sciences. Bethany College's athletic teams are known as the Terrible Swedes; the college is a member of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics and competes in the Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference. Men's sports include baseball, cross country, golf, tennis, track & field and wrestling. Since 1903, students and alumni have rallied Bethany athletic competition with the “Rockar! Stockar!” cheer. Every year since 1882, Bethany Oratorio Society has presented Handel's Messiah at the college, one of the longest-running annual performances in North America; the walk from Bethany Lutheran Church. In honor of its founding in the sacristy of Bethany Lutheran Church, students traditionally walk to the church for a welcome service on their first day at Bethany as freshmen.
Before the baccalaureate services on the day of their commencement, Bethany seniors line up in front of Bethany Lutheran Church for a traditional procession to Presser Hall on campus. The ringing of the bell; when a Swedes athletics team wins conference, they gather in front of Hahn Gymnasium to ring the bell and spread the news to the rest of the campus, regardless of what time of day-or night-it may be. Lift High the Cross; each year during Homecoming week, Bethany students celebrate the college’s heritage of faith by lifting high a wooden cross in the gazebo. Students sign up for shifts. 352. The number of feet out that the fence is for a home run in Anderson Stadium. 352 is the place all Swedes baseball fans gather to cheer. John Frykman, Lutheran minister and psychotherapist Oscar Jacobson, B. A. Ph. D. painter and director of the University of Oklahoma School of Art, now known as the Fred Jones Jr. Museum of Art. Harrison Keller and professor Ted Kessinger, football coach and College Football Hall of Fame inductee Emory Lindquist, 1930 Rhodes Scholar, Swedish-American historian, President of Bethany, President of Wichita State University Bruce Montgomery, performer, painter conductor, director Wade Moore, baseball manager and college football coach Bennie Owen, football coach and College Football Hall of Fame inductee John Pfeiffer, classical music producer Birger Sandzen, art professor at Bethany College Carl Aaron Swensson, Lutheran minister and President of Bethany College Randy W. Berry, United States Ambassador to Nepal Official website
Mixed martial arts
Mixed martial arts is a full-contact combat sport that allows striking and grappling, both standing and on the ground, using techniques from various combat sports and martial arts. The first documented use of the term mixed martial arts was in a review of UFC 1 by television critic Howard Rosenberg in 1993; the term gained popularity when newfullcontact.com one of the largest websites covering the sport and republished the article. The question of who coined the term is subject to debate. During the early 20th century, various mixed-style contests took place throughout Japan, in the countries of the Four Asian Tigers. In Brazil, there was the sport of Vale Tudo, in which fighters from various styles fought with little to no rules; the Gracie family was known to promote Vale Tudo matches as a way to promote their own Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu style. An early high-profile mixed martial arts bout was Masahiko Kimura vs. Hélio Gracie in 1951, fought between judoka Masahiko Kimura and Brazilian jiu jitsu founder Hélio Gracie in Brazil.
In the West, the concept of combining elements of multiple martial arts was popularized by Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do during the late 1960s to early 1970s. A precursor to modern MMA was the 1976 Muhammad Ali vs. Antonio Inoki bout, fought between boxer Muhammad Ali and wrestler Antonio Inoki in Japan, where it inspired the foundation of Pancrase in 1993 and Pride Fighting Championships in 1997. In 1980, CV Productions, Inc. created the first regulated MMA league in the United States, called Tough Guy Contest, renamed Battle of the Superfighters. The company sanctioned ten tournaments in Pennsylvania. However, in 1983 the Pennsylvania State Senate passed a bill prohibiting the sport. In 1993, the Gracie family brought Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, developed in Brazil from the 1920s, to the United States by founding the Ultimate Fighting Championship MMA promotion company; the company held an event with no rules due the influence of Art Davie and Rorion Gracie attempting to replicate Vale Tudo fights that existed in Brazil, would implement a different set of rules, which differed from other leagues which were more in favour of realistic fights.
Promoted as a competition to find the most effective martial arts for real unarmed combat, competitors from different fighting styles were pitted against one another in contests with few rules. Individual fighters incorporated multiple martial arts into their style. MMA promoters were pressured to adopt additional rules to increase competitors' safety, to comply with sport regulations and to broaden mainstream acceptance of the sport. Following these changes, the sport has seen increased popularity with a pay-per-view business that rivals boxing and professional wrestling. In Ancient Greece, there was a sport called pankration, which featured a combination of grappling and striking skills similar to those found in modern MMA. Pankration was formed by a combination of the established wrestling and boxing traditions and, in Olympic terms, first featured in the 33rd Olympiad in 648 BC. All strikes and holds were allowed with the exception of gouging, which were banned; the fighters, called pankratiasts, fought until someone could not continue or signaled submission by raising their index finger.
According to E. Norman Gardiner,'No branch of athletics was more popular than the pankration.' From its origins in Ancient Greece, pankration was passed on to the Romans. In Ancient China, combat sport appeared in the form of Leitai, a no-holds-barred mixed combat sport that combined Chinese martial arts and wrestling. There is evidence of similar mixed combat sports in Ancient Egypt and Japan; the mid-19th century saw the prominence of the new sport savate in the combat sports circle. French savate fighters wanted to test their techniques against the traditional combat styles of its time. In 1852, a contest was held in France between French savateurs and English bare-knuckle boxers in which French fighter Rambaud alias la Resistance fought English fighter Dickinson and won using his kicks. However, the English team still won the four other match-ups during the contest. Contests occurred in the late 19th to mid-20th century between French Savateurs and other combat styles. Examples include a 1905 fight between French savateur George Dubois and a judo practitioner Re-nierand which resulted in the latter winning by submission, as well as the publicized 1957 fight between French savateur and professional boxer Jacques Cayron and a young Japanese karateka named Mochizuki Hiroo which ended when Cayron knocked Hiroo out with a hook.
No-holds-barred fighting took place in the late 1880s when wrestlers representing style of Catch wrestling and many others met in tournaments and music-hall challenge matches throughout Europe. In the USA, the first major encounter between a boxer and a wrestler in modern times took place in 1887 when John L. Sullivan heavyweight world boxing champion, entered the ring with his trainer, wrestling champion William Muldoon, was slammed to the mat in two minutes; the next publicized encounter occurred in the late 1890s when future heavyweight boxing champion Bob Fitzsimmons took on European wrestling champion Ernest Roeber. In September 1901, Frank "Paddy" Slavin, a contender for Sullivan's boxing title, knocked out future world wrestling champion Frank Gotch in Dawson City, Canada; the judo-practitioner Ren-nierand, who gained fame after defeating George Dubois, would fight again in another similar contest, which he lost to Ukrainian Catch wrestler Ivan Poddubny. Another early example of mixed martial arts was Bartitsu, which Edward William Barton-Wright founded i