ResEdit is a discontinued developer tool application for the Apple Macintosh, used to create and edit resources directly in the Mac's resource fork architecture. It is an alternative to tools such as REdit, the resource compiler Rez. For the average user, ResEdit is easier to use, because it uses a graphical user interface. Although it had been intended to be a developer tool, power users use it to edit icons and other elements of an application's GUI, customizing it to their own preferences. Resources on the Macintosh can be of many different types, in fact any arbitrary data can be turned into a resource. While the system defines many standard formats for particular kinds of resources, programmers are free to define their own. ResEdit includes support for editing many of the standard types and for creating arbitrary resources with any structure a programmer saw fit. ResEdit is one of the earliest examples of a GUI layout tool, an essential component for rapid application development. For example, the classic Mac OS defines a standard resource called a dialog template and a dialog items list.
In ResEdit, it's possible to create these types and add GUI elements to them in an WYSIWYG fashion, such that a user interface could be designed directly as it would appear to the end user of the application. The application code can create a functional dialog box using the stored resource data which matches the appearance you lay out in ResEdit. While hardly a revolutionary concept today, when ResEdit first appeared in the mid-1980s, this was a considerable innovation. ResEdit includes standard editors for window templates, dialog boxes, color palettes and various other standard types. One of ResEdit's most powerful features is the ability to define arbitrary data structures as resources using a simple template building feature. Here, the programmer can add elemental data types to a list to define a template; this template allows ResEdit to build a GUI editor on the fly that allows entry of data and package it into the structure defined in the template. It's a simple matter for a programmer to define a matching data structure in a chosen programming language, such as C, load the resource in a standard manner and access the data as the defined C type.
ResEdit includes a number of predefined templates for many standard OS resources that do not require a graphical editor. ResEdit was never upgraded to run natively on Mac OS X, Apple now discourages the use of resource forks in new macOS applications, preferring the more portable NeXT-derived application bundles. A long-standing third-party commercial alternative named Resorcerer remains available, more there have been a number of attempts to build open-source macOS-native resource editors, including one called ResKnife. ResEdit will run in Mac OS X's Classic compatibility mode, but Classic is neither available on Intel Macintosh computers, nor in Mac OS X v10.5 or later. However, an Intel Mac can run ResEdit via an emulator such as SheepShaver or Basilisk II; the last official version of ResEdit is 2.1.3, released in August 1994. Unofficial hacks released as ResEdit 2.1.4 and exist, adding features such as a decompiler and the ability to edit data forks, but these are unsupported by Apple. Creator code Interface Builder Macintosh Programmer's Workshop Resource fork Type code ResEdit Reference Download ResEdit 2.1.3 from apple.com
The Apple menu is a drop-down menu, on left side of the menu bar in the classic Mac OS, macOS and A/UX operating systems. The Apple menu's role has changed throughout the history of Apple Inc.'s operating systems, but the menu has always featured a version of the Apple logo. In System 6.0.8 and earlier, the Apple menu featured a Control Panel, as well as Desk Accessories such as a Calculator, the Scrapbook and Alarm Clock. If MultiFinder was active, the Apple menu allowed the user to switch between multiple running applications; the Macintosh user could add third-party Desk Accessories via the System Utility "Font/DA Mover". However, there was a limitation on the number of Desk Accessories that could be displayed in the Apple menu. Third-party shareware packages such as OtherMenu added a second customizable menu that allowed users to install Desk Accessories beyond Apple's limitations. System 7.0 introduced the Apple Menu Items folder in the System Folder. This allowed users to place Alias to documents in the menu.
The Menu Manager forced these additions into alphabetical order, which prompted users to rename their aliases with leading spaces and other characters in order to get them into the order that suited them the best. Several third-party utilities provided a level of customization of the order of the items added to the Apple menu without having to rename each item; the Apple menu featured a Shut Down command, implemented by a Desk Accessory. An alias to the Control Panels folder was present. System 7.0 was the first version to feature the rainbow striped logo, as opposed to the black logo found in previous versions. In System 7.0, the black logo was retained in grayscale modes, was used when the Monitors control panel was set to display "Thousands" or "Millions" of grays, though the rest of the display was in color. System 7.0 featured built-in multitasking, so MultiFinder was removed as an option. The feature allowing users to switch between multiple running applications as in System 6 was given its own menu on the opposite side of the menubar.
Beginning in Mac OS 8.5, this new menu was given a unique "tear-off" capability, which detached the menu from the menu bar to become a free-floating window when the user dragged the cursor downwards off the bottom of the menu. In this case, it ran the application called "Application Switcher". System 7.5 added an Apple Menu Options control panel, which added submenus to folders and disks in the Apple Menu, showing the contents of the folder or disk. Prior versions of System 7 showed only a standard menu entry. Apple Menu Options added Recent Applications, Recent Documents, Recent Servers to the Apple Menu. MacOS features a redesigned Apple menu. System management functions from the Special menu have been merged into it; the Apple menu was missing from the Mac OS X Public Beta, replaced by a nonfunctional Apple logo in the center of the menu bar, but the menu was restored in Mac OS X 10.0. The quick file access feature implemented in System 7 was removed, although a third-party utility, Unsanity's FruitMenu, restored the Apple menu to its classic functionality until it stopped working with the advent of OS 10.6.
The Apple menu is now dedicated to managing features of the Macintosh computer, with commands to get system information, update software, launch the Mac App Store, open System Preferences, set Dock preferences, set the location, view recent items, Force Quit applications, power management, log out, etc. Start menu
The Control Strip is a user interface component introduced in the "classic" System 7 Macintosh operating system. It exists as part of the Touch Bar interface in macOS; the Control Strip was released in 1994 with the PowerBook 500 series of notebook computers and the PowerBook Duo 280 subnotebook computers, at that point shipping with System 7.1. On it was made available to desktop and portable Macintosh computers, beginning with System 7.5.3. Apple removed Control Strip in 2001 as a consequence of its move to Mac OS X. Apple attempted to integrate the Control Strip’s features into the Dock. After this was found to be too clumsy, most of its features were again duplicated in the menu extras of 10.1. An attempt was made at an open source reimplementation of the Control Strip for OS X, but it never received much developer traction and the last release is dated 27 October 2000. Apple revived the Control Strip as a component of its Touch Bar in October 2016. By default, the rightmost portion of the Touch Bar displays a subset of system controls available on the keyboard's function keys.
When Control Strip is expanded the full set of system controls is displayed. Somewhat like the system trays of other operating systems, the Control Strip allowed easy access to status information about and control of simple tasks such as screen resolution, AppleTalk activity, battery status etc; each task appears as a button-like popup menu called a module, these modules are managed in the Finder as individual module files, which have their own folder in the System Folder and are executed alongside the Control Strip as it starts up or can be dragged directly onto the strip while it is running. The Control Strip always anchors itself to the closest vertical screen edge but can be moved up and down both sides of any display by the user, it defaults to the lower left corner of the primary display on fresh systems. Users can choose whether to turn the Control Strip on and off and set a hot key to hide and reveal it using its control panel. Two buttons at either end allow the Strip to be collapsed and expanded, while two more buttons just inside those allow one to scroll through a full Strip.
Holding down the option key while clicking turns the cursor into a distinctive hand shape that allows one to drag the Strip around the screen, rearrange modules within the Strip and drag modules out. Control Strip modules were available from many third parties. For example, Conflict Catcher included a Control Strip module to switch extension sets, while DAVE used one to toggle SMB/NetBIOS networking; some novelty modules consisted of calculators and games. Like the System Trays of other OSs, this was abused to insert a flotsam module that launched and quit a given application. Control strips used in the inner German border Control Strip Outlet at the Wayback Machine Final Update at the Wayback Machine
Keychain is the password management system in macOS, developed by Apple. It was introduced with Mac OS 8.6, has been included in all subsequent versions of Mac OS, now known as macOS. A Keychain can contain various types of data: passwords, private keys and secure notes. In macOS, keychain files are stored in ~/Library/Keychains/, /Library/Keychains/, /Network/Library/Keychains/, the Keychain Access GUI application is located in the Utilities folder in the Applications folder, it is free, open source software released under the terms of the APSL. The command line equivalent of Keychain Access is /usr/bin/security; the keychain file stores a variety of data fields including a URL, notes and password. Only the passwords and Secure Notes are encrypted, with Triple DES; the default keychain file is the login keychain unlocked on login by the user's login password, although the password for this keychain can instead be different from a user’s login password, adding security at the expense of some convenience.
The Keychain Access application does not permit setting an empty password on a keychain. The keychain may be set to be automatically "locked" if the computer has been idle for a time, can be locked manually from the Keychain Access application; when locked, the password has to be re-entered next time the keychain is accessed. Overwriting the file in ~/Library/Keychains/ with a new one causes the keychain to lock and a password is required at next access. If the login keychain is protected by the login password the keychain's password will be changed whenever the login password is changed from within a logged in session on macOS. On a shared Mac/non-Mac network, it is possible for the login keychain's password to lose synchronization if the user's login password is changed from a non-Mac system. If the password is changed from a directory service like Active Directory or Open Directory, or if the password is changed from another admin account e.g. using the System Preferences. Some network administrators react to this by deleting the keychain file on logout, so that a new one will be created next time the user logs in.
This means keychain passwords will not be remembered from one session to the next if the login password has not been changed. If this happens, the user can restore the keychain file in ~/Library/Keychains/ from a backup, but doing so will lock the keychain which will need to be unlocked at next use. Keychain Access is a macOS application that allows the user to access the Keychain and configure its contents, including passwords for websites, web forms, FTP servers, SSH accounts, network shares, wireless networks, groupware applications, encrypted disk images, etc, it unlocks and displays passwords saved by the system which are dynamically linked to the user's login password, as well as managing root certificates and secure notes. Its graphical user interface displays various keychains, with there being at least two: the login keychain and the system keychain, it includes the Keychain first aid utility that can repair problems with Keychains. Various events can cause problems with Keychains, sometimes the only solution to a problem is to delete the Keychain, which deletes any passwords stored in the Keychain, create a new one.
It is found in the Utilities folder under Applications in macOS. As an ancillary application to macOS, it is subject to updates via Software Update and thus should not be moved out of the Utilities folder. There is an included command-line tool to access the keychain, called "security". Keychains were developed for Apple's e-mail system, PowerTalk, in the early 1990s. Among its many features, PowerTalk used plug-ins that allowed mail to be retrieved from a wide variety of mail servers and online services; the keychain concept "fell out" of this code, was used in PowerTalk to manage all of a user's various login credentials for the various e-mail systems PowerTalk could connect to. The passwords were not retrievable due to the encryption, yet the simplicity of the interface allowed the user to select a different password for every system without fear of forgetting them, as a single password would open the file and return them all. At the time, implementations of this concept were not available on other platforms.
Keychain was one of the few parts of PowerTalk, useful "on its own", which suggested it should be promoted to become a part of the basic Mac OS. But due to internal politics, it was kept inside the PowerTalk system and, available to few Mac users, it was not until the return of Steve Jobs in 1997 that Keychain concept was revived from the now-discontinued PowerTalk. By this point in time the concept was no longer so unusual, but it was still rare to see a keychain system, not associated with a particular piece of application software a web browser. Keychain was made a standard part of Mac OS 9, was included in Mac OS X in the first commercial versions. Keychain is distributed with both iOS and OSX; the iOS version is simpler because applications that run on mobile devices need only basic Keychain features. For example, features such as ACLs and sharing Keychain items between different apps are not present. Thus, iOS Keychain items are only accessible to the app. Comparison of password managers List of password managers Password manager Cryptography
The bomb icon has several different applications in computing, indicates a fatal system error. The Bomb icon is a symbol designed by Susan Kare, displayed inside the System Error alert box when the "classic" Macintosh operating system had a crash which the system decided was unrecoverable, it was similar to a dialog box in Windows 9x that said "This program has performed an illegal operation and will be shut down." Since the classic Mac OS offered little memory protection, an application crash would take down the entire system. The bomb symbol first appeared on the original Macintosh in 1984. A reason for the crash, including the error code, was displayed in the dialog. In some cases, a "Resume" button would be available, allowing the user to dismiss the dialog and force the offending program to quit, but most the resume button would be disabled and the computer would have to be restarted; the resume button was unavailable unless the running program had provided the OS with code to allow recovery.
With the advent of System 7, if the OS thought it could handle recovery, a normal error dialog box was displayed, the application was forced to quit. This was helped by the classic Mac OS providing a little bit of protection against heap corruption using guard pages; the debugger program MacsBug was sometimes used by end users to provide basic error recovery, could be used for troubleshooting purposes, much as the output of a Unix kernel panic or a Windows NT Blue Screen of Death could be. Mac OS Classic bomb boxes were ridiculed for providing little or no useful information about the error; the error code was intended to be included in a bug report to the developer. In Mac OS X, the system architecture is vastly different from that in the classic Mac OS, an application crash can not bring down the entire system. A kernel panic screen replaces the bomb symbol but appears less due to the radically different system architecture; the bomb symbol is not used in Mac OS X, but a test application called Bomb.app written to cause a non-fatal crash, is included with Xcode and uses a rendition of the bomb symbol as its icon.
In the original Mac OS, the operating system call to display a "bomb box" was named DSError, the corresponding alert table information was stored in resources of type'DSAT'. "DS", as in the "DS Manager." For documentation purposes, this was renamed the'System Error Manager.' TOS-based systems, such as the Atari ST, used a row of bombs to indicate a critical system error. The number of bombs displayed revealed information about the occurred error; the error is reported by the Motorola 68000 microprocessor. The first version of TOS used mushroom clouds. 1 bomb: Reset, Initial PC2 2 bombs: Bus Error 3 bombs: Address Error 4 bombs: Illegal Instruction 5 bombs: Division by zero 6 bombs: CHK Instruction 7 bombs: TRAPV Instruction 8 bombs: Privilege Violation 9 bombs: Trace 10 bombs: Line 1010 Emulator 11 bombs: Line 1111 Emulator 12–13 bombs: Reserved 14 bombs: Format Error 15 bombs: Uninitialized Interrupt Vector 16–23 bombs: Reserved 24 bombs: Spurious Interrupt 25 bombs: Level 1 Interrupt Autovector 26 bombs: Level 2 Interrupt Autovector 27 bombs: Level 3 Interrupt Autovector 28 bombs: Level 4 Interrupt Autovector 29 bombs: Level 5 Interrupt Autovector 30 bombs: Level 6 Interrupt Autovector 31 bombs: Level 7 Interrupt Autovector 32–47 bombs: Trap Instruction Vectors 48–63 bombs: Reserved 64–255 bombs: User Interrupt Vectors About the System Error Handler
PowerPC is a reduced instruction set computing instruction set architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. PowerPC, as an evolving instruction set, has since 2006 been named Power ISA, while the old name lives on as a trademark for some implementations of Power Architecture-based processors. PowerPC was the cornerstone of AIM's PReP and Common Hardware Reference Platform initiatives in the 1990s. Intended for personal computers, the architecture is well known for being used by Apple's Power Macintosh, PowerBook, iMac, iBook, Xserve lines from 1994 until 2006, when Apple migrated to Intel's x86, it has since become a niche in personal computers, but remains popular for embedded and high-performance processors. Its use in 7th generation of video game consoles and embedded applications provided an array of uses. In addition, PowerPC CPUs are still used in third party AmigaOS 4 personal computers. PowerPC is based on IBM's earlier POWER instruction set architecture, retains a high level of compatibility with it.
The history of RISC began with IBM's 801 research project, on which John Cocke was the lead developer, where he developed the concepts of RISC in 1975–78. 801-based microprocessors were used in a number of IBM embedded products becoming the 16-register IBM ROMP processor used in the IBM RT PC. The RT PC was a rapid design implementing the RISC architecture. Between the years of 1982–1984, IBM started a project to build the fastest microprocessor on the market; the result is the POWER instruction set architecture, introduced with the RISC System/6000 in early 1990. The original POWER microprocessor, one of the first superscalar RISC implementations, is a high performance, multi-chip design. IBM soon realized that a single-chip microprocessor was needed in order to scale its RS/6000 line from lower-end to high-end machines. Work began on a one-chip POWER microprocessor, designated the RSC. In early 1991, IBM realized its design could become a high-volume microprocessor used across the industry. Apple had realized the limitations and risks of its dependency upon a single CPU vendor at a time when Motorola was falling behind on delivering the 68040 CPU.
Furthermore, Apple had conducted its own research and made an experimental quad-core CPU design called Aquarius, which convinced the company's technology leadership that the future of computing was in the RISC methodology. IBM approached Apple with the goal of collaborating on the development of a family of single-chip microprocessors based on the POWER architecture. Soon after, being one of Motorola's largest customers of desktop-class microprocessors, asked Motorola to join the discussions due to their long relationship, Motorola having had more extensive experience with manufacturing high-volume microprocessors than IBM, to form a second source for the microprocessors; this three-way collaboration between Apple, IBM, Motorola became known as the AIM alliance. In 1991, the PowerPC was just one facet of a larger alliance among these three companies. At the time, most of the personal computer industry was shipping systems based on the Intel 80386 and 80486 chips, which have a complex instruction set computer architecture, development of the Pentium processor was well underway.
The PowerPC chip was one of several joint ventures involving the three alliance members, in their efforts to counter the growing Microsoft-Intel dominance of personal computing. For Motorola, POWER looked like an unbelievable deal, it allowed the company to sell a tested and powerful RISC CPU for little design cash on its own part. It maintained ties with an important customer and seemed to offer the possibility of adding IBM too, which might buy smaller versions from Motorola instead of making its own. At this point Motorola had its own RISC design in the form of the 88000, doing poorly in the market. Motorola was doing well with its 68000 family and the majority of the funding was focused on this; the 88000 effort was somewhat starved for resources. The 88000 was in production, however; the 88000 had achieved a number of embedded design wins in telecom applications. If the new POWER one-chip version could be made bus-compatible at a hardware level with the 88000, that would allow both Apple and Motorola to bring machines to market far faster since they would not have to redesign their board architecture.
The result of these various requirements is the PowerPC specification. The differences between the earlier POWER instruction set and that of PowerPC is outlined in Appendix E of the manual for PowerPC ISA v.2.02. Since 1991, IBM had a long-standing desire for a unifying operating system that would host all existing operating systems as personalities upon one microkernel. From 1991 to 1995, the company designed and aggressively evangelized what would become Workplace OS targeting PowerPC; when the first PowerPC products reached the market, they were met with enthusiasm. In addition to Apple, both IBM and the Motorola Computer Group offered systems built around the processors. Microsoft released Windows NT 3.51 for the architecture, used in Motorola's
The Command key historically known as the Apple key, clover key, open-Apple key, splat key, pretzel key, or propeller key, is a modifier key present on Apple keyboards. The Command key's purpose is to allow the user to enter keyboard commands in applications and in the system. An "extended" Macintosh keyboard—the most common type—has two command keys, one on each side of the space bar; the "⌘" symbol was chosen by Susan Kare after Steve Jobs decided that the use of the Apple logo in the menu system would be an over-use of the logo. Apple's adaptation of the symbol—encoded in Unicode at U+2318 ⌘ —was derived in part from its use in Nordic countries as an indicator of cultural locations and places of interest; the symbol is known by various other names, including "Saint John's Arms" and "Bowen knot". Apple's computers up through the 1979 Apple II Plus did not have a command key; the first model on which it appeared was the 1980 Apple III, where there are two monochrome Apple keys, both to the left of the space bar on the lowest row of the keyboard.
Two other early Apple computers, the 1982 Apple IIe and the 1984 Apple IIc had two such keys, one to the left and one to the right of the space bar. This allowed for flexible combinations of a modifier key and base key with just a few extra wires and no ROM changes, since the Apple II could only register one key press at a time. In all these cases, the left Apple key had an outlined "open" Apple logo, the one on the right had an opaque, "closed" or "solid" Apple logo key; the Apple Lisa had only the closed Apple logo. When the Macintosh was introduced in 1984, the keyboard had a single command key with a Looped square symbol, because Steve Jobs said that showing the Apple logo throughout the menus as a keyboard shortcut was "taking in vain". Thus, the ⌘ symbol appears in the Macintosh menus as the primary modifier key symbol; the original Macintosh had an Option key, used for entering extended characters. In 1986, the Apple IIGS was introduced. Like the newer Macintosh computers to come, such as the Macintosh SE, it used the Apple Desktop Bus for its keyboard and mouse.
However, it was still an Apple II. Apple changed the keys on the IIGS's keyboard to Command and Option, as on Mac keyboards, but added an open-Apple to the Command key, for consistency with applications for previous Apple II generations; because any ADB keyboard could be used with the IIGS, all of Apple's ADB keyboards—even those intended for the Mac—also required the open-Apple, it stuck for more than twenty years, causing confusion long after the Apple II series went out of production. The Apple symbol was removed in the keyboard's 2007 redesign, making room for the key's name to appear—the word "command" is now printed on the key. On the keyboard of the NeXT Computer that key was marked Command in green; the menus were not marked with a symbol denoting the command key. Besides being used as a modifier key for keyboard shortcuts it was used to alter the function of some keys. Command + ⇧ Shift toggles alpha lock, Command + Return sends Command + Volume-down toggles Mute; the functions were printed in green on the front side of the modified keys.
This was done on the Z, X, C and V keys. Command-Alternate-* triggers a non-catchable hardware reset thereby hard rebooting the computer. On the NeXT ADB keyboard, the Command keys were replaced by keys labeled Help and the Command key morphed into a wide Command bar in front of the space bar; the purpose of the Command key is to allow the user to enter keyboard commands in applications and in the system. The Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines have always recommended that developers use the Command key for this purpose. A small set of keyboard commands are standard across nearly all applications, many other commands are standardized. If an application needs more shortcuts than can be obtained with the twenty-six letters of the Latin alphabet, double modifiers such as Command+Option are used. One advantage of this scheme, as contrasted with the Microsoft Windows mixed use of the Control and Alt keys, is that the Control key is available for its original purpose: entering control characters in terminal applications.
The Macintosh keyboard's other unusual modifier key, the Option key, serves as a modifier both for entering keyboard shortcuts and for typing text—it is used to enter foreign characters, typographical symbols, other special characters. The ⌘ symbol came into the Macintosh project at a late stage; the development team went for their old Apple key, but Steve Jobs found it frustrating when "apples" filled up the Mac's menus next to the key commands, because he felt that this was an over-use of the company logo. He opted for a different key symbol. With only a few days left before deadline, the team's bitmap artist Susan Kare started researching for the Apple logo's successor, she was browsing through a symbol dictionary when she came across the