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Mac OS 9

Mac OS 9 is the ninth and last major release of Apple's classic Mac OS operating system. Introduced on October 23, 1999, it was promoted by Apple as "The Best Internet Operating System Ever", highlighting Sherlock 2's Internet search capabilities, integration with Apple's free online services known as iTools and improved Open Transport networking. While Mac OS 9 lacks protected memory and full pre-emptive multitasking, lasting improvements include the introduction of an automated Software Update engine and support for multiple users. Apple discontinued development of Mac OS 9 in 2001, transitioning all future development to Mac OS X; the final updates to Mac OS 9 addressed compatibility issues with Mac OS X while running in the Classic Environment and compatibility with Carbon applications. At the 2002 World Wide Developers Conference, Steve Jobs began his keynote address by staging a mock funeral for OS 9. Apple billed Mac OS 9 as including "50 new features" and marketed its Sherlock 2 software, which introduced a "channels" feature for searching different online resources and introduced a QuickTime-like metallic appearance.

Mac OS 9 featured integrated support for Apple’s suite of Internet services known as iTools and included improved TCP/IP functionality with Open Transport 2.5. Other features new to Mac OS 9 include: Integrated support for multiple user accounts without using At Ease. Support for voice login through VoicePrint passwords. Keychain, a feature allowing users to save passwords and textual data encrypted in protected keychains. A Software Update control panel for automatic download and installation of Apple system software updates. A redesigned Sound control support for USB audio. Speakable Items 2.0 known as PlainTalk, featuring improved speech synthesis and recognition along with AppleScript integration. Improved font management through FontSync. Remote Access Personal Server 3.5, including support for TCP/IP clients over Point-to-Point Protocol. An updated version of AppleScript with support for TCP/IP. Personal File Sharing over TCP/IP. USB Printer Sharing, a control panel allowing certain USB printers to be shared across a TCP/IP network.

128-bit file encryption in the Finder. Support for files larger than 2 GB. Unix volume support. CD Burning in the Finder. Addition of a "Window" menu to the Finder PowerPC versions of OS X prior to 10.5 include a compatibility layer called Classic, enabling users to run applications and hardware requiring Mac OS 9 from within OS X. This is achieved through running Mac OS 9 without access to its Finder inside OS X; this requires Mac OS 9 to be installed on the computer though computers that can run the Classic environment are not able to boot into Mac OS 9. Some Mac OS 9 applications do not run well in Classic, they demonstrate screen redraw lagging performance. In addition, some drivers and other software which directly interact with the hardware fail to work properly. In May 2002, at Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference in San Jose, Steve Jobs, accompanied by a coffin, held a mock funeral to announce that Apple had stopped development of Mac OS 9. Mac OS 9.2.2, released in December 2001, was the final version of Mac OS 9 and the "classic" Mac OS.

In June 2005, Jobs announced that the Macintosh platform would be transitioning to Intel x86 microprocessors. Developer documentation of the Rosetta PowerPC emulation layer revealed that applications written for Mac OS 8 or 9 would not run on x86-based Macs; the Classic Environment remains in the PowerPC version of OS X 10.4. As a workaround for Intel-based Macs, Mac OS 9 can be emulated up to version 9.0.4 by using SheepShaver, a PowerPC emulator. It cannot emulate versions newer than 9.0.4 because SheepShaver does not emulate a memory management unit. The PearPC PowerPC emulator does not support Mac OS 9. QEMU added support for emulating Mac OS 9 and PowerPC versions of OS X however. While Mac OS 9 is no longer supported by Apple, retail copies are still available from several Internet businesses at varying prices. Although now classed as abandonware, as development on it has ended, it is still in use by those who cannot upgrade to OS X due to hardware limitations or prefer it to OS X. Mac OS 9 is a popular choice for retrocomputing hobbyists.

Mac gamers sometimes revert to Classic or native OS 9 in order to play games that are not supported on OS X. Aside from Apple-branded hardware, still maintained and operated, Mac OS 9 can be operated in other environments such as Windows and Unix. For example, the aforementioned SheepShaver software was not designed for use on x86 platforms and required an actual PowerPC processor present in the machine it was running on similar to a hypervisor. Although it provides PowerPC processor support, it can only run up to Mac OS 9.0.4 because it does not emulate a memory management unit. Updates to Mac OS 9 include 9.0.4, 9.1, 9.2.1, 9.2.2. Mac OS 9.0.4 was a collection of bug fixes relating to USB and FireWire support. Mac OS 9.1 included integrated CD burning support in the Macintosh Finder and added a new Window menu in the Finder for switching between open windows. Mac OS 9.2 improved Classic Environment support. 1Some newest G3 and most G4 Macs can only run at least Mac OS 9.1, some only run at least Mac OS 9.2.

This is because the late development of G3 Macs and the mid-development of G4 Macs was during the development of Mac OS 9 and only the versions the G4 Macs support were desi

Chandler Beach

Chandler Belden Beach was an American entrepreneur and encyclopedist. He founded the publishing company C. B. Beach & Company renamed F. E. Compton & Co. after his associate Frank Compton took it over, Beach served as a captain in the American Civil War. As a sales agent in Chicago for the Encyclopædia Britannica, he soon realized there was a market demand for a more light-weight encyclopedia. Beach was the editor and publisher of Youth's Cyclopedia and the Student's Cyclopaedia, which turned into The Student's Reference Work; the New Student's Reference Work was published by C. B. Beach & Company by F. E. Compton & Co. from 1912. Frank Compton was his associate since 1894, became the general manager of C. B. Beach & Company in 1905. Compton took over the publishing firm when Beach retired in 1907, the name of the company changed to F. E. Compton & Co.. F. E. Compton & Co. went on to produce Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia in 1922. Publishing rights to the F. E. Compton & Company products were acquired by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. in 1961, the encyclopedia is still in print as Compton's by Britannica.

The New Student's Reference Work, 5 volumes, 1914, digitized at Wikisource

Steve Ludlam

Steve Ludlam was an English professional footballer who played as a Midfielder. He played in The Football League for Carlisle United and Chester. Ludlam began his career with Sheffield United, where he turned professional in January 1973, he had to wait until December 1975 for his first-team debut, against Tottenham Hotspur, but went on to make 27 league appearances over the next season and a half. He moved to Carlisle United in May 1977 and spent the next three seasons at Brunton Park, before opting to join fellow Football League Division Three side Chester in July 1980; the £45,000 transfer was a record buy for Chester at the time. Ludlam made his Chester debut on the opening day of the 1980–81 season, in a 1–0 home defeat to Oxford United, he ended the season as the club's joint leading scorer with seven goals, as Chester managed just 38 in 46 league games. He remained a regular for two years before playing his final game away to Mansfield Town on 26 February 1983; that would mark the end of this Football League career.

He played in Finland for six months before having spells training with Chester and Rochdale. But he did not sign for any of them amid ongoing injury problems and he retired from the professional game at the early age of 28. Ludlam had spells playing non-league football with Rhyl and Buxton. Ludlam worked in the licensing and legal trades and for the Royal Mail, he remained involved in football by working with youngsters at Sheffield Wednesday and Rotherham United. In 2003, Ludlam became manager of Worksop Town, where one of his sons, was on the playing staff, he remained with the club until the end of the 2003–04 season, when he was replaced by Ronnie Glavin. Steve Ludlam runs the Chesterfield school of excellence under 16 side. Chester City'What happened to…?' Article