Thursday Island, colloquially known as TI, or in the native language, Waiben, is an island of the Torres Strait Islands archipelago located 39 kilometres north of Cape York Peninsula in the Torres Strait, Australia. It has an area of about 3.5 square kilometres. The Muralag peoples are the traditional owners of the land and seas surrounding Thursday Island; the highest point on Thursday Island, standing at 104 metres above sea level, is Milman Hill, a World War II defence facility. At the 2011 census, Thursday Island had a population of 2,610. Thursday Island is within the Shire of Torres, but is the administrative and commercial centre of the Torres Strait Island Region despite not being part of that local government area; the island has been populated for thousands of years by the Torres Strait Islanders, though archeological evidence on Badu, further north in Torres Strait, suggests that the area has been inhabited from before the end of the last Ice Age. The archeology from Badhu, Pulu and Mer shows that Melanesian occupation started around 2,600 years ago.
The original place of permanent European settlement in Torres Strait was Somerset, south-east of the tip of Cape York Peninsula, established in 1864. However, the channel between Albany Island and Somerset proved to be hazardous for a port and in 1875 it was jointly decided by the Queensland and British governments to transfer the port to the deep anchorage on the south side of Thursday Island; the new port was called Port Kennedy, after Edmund Kennedy, the explorer of Cape York Peninsula, was established in 1867. In 1877, an administrative centre for the Torres Strait Islands was set up on the island by the Queensland Government and by 1883 over 200 pearling vessels were based on the island. A lucrative pearling industry was founded on the island in 1884, attracting workers from around Asia, including Japan and India, seeking their fortune; the Japanese community was in part indentured divers and boat hands who returned to Japan after a period of service and some longer term residents who were active in boat building and in the ownership of luggers for hire -, illegal but bypassed by leases through third parties back to other Japanese, a practice called "dummying."
Additionally, many south Pacific Islanders worked in the industry, some imported against their will. While the pearling industry has declined in importance, the mix of cultures is evident to this day; the pearling industry centred on the harvesting of pearl shell, used to make shirt buttons. The local pearl oyster is Pinctada maxima. Trochus shell was gathered by boats that specialised in this. Most shell was exported as the raw material - to a London-based market. Pearls themselves were rare and a bonus for the crew; the boats used were graceful two-masted luggers. In shallow water free diving was used while in deeper water diver's dress, or an abbreviated form of it, with a surface air supply was used. In good times there were three divers to a lugger, a stern diver, one midships, one diver off the bow. A manual air compressor was used, it looked. For part of the fleet that operated further from Thursday Island, larger vessels schooners were used as mother ships to the luggers. Shell was opened on the mother vessels rather than on the luggers, in order to secure any pearls found.
The waters of the Straits are murky and visibility was very poor. Though dive depths were not great, except at the Darnley Deep, 40 fathoms, attacks of the bends were common and deaths frequent. On 25 August 1887, The Paterson Telegraph Station on the West Coast of Cape York was opened, it connected the Cape York Telegraph Line with Thursday Island, via an undersea cable. In the late-19th and early-20th centuries Thursday Island was a regular stop for vessels trading between the east coast of Australia and Southeast Asia. A shipping disaster to a vessel in this service occurred in 1890 when RMS Quetta struck an uncharted reef in the Strait and sank in five minutes with the loss of over 130 lives; the Anglican Church on Thursday Island built shortly afterwards was named the Quetta All Souls Memorial Cathedral in memory of the event. Today the church is called All St Bartholomew Church. Cyclone Mahina, which hit Bathurst Bay, southeast of Thursday Island in 1899, wrecked the pearling fleet sheltering there, with huge losses of vessels and lives.
The fear of Russian invasion as a result of the deterioration of relations between the Russian Empire and the British Empire led to a fort on Battery Point being built in 1892 to protect the island. The fort is today a heritage feature of the island. Local pearling declined up to the Second World War through competition from a Japanese-based fleet which did not use local resources or personnel. In the 1950s plastic buttons imitating pearl supplanted much of the demand for shell. Before the decline, pearl fishing was taken by the island-based fleet to the Aru Islands in what was the Dutch East Indies. During World War II, Thursday Island became the military headquarters for the Torres Strait and was a base for Australian and United States forces. January 1942 saw the evacuation of civilians from the island. Residents of Japanese origin or descent were interned; the residents did not return until after the end of the war and many ethnic Japanese were forcibly repatriated. The island was spared from bombing in World War II, due, it was thought, to it being the burial place of many Japanese pearl shell divers, or the
Yungaburra is a town located on the Atherton Tableland in Far North Queensland, not far from Cairns. In the 2011 census, Yungaburra had a population of 1,116 people; the name'Yungaburra' comes from the local Yidiny word janggaburru, denoting the Queensland silver ash. The landscape around Yungaburra has been shaped by millennia of volcanic activity; the most recent eruptions were 10,000 years ago. Notable geological features nearby include: Seven Sisters and Mount Quincan are volcanic cones. Lake Eacham and Lake Barrine are lakes inside volcanic craters. Mount Hypipamee Crater is a diatreme. Tinaroo Dam submerged the old town of Kulara is visible, on whose cricket-pitch, when drought conditions drastically lower the water-level, locals play cricket matches. Prior to European settlement the area around Yungaburra was inhabited by about sixteen different indigenous groups, among them the Ngatjan, with the custodians being Yidinji people and neighbouring Ngajanji people; the Queensland police and native troops carried out extensive massacres in the area to rid it of blacks.
In one incident in 1884, at Skull Pocket just north of the town, a group of Yidinji were surrounded at night, at dawn mowed down after they fled on hearing the first shot. The children were stabbed to death by native troopers. In the early 1880s the area around Allumbah Pocket was used as an overnight stop for miners travelling west from the coast. In 1886 the land was surveyed, in 1891 settlers moved in. In 1910 the railway arrived, the town was renamed Yungaburra, to avoid confusion with another town called Allumbah. By 1911 indigenous numbers had fallen to 20% of the pre-settlement population due to disease, conflict with settlers and loss of habitat. At the 2006 census, Yungaburra had a population of 932; the population of Yungaburra is 1,034 persons as of 30 June 2009. In 2006, The Atherton Tableland region was damaged by the Category 4 Cyclone Larry. Of the 19 heritage listed sites in Yungaburra, only the roofs of the community hall, police station and one of the bush cottages were badly damaged, as were the front of the Yungaburra Butchery and Gem Gallery sign.
The town was restored quickly. Yungaburra has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 27 Atherton Road: Bank of New South Wales 6-10 Cedar Street: Yungaburra Court House 7-9 Cedar Street: 7-9 Cedar Street, Yungaburra 12 Cedar Street: Residence 15-17 Cedar Street: Yungaburra Post Office 16-20 Cedar Street: Williams' House 19 Cedar Street: Yungaburra Community Centre 32 Cedar: Billy Madrid's House 34 Cedar Street: Barber's Shop, Yungaburra Curtain Fig Tree Road: Curtain Fig Tree 7 Eacham Road: St Marks Anglican Church 25-33 Eacham Road: Cairns Plywood Pty Ltd Sawmill Complex 20 Gillies Highway: Eden House Restaurant 2 Kehoe Place: Butchers Shop 6-8 Kehoe Place: Lake Eacham Hotel 7 Mulgrave Road: Allumbah 4 Oak Street: Residence 1 Penda Street: St Patricks Catholic Church on the shores of Lake Tinaroo, the Afghanistan Avenue of Honour Yungaburra's economy today revolves around tourism, the town contains a primary school, post office, library/telecentre and a range of businesses and services for the use of residents and visitors.
Other facilities include a bowling club. The town has 18 Heritage Listed buildings, is the largest National Trust village in Queensland; the Yungaburra Markets, held on the fourth Saturday of each month, are one of the largest in Far North Queensland, each year around the end of October, Yungaburra holds the two-day Yungaburra Folk Festival, featuring concerts from Australian folk musicians. Yungaburra is the site of the war memorial to soldiers lost, opened 22 June 2013. There is a network of walking tracks around the town including Peterson's Creek. Allumbah Pocket is a picnic area on Peterson's Creek, it is the centre for a series of walking tracks along the creek. Tracks lead to Frawley's Pool, a popular swimming hole and picnic area further to Yungaburra's historical train bridge. In the opposite direction there is a track to the platypus viewing deck. Aside from this all of the tracks are easy and short enough for anyone to do; the site is dedicated to Geoff Tracy, a local renowned environmentalist who died in 2004.
Yungaburra has access to the southern arm of Lake Tinaroo, popular for fishing, sailing, water-skiing and camping. The other main places to get to Tinaroo are the township of Tinaroo; the Curtain Fig Tree, just out of Yungaburra, is a giant rainforest fig tree with roots hanging down, giving it the appearance of curtains. There is a short boardwalk around the tree. Lake Barrine and Lake Eacham are crater lakes, formed from volcanoes. Lake Eacham is popular for swimming and Lake Barrine has a teahouse and gift shop as well as cruises around the lake however is unsuitable for swimming due to the cruise boats. Both lakes have walking tracks around them. Lake Barrine's track is Lake Eacham's is 3 kilometres. There are a number of places to dine, from takeaway to fine dining. Yungaburra State School is a government primary school at 4 Maple Street. In 2017 the school had an enrolment of 213 students with 13 non-teaching staff; the nearest public secondary school is Atherton State High School. Yungaburra has a library at Maud Kehoe Park operated by the Tablelands Regional Council.
The Yungaburra branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall on the corner of Cedar Street and the Gillies Highway. Notable people from or who have lived in Yungaburra include: George Alfred
Wet Tropics of Queensland
The Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Site consists of 8,940 km² of Australian wet tropical forests growing along the north-east Queensland portion of the Great Dividing Range. The Wet Tropics of Queensland meets all four of the criteria for natural heritage for selection as a World Heritage Site. World Heritage status was declared in 1988, on 21 May 2007 the Wet Tropics were added to the Australian National Heritage List; the tropical forests have the highest concentration of primitive flowering plant families in the world. Only Madagascar and New Caledonia, due to their historical isolation, have humid, tropical regions with a comparable level of endemism; the Wet Tropics rainforests are recognised internationally for their ancient ancestry and many unique plants and animals. Many plant and animal species in the Wet Tropics are found nowhere else in the world; the Wet Tropics has the oldest continuously surviving tropical rainforests on earth On 9 November 2012, the Australian Government acknowledged the Indigenous heritage of the area as being nationally significant.
The Aboriginal Rainforest People of the Wet Tropics of Queensland have lived continuously in the rainforest environment for at least 5000 years, this is the only place in Australia where Aboriginal people have permanently inhabited a tropical rainforest environment. The Wet Tropics of Queensland stretches in part from Townsville to Cooktown, running in close parallel to the Great Barrier Reef; the terrain is rugged. The Great Dividing Range and a number of small coastal ranges, tablelands, foothills and an escarpment dominate the landscape; the heritage site contains the northern section of the Queensland tropical rain forests including the Daintree Rainforest. 16 different structural types of rainforest have been identified. The World Heritage area includes Wallaman Falls. In total it spans 13 major river systems including the Annan, Daintree, Mulgrave, Johnstone, Herbert, Mitchell and Palmer River. Copperlode Falls Dam, Koombooloomba Dam and Paluma Dam are found within the World Heritage Area.
15% of the area is protected as national park. Among the national parks included within the Wet Tropics are: Barron Gorge National Park Black Mountain National Park Cedar Bay National Park Daintree National Park Edmund Kennedy National Park Girringun National Park Kirrama National Park Kuranda National Park Macalister Range National Park Wooroonooran National Parkand over 700 protected areas including owned land; the Wet Tropics Management Authority was established in 1983. The agency employed 20 staff in 2012 as a unit within the Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, it is headed by a board of directors responsible to the Wet Tropics Ministerial Council which contains both Queensland and Federal Government representatives. The site contains many unique features such as over 390 rare plant species, which includes 74 species that are threatened. There are at least 85 species that are endemic to the area, 13 different types of rainforest and 29 species of mangrove, more than anywhere else in the country.
Of the 19 families of primitive flowering plants worldwide, 12 are found in the Wet Tropics including two families found nowhere else. This includes at least 50 individual species which are endemic to the area.90 species of orchids have been noted. The large rare trees Stockwellia or Vic Stockwell's Puzzle Stockwellia quadrifida grow only in restricted areas of "well developed upland rain forest" in the Wet Tropics, they continue living today as descendants of, similar to, the ancient Gondwanan fossil species considered one of the Eucalypts' fossil ancestors, which diversified into so many different species forms of all the Eucalypt plants today. 65% of Australia's fern species are protected here, including all seven of the ancient fern species. 370 species of bird have been recorded in the area. 11 species of those are found nowhere else. The endangered southern cassowary and rare spotted-tailed quoll are some of the many threatened species, while the musky rat-kangaroo is one of 50 animal species that are unique to this area.
The musky rat-kangaroo is significant because it represents an early stage in the evolution of kangaroos. Other rare animals include brush-tailed bettong. 107 mammal species have been identified. Australia's rarest mammal, the tube nosed insectivorous murina florious bat, is found here. One quarter of Australia's rodent species are found within the Wet Tropics.113 species of reptiles including 24 endemic species are found in the area and there are 51 amphibian species, of which 22 are endemic. One reason for the high level of endemism is that the geomorphology is diverse, resulting in habitat islands where distinct subspecies have evolved; some species are endemic to groups of mountains. Rainfall in the area varies with elevation and orientation of the coastline being the major influences. Rainfall averages from 1,200 millimeters to over 8,000 mm annually; the highest mountains along the escarpment between Cairns and Tully receive the highest rainfall owing to orographic factors. Mount Bellenden Ker is the wettest recording station in the area with other high peaks and eastern slopes favouring high rainfall.
Most of the rainfall occurs from November to April. Tropical cyclones may impact the area; the expansion of the sugarcane industry in lowland plains poses a significant threat to some endangered ecosystems. Some are fragmented and their natural vegetation is degraded. Invasive pes
, Dimbulah is a town and locality in Far North Queensland, Australia, 114 kilometres from Cairns by road, on the Atherton Tableland. It is within the local government area of Shire of Mareeba. At the 2011 census, Dimbulah had a population of 1,414; the former mining town of Wolfram is located in the north-west of the locality. There are historical ruins of early mining there as well as a present-day open cut mine; the town was established in 1876 to service the Tyrconnell Gold Mine, one of the richest mines on the Hodgkinson Gold Fields. The name "Dimbulah" is thought to have come from the local Indigenous Australian word for "long waterhole", referring to the Walsh River that runs nearby the town. Dimboola Post Office opened by 1900 and was renamed Dimbulah in 1904; the Dimbulah Public Library opened in 1995 with a minor refurbishment in 2013. The area around Dimbulah was home to the Djankun and Kuku Djungan tribe. During the 1920s the Queensland government forcibly removed most of their children, forcing the tribe to scatter.
In the early 1900s the area received an influx of Italian migrants and in 1928 tobacco was introduced, becoming the area's major industry soon after. At its peak, there were 800 growers in the area, producing over 8,000 tonnes of tobacco a year.'The Way Back In' is an Australian heritage project that documents a small selection of Australian heritage within the Italian communities in Dimbulah and Cairns. Tobacco remained the dominant crop until recent years. Recent attempts at alternative crops such as tea trees, sugar cane, lemons, avocados, papayas, soya beans, lychees and cash crops have met with mixed success. Farming is a significant employment option in Dimbulah and many travelers, including backpackers, are employed as short-term farm labourers during the busy mango harvest from November to January. Holders of a working holiday visa may be eligible for an extension to their visa after a period of work on farms in the area. Accommodation is available at the Junction Hotel. If employed on a farm, accommodation is available in small'dongas' or barracks.
Public transport from Cairns is possible, although infrequent, on Trans North's bus service which stops at Mareeba, 45 kilometres from Dimbulah. The Savannahlander tourist train does not operate year-round. Important local events include the annual Lion's Festival and the Great Wheelbarrow Race both held annually in May. On 27 September 2014, the Dimbulah P-10 State School celebrated its centenary. Local residents enjoy a tropical climate with dry, mild winters. There are many sporting clubs including swimming, horse & pony, lawn bowls, Rhee Taekwon-Do, soccer/football. Services include Police station, Queensland Health clinic, ADSL internet, 3G mobile service. In 2013, the town's retail facilities include a Bendigo Community Bank with 24-hour ATM, Australia Post office, Mareeba Discount Chemist, Funky Mango Cafe, Canzian's Restaurant, Junction Hotel, Abundant Life opp shop, Sunshine Bakery, two salons, TGT hardware store, Foodworks grocery store, One Stop convenience store and two petrol stations.
Community groups include the Dimbulah Community Centre, St Anthony's Catholic church, Men's Shed, Lions Club, QCWA, Chamber of Commerce, museum association, several other faith-based groups. The Mareeba Shire operates a public library at Shire Hall at the corner of Raleigh Street and Burke Development Road; the Dimbulah branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall at 22 Brickley Street. Chris Sheppard, former NRL player Dimbulah has a number of sites listed on the Queensland Heritage Register including: Main Street, Wolfram: La Société Française des Métaux Rares treatment plant Wolfram Road, Wolfram: Thermo Electric Ore Reduction Corporation Mill Dimbulah Limited Hours Child Care, Age range 15 months - 5 years Dimbulah Kindergarten, Age range 3–5 years Dimbulah P-10 State School, Age range: 4–16 years St Anthony's Parish School Age range: 4-12 University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Dimbulah Town map of Dimbulah, 1984
Herberton is a town and locality on the Atherton Tableland in Far North Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Herberton had a population of 855 people; the first European exploration of this area, part of the traditional land of the Dyirbal, was undertaken in 1875 by James Venture Mulligan. Mulligan instead found tin; the town of Herberton was established on 19 April 1880 by John Newell to exploit the tin find, mining began on 9 May. By the September of that year, Herberton had a population of 27 women. Herberton Post Office opened on 22 November 1880. In December 1881 a State School was established; the Herberton Public Library opened in 1995 with a major refurbishment in 2016. In the late 19th century the Mulligan Highway was carved through the hills from Herberton and passed through what is now Main Street, before continuing down to Port Douglas; this road was used by the coaches of Co to access Western Queensland. At its apogee, Herberton was the richest tin mining field in Australia, was home to 17 pubs, 2 local newspapers and a brewery.
Tin mining ceased in Herberton in 1985. At the 2006 census, Herberton had a population of 974. In the 2011 census, Herberton had a population of 934 people. Herberton has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 38 Broadway Street: Holy Trinity Anglican Church Grace Street: Jack & Newell General Store 61 Grace Street: Herberton School of Arts off Jacks Road: Great Northern Mine 2-4 Lillian Street: Herberton Uniting Church Myers Street: Herberton War Memorial Herberton is situated 918 m high on the Great Dividing Range south-west of Atherton. Vegetation ranges from tropical rainforest to the east, wet schlerophyl forests to the north and east and open schleorphyl forests and woodlands to the north and west. Herberton is notably drier than the area around Atherton with average rainfall for Herberton of 1,155 mm. Herberton is the most northerly location in Australia to have recorded a temperature at or below −5 °C, the only location in Tropical North Queensland to have done so; the average minimum temperature ranges from 10 °C in winter to 18 °C in summer, while maximums range from 21 to 29 °C.
Several crops are grown around Herberton, it is the location of Queensland's only tropical vineyard. Herberton is a mini salad bowl with crops including avocados, tomatoes and pumpkins. Poultry and beef industries are present. Herberton's public hospital and the private school, Mt Saint Bernard residential college, are other major employers in the town; the Herberton Mining Museum and Visitor Information Centre opened in 2005, houses mining and social history of the Herberton Mining field, archives for the local area and maintains a genealogy project recording the families of the district and their histories. A Heritage Walk for tourists that takes in some of the old buildings and historical features of the town is a popular attraction. Historic Village Herberton is a 16-acre representation of a mining town filled with streets of buildings of the time, each one a museum in its own right with exhibits such as vintage machinery and Australian antiques, it has more than 50 restored period buildings.
The Herberton Spy & Camera Museum houses antique spy cameras, a photographic gallery and photographic memorabilia with guided tours through the museum and a working photographer and photographic studio. Most a Railway Museum has been established by volunteers in the former Herberton Railway Station building; this is operated by volunteers and only open part-time. The Tepon Equestrian Grounds just out of Herberton have been upgraded with a large undercover pavilion for equestrian and other sporting events such as cycling and mountain biking. Local markets are held on the 3rd Sunday of every month at the Wondecla Oval. There are several caravan parks, motels and B&Bs located in the town; the Tablelands Regional Council operates a Herberton Public Library and Customer Service Centre at 61 Grace Street. The Herberton branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall at 14 William Street. Herberton State School opened on 12 December 1881. In 1912 the school had a secondary top added to the school.
Notable people associated with Herberton include: Bunny Adair, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Cook who attended Herberton State School. Alice Bonar. Founder of the Australian Red Cross in Herberton, now the oldest continuously operating branch in Australia. In 1914 reconvened the branch as a member of the Australian Red Cross. Eldest son David Welbourn Bonar a tunneller at Hill 60 and daughter May was a nurse in World War 1. Nancy Francis and poet known as'Black Bonnet'. Wrote extensively on life in the Daintree area including recording indigenous culture. Wrote poetry published in North queensland The Bulletin. James Douglas Henry Mining Engineer, served in 4th Queensland Imperial Bushmen contingent. Member of the Mining Corps Commanding Officer of 1st Australian Tunnellers involved in Hill 60. Retired to Tepon near Herberton and A. R. P. Warden for Wondecla area in World War 2. John Ledlie, one of the founders of North Queensland firm Armstrong and Stillman. Brought the first electric street lights outside his Herberton store.
Shire Chairman of Herberton Shire Council, member of Cairns Harbour Board and Cairns Regional Electricity Board. Teamed with Robert Ringrose to establish Herberton State High School in 1912. John Newell, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly for Woothakata, Chairman of Herberton Shire Council, Mayor of Herberton Municipality. One of the discoverers of payable tin and the establishment of Herberton Gold and Mineral Field. Founding member of the Tinaroo Division Board
Mission Beach, Queensland
Mission Beach is a small town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. In the 2016 census Mission Beach and surrounding villages had a total population of 3,597 people. Mission Beach is bounded on the east by the Coral Sea; the popular tourist destination of Dunk Island lies 4 kilometres offshore. Today, what were once separate villages have now grown such that they are considered one town, Mission Beach; the villages are, from south to north, South Mission Beach, Wongaling Beach, Mission Beach, Bingil Bay, Brooks Beach and Carmoo. Development is continuing at Garners Beach to the north. Clump Point is the northern end of a sandy beach 13 kilometres long facing the Coral Sea which runs south to Tam O'Shanter Point in South Mission Beach at the southern end. Clump Point was descriptively named by Captain Owen Stanley of the Royal Navy survey ship HMS Rattlesnake. In 1872 it was alleged by two sailors, that the captain and some of the crew of the ill-fated Maria, wrecked in a "typhoon", were killed and eaten by natives north of Tam O'Shanter Point.
Survivor Thomas Ingham attests that the aborigines were friendly with his party until joined by another group of unfriendly natives. A group of vigilantes raided the area now called South Mission Beach and attacked a local aboriginal camp. In 1916 Ingham wrote: "Sub-Inspector Johnstone gave short-shrift to the cannibals, who had eaten the captains party, the brutes who had speared me and taken my belt was seen to be wearing it around his head like a crown; that sealed his fate. This belt saved my life, it made him a king when he bought about his demise. Sub-Inspector Johnstone gave it back to me, I have kept it since." The river Louisa was renamed Maria Creek after the wreck. Johnstone River was named after Sub Inspector Johnstone. In the early 20th century Chinese banana farmers used Aborigines as labourers in the Tully River region. Opium addiction and conflict with European settlers resulted in the Queensland government creating an Aboriginal internment centre at the present Mission Beach. Superintendent John Martin Kenny started the necessary work on 1 September 1914.
There was no mission in the religious sense. The settlement had characteristics of a penal settlement; the Hull River detention centre and superintendent's residence were destroyed in the cyclone of 10 March 1918 and were not rebuilt. Superintendent Kenny and his daughter were killed by debris; the surviving Aborigines were forcefully moved to Queensland. The first white settlers, the Cutten brothers, came to Mission Beach area in 1882 and settled at Bingil Bay, where they farmed mangoes, pineapples, citrus fruit and coconuts, they manufactured their own coffee. Produce was shipped south on cargo-boats. Before this the only white people to enter this area were the timber-getters who sometimes camped on the beach and retrieved timber from the adjacent rain forests, they employed local Aborigines for their assistance in their timber hauling, paying the Aboriginal labourers with tobacco and tools. After the Cutten brothers, the Unsworths settled at Narragon Beach, the Garners came and settled at Garners Beach, the Porter brothers settled at what the locals refer to as Porter's Creek at the south end of North Mission Beach.
Mission Beach Post Office opened on 15 December 1949. In the 2006 census Mission Beach had a population of 515. Mission Beach State School is located at Webb Road Wongaling Beach, it is a Prep to Year 6 school and details of the curriculum and resources can be found on the Mission Beach State School Website. In early October there is the evolve music festival than shows local musicians and a few bands from around Australia. There is a market there that has food, clothes and other festival stuff. Rugby League plays a big part in the town, with Tully Tigers the main club. Mission Beach is now a thriving tourist town, able to maintain its small town feel. One reason for this is that the town is spread out along a thin strip of land between the ocean and the hills and farmland behind; this has spread out a large tourism market, the village doesn't feel as busy as one might expect. The beach is flanked by green mountains rising just a short distance inland, provides views out to the Family Islands. Close to shore at Mission Beach lies a shallow reef.
The reef runs from the mouth of Porter's Creek at the south end of North Mission Beach to Clump Point, a popular fishing spot, the main departure and arrival point for the Dunk Island Ferry. Surrounded by World Heritage rainforest on one side and the World Heritage listed Great Barrier Reef on the other, Mission Beach is home to many wildlife species, most notable is the cassowary; this large flightless bird can be found in the rainforest surrounding the area but appears to be thriving in spite of land clearing and predators such as wild dogs and feral pigs. Much of the area is part of the Coastal Wet Tropics Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for the conservation of lowland tropical rainforest birds. Mission Beach is the mainland gateway to Dunk Island, with water taxis and ferries shuttling guests and day-trippers out to the island and its resort
Mornington Island is the northernmost of 22 islands that form the Wellesley Islands group. The island is in the Gulf of Carpentaria and is part of the Gulf Country region in the Australian state of Queensland; the Manowar and Rocky Islands Important Bird Area lies about 40 kilometres to the north-west. Mornington Island is the largest of the islands, the largest settlement of, Gununa on the south-west of the island; the general topography of the island is flat with the maximum elevation of 150 metres. The island contains 10 estuaries, all in near pristine condition; the population was estimated to be 1,143 in 2016 and the majority of the citizens live in the township of Gununa. Mornington Island is included in the Shire of Mornington local government area; the majority of the islanders are Aboriginal. Lardil are the predominant clan group on Mornington Island and are the traditional owners of the land and surrounding seas; the Kaiadilt clan arrived more from nearby Bentinck Island, when that island's water supply was contaminated by salt after a cyclone.
Recent re-building work on aboriginal housing has been undertaken by the James Fraser Foundation, a non-profit organisation in Queensland. Macassan trepangers once travelled thousands of kilometres from Sulawesi to Mornington Island and other Australian mainland destinations in search of sea cucumbers; the eastern cape of the island was named Cape Van Diemen after Anthony van Diemen. Commander Matthew Flinders named the island after Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, known when younger as the Earl of Mornington. Gununa Post Office opened by 1982; the Mornington Island Airport was a temporary airfield used by the RAAF and allied air forces during World War II. Penile subincision is still traditionally performed on the island for those wanting to learn a complex ceremonial language called Damin; the Mornington Island State School opened on 28 January 1975. In 1978, the Queensland government decided to take over control of both the Aurukun and Mornington Island Aboriginal reserves. Cyclones hit the island.
In 2000 Cyclone Steve passed directly over the island. Tropical Cyclone May passed in February 1988 and Tropical Cyclone Bernie passed to the west in early 2002. Tropical Cyclone Fritz passed directly over the island on 12 February 2003. Severe Tropical Cyclone Harvey caused damage on the island in February, 2005. Mornington Island State School offers kindergarten and limited secondary schooling for boys and girls operated by the Queensland Government at 500 Lardil Street. In 2016, the school had an enrolment of 248 students with 16 non-teaching staff. Mornington Island was the site of research over several decades by British anthropologist David McKnight, described in a series of books, People and the Rainbow Serpent: Systems of classification among the Lardil of Mornington Island, From Hunting to Drinking: The devastating effects of alcohol on an Australian Aboriginal community, Going the Whiteman’s Way: Kinship and marriage among Australian Aborigines and Of Marriage and Sorcery: The quest for power in northern Queensland.
McKnight lamented the increasing levels of violence since the 1970s. Indigenous art of Mornington Island is described in The Heart of Everything: The art and artists of Mornington & Bentinck Islands, ed. N. Evans, L. Martin-Chew and P. Memmott. A tribe of indigenous people on the island have been communicating with wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins for millennium, it is said that they have "a medicine man who "speaks" to them telepathically. By these communications he assures that the tribes’ fortunes and happiness are maintained." In 2003 the Government of Queensland implemented an Alcohol Management Plan to 19 indigenous communities in Queensland where alcohol abuse was rampant. The alcohol bans are aimed at alleviating high levels of domestic violence, child abuse and child neglect; the plan restricts tavern opening hours, limits sales to only light and mid-strength beers, bans takeaway alcohol sales and home brewing. The Mornington Island community has been described as the toughest in Queensland when it comes to resisting alcohol bans.
In December 2003 police reinforcements had to be sent to Mornington Island after riots broke out when tough new alcohol laws were introduced. In 2008 more riots were feared after the Lelka Murrin Hotel, one of only two liquor retailers on the island, closed due to the proprietor being ill. Extra police were sent to the island to stop any unauthorised sale of alcohol and to quash any alcohol-fueled violence that may have erupted at a time when violent incidents on the island were common; as per 2018, alcohol continues to be a major social and health problem. The alcohol ban on the island has led to locals home brewing, which in turn is providing unlimited quantities of cheap alcohol. List of islands of Australia Sydney Island Mornington Island Weather & Community Portal Junkuri Laka Welleslaey Islands Aboriginal Law Justice and Governance Association