Tobolsk is a town in Tyumen Oblast, located at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh Rivers. It is a capital of Siberia. Situated where the River Irtysh turns from flowing westward to flowing northward and it became the seat of the newly established Siberia Governorate in 1708 and prospered on trade with China to the east and with Bukhara to the south. Tobolsk saw the establishment of the first school, after the Russians defeated the Swedish army at Poltava in 1709, large numbers of Swedish prisoners were sent to Tobolsk. They numbered about 25% of the total population, many of them were not repatriated until the 1720s, and some of them settled permanently in Tobolsk. After administrative division of the territory, Tobolsk remained the seat of the Governor-General of Western Siberia until the seat moved to Omsk in the 1820s or 1830s. Acknowledging the authority of Tobolsk, many Siberian towns, including Omsk, Omsk continues to honor the legacy as of 2015. From 1796 until 1919, the served as the seat of Tobolsk Governorate.
After 1825 some of the Decembrists were exiled and lived there as well, the towns relative importance declined when the Trans-Siberian Railway line between Tyumen and Omsk bypassed it to the south in the 1890s. In August 1917, after the February Revolution, the Provisional Government evacuated Tsar Nicholas II, after a White Army approached the city in spring of 1918, the Bolsheviks moved the imperial family west to Yekaterinburg in the Urals and had them shot there in July 1918. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Tobolsk serves as the center of Tobolsky District. As an administrative division, it is, together with one urban-type settlement, as a municipal division, the Town of Tobolsk is incorporated as Tobolsk Urban Okrug. The economy of modern Tobolsk centers on a oil refinery. Some traditional crafts, such as bone-carving, are preserved, Tobolsk has a humid continental climate bordering on a subarctic climate. Winters are very cold with temperatures from −21.6 °C to −12.7 °C in January.
Precipitation is moderate and is higher in summer than at other times of the year. Tobolsk is the town in Siberia and one of the few in Russia which has a standing stone kremlin. Its white walls and towers with an ensemble of churches and palatial buildings spectacularly sited on a river bank were proclaimed a national historical and architectural treasure in 1870
Kolomna is an ancient city of Moscow Oblast, situated at the confluence of the Moskva and Oka Rivers,114 kilometers southeast of Moscow. Mentioned for the first time in 1177, Kolomna was founded in 1140–1160 according to the latest archaeological surveys, kolomnas name may originate from the Old Russian term for on the bend, especially as the old city is located on a sharp bend in the Moscow River. In 1301, Kolomna was incorporated into the Moscow Principality, like some other ancient Russian cities, it has a kremlin, which is a citadel similar to the more famous one in Moscow and built of red brick. The stone Kolomna Kremlin was built from 1525–1531 under the Russian Tsar Vasily III, in front of the façade stands a statue of Dmitry Donskoy, celebrating the gathering of his troops in Kolomna prior to the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380. The civic arms of Kolomna were granted by Empress Catherine II, the similar appearance of the arms, despite there being no connection between the Roman family and the city of Kolomna.
Due to sensitive military production of components, Kolomna was a closed city until 1994. It is still not listed as a city of the Golden Ring, despite its kremlin, within the framework of administrative divisions, Kolomna serves as the administrative center of Kolomensky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as Kolomna City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Kolomna City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Kolomna Urban Okrug, Kolomna is located on the Ryazan line of the Moscow railroad,116 kilometers from Moscow. In Kolomna, there are five stations and one terminal. Two bus terminals are located in the city, public transport in the city is represented by tram and city bus lines. Kolomna is situated on three rivers, and has passenger and transport berths, most known one is the Bochmanovo berth. The Kolomna Speed Skating Center is an ice speed skating oval used for Russian.
It hosted the 2008 European Speed Skating Championships and the 2016 World Single Distance Speed Skating Championships, the Kolomna Speed Skating Center is considered as one of the most modern ice speed skating ovals in the world. Закон №11/2013-ОЗ от31 января2013 г, «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области», в ред. Закона №72/2015-ОЗ от5 мая2015 г, Вступил в силу на следующий день после официального опубликования. Подмосковье, №24,12 февраля2013 г, Закон №153/2004-ОЗ от25 ноября2004 г. «О статусе и границе городского округа Коломна», в ред, Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования
In several of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches and Eastern Catholic Churches, the patriarch or head bishop is elected by a group of bishops called the Holy Synod. For instance, the Holy Synod is a body of the Georgian Orthodox Church. In Oriental Orthodoxy the Holy Synod is the highest authority in the church and it formulates the rules and regulations regarding matters of church organisation and order of service. The principle of summoning a synod or council of ecclesiastical persons to discuss some grave question affecting the Church goes back, of course, to the very beginning of her history. Since the day when the Apostles met at Jerusalem to settle whether Gentile converts were to keep the Old Law, the Most Holy Synod or Most Holy Governing Synod was a congregation of Orthodox church leaders in Russia. It was established by Peter the Great, Stefan Yavorsky and Feofan Prokopovich in January 1721 to replace the Patriarchate of Moscow and it was abolished following the February Revolution of 1917 and replaced with a restored patriarchate under Tikhon of Moscow.
In modern Russia the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church is the highest governing body of the Russian Orthodox Church between Sobors and it is headed by the Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus. The first other Orthodox Church to imitate the Russian Government by synod was that of Greece, the national assemblies of free Greece in 1822 and 1827 began the process of making their Church independent of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. In 1833 the Greek Parliament formally rejected the authority and set up a Holy Directing Synod in exact imitation of Russia. After much dispute the patriarch gave in and acknowledged the Greek synod, since then, the Church of Greece has been governed by a Holy Synod exactly as was the Church of Russia. A law in 1852 regulated its rights and duties and it met at Athens under the presidency of the Metropolitan of Athens. Four other bishops were appointed by the Government as members for a year by vote, the members took an oath of fidelity to the king and government.
Their deliberations were controlled by a commissioner, who was a layman chosen by government. No act was valid without the commissioners assent, there were secretaries, and a servant all appointed by the State. The Holy Synod was the highest authority in the Greek Church and had the rights and duties as its Russian model. Today, supreme authority is vested in the synod of all the diocesan bishops and this synod deals with general church questions. The Standing Synod is under the presidency, and consists of the Primate and 12 bishops, each serving for one term on a rotating basis. The Holy Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church is organized as the highest authority on all matters concerning the church and it comprises the Patriarch, all metropolitans, archbishops and vicar bishops of the church
It is used as one purely title of honour, with no connection to any actual monastery, and is bestowed on clergy as a mark of respect or gratitude for service to the Church. This particular sign of respect is given to those priests who have taken vows of celibacy. Distinguished married clergy may receive the title of archpriest, when the supervision of monasteries passed to another episcopal official—the Great Sakellarios —the title of archimandrite became an honorary one for abbots of important monasteries. Initially in some cases it served as a title, for example. Abbots of third class monasteries were to be styled hegumen, the Russian Orthodox Church commonly selects its bishops from the ranks of the archimandrites. An archimandrite is a priest who has taken vows and is theoretically in line to be ordained a bishop. Sometimes the requirement is waived if the priest can show outstanding achievement in academic fields. An archimandrite who does not function as an abbot has the style The Very Reverend Archimandrite whilst one with abbatial duties uses the style The Right Reverend Archimandrite and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Archimandrite. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Brockhaus. Dictionnaire darchéologie chrétienne et de liturgie Plank, Archimandrite, in Fahlbusch, Encyclopedia of Christianity,1, Grand Rapids, eerdmans, p.118, ISBN0802824137 The dictionary definition of archimandrite at Wiktionary
Barnaul is a city and the administrative center of Altai Krai, located at the confluence of the Barnaulka River and the Ob River in the West Siberian Plain. At the end of 2015, the city had a population above 700,000 people, the population of the Barnaul metropolitan area is estimated to be more than 1.14 million. Barnaul is located in the forest steppe zone of the West Siberian Plain, on the bank of the Ob River, at the confluence of Barnaulka. Barnaul is the closest major city to the Altai Mountains to the south, the border with Kazakhstan is 345 km to the south-west. It is 3580 km from Moscow, the city is situated relatively close to the border with Mongolia and China. The area around the city has been inhabited by humans and Denisovans. They settled here to take advantage of the confluence of the rivers, used for transportation, in the late BC millennia, the locality was a centre of activity for Scythian and various Turkic peoples. The city of Barnaul was founded in 1730, and granted the status of a city in 1771.
Chosen for its proximity to the mineral-rich Altai Mountains and its location on a major river and they wanted to develop the copper in the mountains, and soon found substantial deposits of silver as well. In 1747, the Demidovs factories were taken over by the Crown, Barnaul became the center of silver production of the entire Russian Empire. In 1914, Barnaul was the site of the largest draft riot in Russia during World War I, there were more than 100 casualties from the fighting. Street fighting took place between White Russians and Reds during the Russian Revolution of 1918, Maria Stepanovna was born and lived as a child in this city. She became the mother of American actresses Natalie Wood and Lana Wood and her father Stepan was killed in the 1918 street fighting between the Whites and Reds following the Revolution. Afterward her mother took Maria and her siblings as refugees to Harbin, Maria married a Russian there, and they had a daughter Olga together. Maria eventually immigrated with Olga to the United States, where she married another Russian immigrant, from Vladivostok and it is estimated that over half of the light ammunition used by the Soviet Union in World War II was produced in Barnaul.
Barnaul is the center of the krai. As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Barnaul is incorporated as Barnaul Urban Okrug, temperatures can vary in the extreme, from below −45 °C in the winter to above +35 °C in the summer. The average precipitation in the area is 433 millimeters per year, Barnaul is an important industrial center of Western Siberia
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area. Moscow has the status of a Russian federal city, Moscow is a major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity and metropolis on Earth and it is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe, the Federation Tower, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and the Moscow International Business Center. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, the city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basils Cathedral with its brightly colored domes. Moscow is the seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city.
Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city and it is recognized as one of the citys landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. In old Russian the word meant a church administrative district. The demonym for a Moscow resident is москвич for male or москвичка for female, the name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river and its cognates include Russian, музга, muzga pool, Lithuanian and Latvian, mazgāt to wash, majjati to drown, mergō to dip, immerse. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa, the original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, Moskva, in a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed, it became a colloquial name for Russia used in Western Europe in the 16th–17th centuries. From it as well came English Muscovy, various other theories, having little or no scientific ground, are now largely rejected by contemporary linguists.
The surface similarity of the name Russia with Rosh, an obscure biblical tribe or country, the oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Neolithic. Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered, on the territory of the Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River and Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. The earliest East Slavic tribes recorded as having expanded to the upper Volga in the 9th to 10th centuries are the Vyatichi and Krivichi, the Moskva River was incorporated as part of Rostov-Suzdal into the Kievan Rus in the 11th century. By AD1100, a settlement had appeared on the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. The first known reference to Moscow dates from 1147 as a place of Yuri Dolgoruky. At the time it was a town on the western border of Vladimir-Suzdal Principality
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care, and economic development. The word mission originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning act of sending or mittere, meaning to send. The word was used in light of its usage, in the Latin translation of the Bible. The term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology, a Christian missionary can be defined as one who is to witness across cultures. The Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world. Jesus instructed the apostles to make disciples of all nations and this verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work. The New Testament-era missionary outreach of the Christian church from the time of St Paul expanded throughout the Roman Empire and beyond to Persia, in 596, Pope Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian Mission into England.
In their turn, Christians from Ireland and from Britain became prominent in converting the inhabitants of central Europe, about the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans started moving into Asia and the Far East. The Portuguese sent missions into Africa and these are some of the most well-known missions in history. While some missions accompanied imperialism and oppression, others were relatively peaceful, contemporary Christian missionaries argue that working for justice forms a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel, and observe the principles of inculturation in their missionary work. Over time, the Vatican gradually established a church structure in the mission areas, often starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures. The two 9th-century saints Cyril and Methodius had extensive success in central Europe. The Byzantines expanded their work in Ukraine after a mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans in the 7th century, Orthodox missionaries worked successfully among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries, founding the Estonian Orthodox Church.
The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century, the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, to minister to the Native Americans. Quaker publishers of truth visited Boston and other mid-17th century colonies, the Danish government began the first organized Protestant mission work through its College of Missions, established in 1714. This funded and directed Lutheran missionaries such as Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg in Tranquebar, India and he got to know a slave from the Danish colony in the West Indies. Within thirty years, Moravian missionaries had become active on every continent, and they are famous for their selfless work, living as slaves among the slaves and together with the Native Americans, the Delaware and Cherokee Indian tribes
Before the establishment of patriarchs, metropolitan was the highest episcopal rank in the Eastern rites of the Church. They presided over synods of bishops, and were granted privileges by canon law. The Early Church structure generally followed the Roman imperial practice, with one bishop ruling each city, the bishop of the provincial capital, the metropolitan, enjoyed certain rights over other bishops in the province, called suffragans. The other bishops are known as suffragan bishops, the metropolitan is obliged to request the pallium, a symbol of the power that, in communion with the Church of Rome, he possesses over his ecclesiastical province. This holds even if he had the pallium in another metropolitan see and it is the responsibility of the metropolitan, with the consent of the majority of the suffragan bishops to call a provincial council, decide where to convene it, and determine the agenda. It is his prerogative to preside over the provincial council, no provincial council can be called if the metropolitan see is vacant.
As of April 2006,508 archdioceses were headed by metropolitan archbishops,27 archbishops lead an extant archdiocese, but were not metropolitans, see Catholic Church hierarchy for the distinctions. In those Eastern Catholic Churches that are headed by a patriarch, similarly, a metropolitan has the right to ordain and enthrone the bishops of his province. The metropolitan is to be commemorated in the liturgies celebrated within his province, a major archbishop is defined as the metropolitan of a certain see who heads an autonomous Eastern Church not of patriarchal rank. The canon law of such a Church differs only slightly from that regarding a patriarchal Church, there are autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches consisting of a single province and headed by a metropolitan. In his autonomous Church it is for him to ordain and enthrone bishops, in the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the title of metropolitan is used variously, in terms of rank and jurisdiction. In terms of rank, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches metropolitans are ranked above archbishops in precedence, primates of autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches below patriarchal rank are generally designated as archbishops.
In the Greek Orthodox Churches, archbishops are ranked above metropolitans in precedence, some Eastern Orthodox Churches have functioning metropolitans on the middle level of church administration. In Romanian Orthodox Church there are six regional metropolitans who are the chairmen of their respective synods of bishops, for example, Metropolitan of Oltenia has regional jurisdiction over four dioceses. On the other hand, in some Eastern Orthodox Churches title of metropolitan is only honorary, in Serbian Orthodox Church, honorary title of metropolitan is given to diocesan bishops of some important historical sees. For example, diocesan bishop of the Eparchy of Montenegro and the Littoral is given the title of metropolitan. Diocesan bishop of the Eparchy of Dabar-Bosnia is given the title of metropolitan. Non-canonical Eastern Orthodox Churches generally use metropolitan title according to traditions of usage in Churches from which they were split
Kazan is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,143,535, it is the eighth most populous city in Russia, Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia. The Kazan Kremlin is a World Heritage Site, in April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan the right to brand itself as the Third Capital of Russia. In 2009 it was chosen as the Sports capital of Russia, in 2015, Kazan was visited by 2.1 million tourists, which is a 20% increase in comparison with 2014. The Kazan Kremlin was visited by 1.5 million tourists in 2015 and hotel, the origin of the name Kazan is uncertain. The most accepted legends derive it from the Bulgar word qazan, one legend claims that the city was named after the river Kazanka, which was named after the son of a Bulgar governor dropped a copper cauldron into it. Other local legends, including research by the Tatar scholar Shigabetdin Marjani, if there was a Bulgar city on the site, estimates of the date of its foundation range from the early 11th century to the late 13th century.
It was a border post between Volga Bulgaria and two Finnic tribes, the Mari and the Udmurt, another vexatious question is where the citadel was built originally. The oldest of these seems to be the Kremlin, if Kazan existed in the 11th and 12th centuries, it could have been a stop on a Volga trade route from Scandinavia to Baghdad. It was a center, and possibly a major city for Bulgar settlers in the Kazan region. Kazan became a center of a duchy which was a dependency of the Golden Horde, two centuries later, in the 1430s, Kipchak descendants of Genghis Khan, such as Ghiasetdin of Kazan, usurped power from its Bolghar dynasty. Some Tatars went to Lithuania, brought by Vytautas the Great, in 1438, after the destruction of the Golden Horde, Kazan became the capital of the powerful Khanate of Kazan. The city bazaar, Taş Ayaq became the most important trade center in the region, craft-based manufacturing thrived, as the city gained a reputation for its leather and gold goods, as well as for the opulence of its palaces and mosques.
The citadel and Bolaq channel were reconstructed, giving the city a strong defensive capacity, the Russians managed to occupy the city briefly several times. Kazan Khanate was making constant plundering raids on Russia, slavery in Kazan Khanate was legal. The number of slaves was up to 10% of the population, most of the slaves were Russian people who were captured during raids. All captured men were forced to turn Mohammedan, otherwise they could be killed or sold into slavery to other Muslim countries, as a result of the Siege of Kazan in 1552, Russia under Ivan the Terrible conquered the city and massacred the majority of the population. Also as a result of the Siege of Kazan 8,000 slaves were set free, in spite of the fact that under the treaty of 1551 all Russian slaves must be released Kazan Khanate still kept a lot of Russian slaves
Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius
The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius is the most important Russian monastery and the spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church. The monastery is situated in the town of Sergiyev Posad, about 70 km to the north-east from Moscow by the leading to Yaroslavl. The monastery was founded in 1337 by one of the most venerated Russian saints, Sergius of Radonezh, early development of the monastic community is well documented in contemporary lives of Sergius and his disciples. In 1355, Sergius introduced a charter which required the construction of buildings, such as refectory, kitchen. This charter was a model for Sergius numerous followers who founded more than 400 cloisters all over Russia, including the celebrated Solovetsky and Simonov monasteries. St. Sergius supported Dmitri Donskoi in his struggle against the Tatars, at the outbreak of the battle, Peresvet died in a single combat against a Tatar bogatyr. The monastery was devastated by fire, when a Tatar unit raided the area in 1408, St. Sergius was declared patron saint of the Russian state in 1422.
The same year the first stone cathedral was built by a team of Serbian monks who had found refuge in the monastery after the Battle of Kosovo, the relics of St. Sergius still may be seen in this cathedral, dedicated to the Holy Trinity. The greatest icon painters of medieval Russia, Andrei Rublev and Daniil Chyorny, were summoned to decorate the cathedral with frescoes, Muscovite royals were baptized in this cathedral and held thanksgiving services here. In 1476, Ivan III invited several Pskovian masters to build the church of the Holy Spirit and this graceful structure is one of the few remaining examples of a Russian church topped with a belltower. The interior contains the earliest specimens of the use of glazed tiles for decoration, in the early 16th century, Vasily III added the Nikon annex and the Serapion tent, where several of Sergius disciples were interred. It took 26 years to construct the six-pillared Assumption Cathedral, which was commissioned by Ivan the Terrible in 1559, the cathedral is much larger than its model and namesake in the Moscow Kremlin.
The magnificent iconostasis of the 16th–18th centuries features Simon Ushakovs masterpiece, interior walls were painted with violet and blue frescoes by a team of Yaroslavl masters in 1684. The vault contains burials of Boris Godunov, his family and several 20th-century patriarchs, as the monastery grew into one of the wealthiest landowners in Russia, the woods where it had stood were cut over and a village sprang up near the monastery walls. It gradually developed into the town of Sergiyev Posad. The cloister itself was a centre of chronicle-writing and icon painting. A shell-hole in the gates is preserved as a reminder of Wladyslaw IVs abortive siege in 1618. By the end of the 17th century, when young Peter I twice found refuge within the monastery from his enemies and these include a small baroque palace of the patriarchs, noted for its luxurious interiors, and a royal palace, with its facades painted in checkerboard design