China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Portuguese Macau refers to Macau's history from the establishment of Portuguese settlement in mid-16th century to the end of Portuguese colonial rule in 1999. Macau was both the last European holding in China. Macau's history under Portugal can be broadly divided into three distinct political periods; the first was the establishment of the Portuguese settlement in 1557 until 1849. There was a system of mixed jurisdiction; the second was the colonial period, which scholars place from 1849 to 1974. As Macau's importance among other territories grew within the Portuguese Empire, Portuguese sovereignty over Macau was strengthened and it became a constitutional part of Portuguese territory. Chinese sovereignty during this era was nominal; the third was the transition period or post-colonial period, which occurred after the 1974 revolution in Portugal until 1999. Wu Zhiliang more identified six periods: The early relationship between the Chinese and Portuguese The Senado period The decline of the Senado The colonial period The district autonomy period The transition period The use of Macau as a commercial port dates back to 1535 during the Ming dynasty, when local authorities established a custom house, collecting 20,000 taels in annual custom duties.
Sources call this payment a rent or bribe. In 1554, the custom house was moved to Lampacao due to threats of piracy. After the Portuguese helped the Chinese defeat the pirates, they were allowed to settle in Macau. By 1557, they established a permanent settlement. In 1573, the Chinese built the Barrier Gate to regulate trade; the rent and boundary delimitation showed both the Portuguese subsidiary position to the Ming government and China's tacit acceptance of Macau's de facto foreign occupation. By 1583, the enclave had a municipal government with a Senate Council; the Kingdom of Portugal declared a right of sovereignty over Macau in 1783. The 1822 constitution included Macau as an integral part of its territory. A Portuguese royal decree on 20 November 1845 declared Macau a free port. In 1846, Ferreira do Amaral was appointed governor, having been given a mandate to assert Portuguese sovereignty, he terminated the rent, closed the custom house headed by the hoppo, imposed taxes on the Chinese residents, placed them under Portuguese law.
The Senate opposed his actions, stating that establishing full control by force was an "unfair and disloyal gesture". Amaral called them unpatriotic, he told Chinese officials. Amaral's policies evoked much resentment, he was assassinated by Chinese men on 22 August 1849; this led the Portuguese to capture the Passaleão fort beyond the Barrier Gate three days later. On 26 March 1887, the Lisbon Protocol was signed, in which China recognised the "perpetual occupation and government of Macao" by Portugal who in turn, agreed never to surrender Macau to a third party without Chinese agreement; this was reaffirmed in the Treaty of Peking on 1 December. A growing nationalist movement in China voiced disapproval of the treaty and questioned its validity. Although the Nationalist government in China vowed to abrogate the "unequal treaties", Macau's status remained unchanged; the 1928 Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Friendship and Trade reaffirmed Portuguese administration over Macau. In 1945, after the end of extraterritorial rights in China, the Nationalists called for the liquidation of foreign control over Hong Kong and Macau, but they were too preoccupied in the civil war with the Communists to fulfil their goals.
After the 1974 revolution in Portugal, a new decolonisation policy paved the way for Macau's retrocession to the People's Republic of China. Portugal offered to withdraw from Macau in late 1974, but China declined in favour of a time because it sought to preserve international and local confidence in Hong Kong, still under British rule. In January 1975, Portugal recognised the PRC as the sole government of China. On 17 February 1976, the Portuguese parliament passed the Organic Statute of Macau, which called it a "territory under Portuguese administration"; this term was put in Portugal's 1976 constitution, replacing Macau's designation as an overseas province. Unlike previous constitutions, Macau was not included as an integral part of Portuguese territory; the 1987 Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration called Macau a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration". Full sovereignty was transferred in a ceremony on 20 December 1999. Since 1657, the office of Captain-Major was appointed by the King of Portugal or on his behalf by the Viceroy of India to any fidalgo or gentleman who excelled in services to the Crown.
The Captain-Major was head of the fleets and emporia from Malacca to Japan, the official representative of Portugal to Japan and China. Since he was away from Macau for long periods, an embryonic municipal government formed in 1560 to resolve matters. Three representatives chosen by vote held the title of eleitos and could perform administrative and judicial duties. By 1583, the Senate Council was formed called the Loyal Senate, it consisted of three aldermen, two judges, one city procurator. Portuguese citizens in Macau elected six electors who would select the senators; the most serious issues were dealt with by convening the General Council of Ecclesiastic Authorities and leading citizens to decide what measures should be taken. After several Dutch invasions, the Sena
Macau Liaison Office
The Macau Liaison Office known as the Central People's Government Liaison Office of the Macao Special Administrative Region is the representative office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China in Macau. Its counterpart body in Mainland China is the Office of the Macau Special Administrative Region in Beijing, it is one of the three agencies of the Central People's Government in the Macao Special Administrative Region. The other two are the Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Macao Special Administrative Region and the People's Liberation Army Macau Garrison; the building of the Macau Liaiso Office is a threat to one of the Macao world heritage sites Guia Lighthouse since 2007. The office was established on January 18, 2000; this superseded the former branch of the Xinhua News Agency. The office is located in Xinhua Building; the new building opened on January 16, 2010 at Freguesia da Sé. When Macau was under Portuguese administration, the People's Republic of China was unofficially represented by the Nanguang trading company.
This became known as China Central Enterprise Nam Kwong. Established in 1949 to promote trade ties between Macau and mainland China, it operated as the unofficial representative and "shadow government" of the People's Republic in relation to the Portuguese administration, it served to challenge the rival "Special Commissariat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China" in the territory, which represented the Kuomintang government on Taiwan. This was closed after the pro-Communist 12-3 incident in 1966, after which the Portuguese authorities agreed to ban all Kuomintang activities in Macau. Following the Carnation Revolution, Portugal redefined Macau as a "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration" in 1976. However, Lisbon did not establish diplomatic relations with Beijing until 1979. In 1984, Nam Kwong was split into political and trading arms. On 21 September 1987, a Macau branch of Xinhua News Agency was established which, as in Hong Kong, became Beijing's unofficial representative, replacing Nam Kwong.
On 18 January 2000, a month after the transfer of sovereignty over Macau, the Macau branch became the Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Macau Special Administrative Region. In 2007, local residents of Macao wrote a letter to UNESCO complaining about construction projects around world heritage Guia Lighthouse, including the headquarter of the Liaison Office. UNESCO issued a warning to the Macau government, which led former Chief Executive Edmund Ho to sign a notice regulating height restrictions on buildings around the site. In 2015, the New Macau Association submitted a report to UNESCO claiming that the government had failed to protect Macao's cultural heritage against threats by urban development projects. One of the main examples of the report is that the headquarter of the Liaison Office of the Central People's Government, located on the Guia foothill and obstructs the view of the Guia Fortress. One year Roni Amelan, a spokesman from UNESCO Press service, said that the UNESCO has asked China for information and is still waiting for a reply.
In 2016, the Macau government approved an 81-meter construction limit for the residential project, which goes against the city’s regulations on the height of buildings around world heritage site Guia Lighthouse. Professor at Stanford University Dr. Ming K. Chan and professor at University of Macau Dr. Eilo Yu commented the Guia Lighthouse case proved that the Macao government had ignored the conservation of heritage in urban planning. Zhou Ding Guo Dongpo Wang Qiren Bai Zhijian Li Gang Wang Zhimin Zheng Xiaosong Office of the Macau Special Administrative Region in Beijing Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region One Country, Two Systems Official website Future of historic Guia Lighthouse 3D video made by an anonymous architect shows the future of Outer Harbor with several tall buildings in front of Guia Lighthouse
Consular missions in Macau
There are 13 consular missions in Macau, of which 4 are Consulates-General and 9 are Honorary Consuls.50 Consulates-General and 7 Honorary Consulates in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region are accredited to Macau. Of the 9 Honorary Consulates in Macau, 2 are subordinate to Consulates-General in Hong Kong; the Honorary Consulate of Portugal in Hong Kong is subordinate to the Consulate-General of Portugal in Macau. During the Second World War, when Macau was under Portuguese rule, there was a British Consul, John Pownall Reeves, who served between June 1941 and August 1946, he remained there following the fall of British-ruled Hong Kong to the Japanese, as Portugal was neutral, helping 9000 British subjects who had become refugees from Japanese-occupied colony. The British Consulate, which operated a Hong Kong Government Permit Office, was maintained in Macau until 1967, following political unrest the previous December, it was targeted by pro-Communist demonstrators who attempted to make the Consul, Norman Ions, repeat anti-British and anti-Portuguese slogans, before it was evacuated and closed.
Angola Mozambique Portugal Philippines Cape Verde Estonia Grenada Guinea Guinea-Bissau Mali Niger Peru United Kingdom The following countries, which have diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, do not presently have representation in either Macau or Hong Kong, but have proposed establishing consulates: Antigua and Barbuda Armenia Timor LesteThe following countries, which have diplomatic relations with Taiwan, do not have consulates either Macau or Hong Kong Solomon Islands The Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the Macao Special Administrative Region is the representative office of the central government of the People's Republic of China in Macau. It was established on September 21 1987 as Xinhua News Agency, it adopted its present name on January 18 2000. The Taipei Economic and Cultural Office, known as the Taipei Trade and Tourism Office in Macau between 1989 and 1999 and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Center in Macau between 1999 and 2011, is a de facto mission of the Republic of China in Macau.
Foreign relations of Macau Consular missions in Hong Kong Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Macao Special Administrative Region List of Consular Posts & Officially Recognized Representatives accredited to the Macao SAR
South Sudan–United States relations
South Sudan–United States relations are the bilateral relations between the Republic of South Sudan and the United States of America. The United States recognized South Sudan on 9 July 2011, the same day they declared independence; the United States Embassy in Juba, South Sudan, was first established on the same day with the former consulate, opened in 2005 in Juba being upgraded to the status of an embassy. The chief of mission was Chargé d'Affaires R. Barrie Walkley, pending the appointment of an ambassador to South Sudan. On 19 October 2011, Susan D. Page was confirmed as the first United States ambassador to South Sudan. In 2012, President Obama found that the United States could provide military assistance and equipment to South Sudan; this was soon followed by a team of five American officers to advise the South Sudanese military. Obama named Donald E. Booth as his special envoy for Sudan and South Sudan on 28 August 2013. In December 2016, USA drafted a resolution, that failed to pass, which would have implemented an arms embargo and more sanctions, due to signs in South Sudan of possible genocide.
UN alliterated this by warning South Sudan of possible genocide. In 2017, the USA's UN ambassador, Nikki Haley, criticized South Sudan for creating a "man made" famine. While South Sudan has not been its own sovereign country for a long time, President Salva Kiir has established rapport with the United States. Then-President of the United States Barack Obama recognized South Sudan the day it declared independence from Sudan, current President Donald Trump fostered relations with Kiir before he won the presidency in 2016. While relations between the two countries have changed from support to subtle threats the United States has been open about both the right to self-determination and insistence that humanitarian aid to South Sudanese affected by the civil war reach its victims. In August 2016, when Donald Trump was campaigning for the United States presidency, the South Sudanese government led an attack on Western aid workers, which included American humanitarians. Following this attack, the U.
S. and other countries in the U. N. Security Council moved to provide “4,000 more U. N. helmets to secure the capital.” While Donald Trump has shifted views on leadership and the status quo in South Sudan many times, the Obama administration was key to the self-determination of the South Sudanese people. In November 2016, when Donald Trump became President of the United States, many nations did not welcome the change. South Sudan, on the other hand, was pleased. At the time, South Sudan had dealt with three years of civil war and viewed Trump’s victory as a new and possible way to end the conflict. New U. S. policies on South Sudan were something that Tor Deng Mawien, a South Sudanese presidential advisor on decentralization affairs, was “looking forward” to. In March 2016, before Trump had won the election, South Sudanese leader Salva Kiir called Trump to wish him success, saying that if he was elected the two countries would work to gain back the mutual trust lost when Barack Obama was president.
While Kiir congratulated Trump on his victory, U. S. ambassador to South Sudan stated that, “there is no expectation that the United States government will change its foreign policy in South Sudan despite the election of Trump. Many South Sudanese supported Trump, believing that his presidency would result in Trump working towards a solution to end the civil war rather than its own interests. However, many South Sudanese viewed Obama’s presidency as “lukewarm” and “doing either no good or bad to the people of South Sudan.” The South Sudanese are “already in despair, so all we can hope for is a positive response from Trump.”In October 2017, U. S. Ambassador to the U. N. Nikki Haley was the first senior member of Donald Trump’s administration to visit South Sudan. At this point, South Sudan had been in a civil war for around four years, according to Haley, “The United States was at a crossroads and that every decision going forward was going to be based on actions.” Haley expressed that Americans were disappointed in Kiir’s leadership in South Sudan.
In addition to pressure from the U. S. the United Nations alleged ethnic cleansing on behalf of Kiir’s government and a “fertile ground” for genocide, which Kiir’s government denied. Trump imposed sanctions on three South Sudanese in September 2017 and expressed that the way to regain trust of the government is through providing care for affected citizens; the U. S. demanded that Kiir let “full and consistent humanitarian aid access” into the country, as well as an unspecified timeline of Kiir’s actions, to further positive relations between the two countries. In December 2018, Donald Trump officiated a controversial relocation of the U. S. embassy in Israel, moving it from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Following the decision, a foreign newspaper published a report saying that South Sudan “lauded” the decision. In addition, it was said that a South Sudanese embassy had congratulated both Trump and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on the decision, a high-ranking South Sudanese presidential aide had spoken to the newspaper supporting Trump’s decision.
However, an official statement said otherwise. According to the South Sudan Presidential Press Unit, the government “will not make any specific statement or take any position on the decision of President Trump.” The government views the newspaper that published the report as “fabricated and false.” South Sudan expressed that their main priority is to find an inclusive solution to their country’s conflict, not the affairs of other countries. In December 2018, Donald Trump proposed a new Africa strategy, being specific on South Sudan; the country ended a violent five
Tanzania–United States relations
Tanzania – United States relations are bilateral relations between Tanzania and the United States. Much of the relationship between Tanzania and the United States has been framed first by the Cold War, more in the context of US policies toward Africa and development. At times relations between the two countries have been tense, though in recent years the two countries have established a growing partnership. Much early tension in the relationship is rooted in Tanzania's interests in promoting anti-colonial liberation forces in southern Africa, the United States interests in protecting markets and business interests in Africa; these interests were in conflict between 1961, the late 1980s. Since the late 1980s, relations between the United States and Tanzania have improved as a result of mutual interests in debt relief, successive refugee crises, the liberation of southern African countries, an improving Tanzanian economy. Terrorists associated with Al Qaeda bombed the U. S. Embassies in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi, Kenya, on August 7, 1998.
This act horrified Tanzanians and Americans alike and drew condemnation from around the world. In the aftermath of the bombing, Tanzania began to receive financial aide from the US for anti-terrorist efforts and police training. President Benjamin Mkapa visited the U. S. in September 1999 with a delegation of business executives, reflecting the increased level of cooperation on trade and investment issues and Tanzania's commitment to economic liberalization. President Jakaya Kikwete, elected in 2005, visited the U. S. in May 2006, meeting with Secretary of State Rice, Vice President Dick Cheney, President George W. Bush, he met President Bush in a private meeting in September 2006 In New York. Kikwete sought to broaden Tanzanian ties to the U. S. across all spheres, including political and military. The U. S. Government provides assistance to Tanzania to support programs in the areas of health, environment and development of the private sector; the U. S. Agency for International Development's program in Tanzania averages about $20 million per year, a small amount.
The Peace Corps program, which discontinued in Tanzania due to objections to the United States involvement in the Vietnam War in the 1960s, was re-established in 1979, provides assistance in education through the provision of teachers. Peace Corps is assisting in health and environment sectors. About 147 volunteers are serving in Tanzania. First Lady Laura Bush visited Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar in mid-July 2005. Principal U. S. Officials include: Ambassador--Alfonso E. Lenhardt Director, USAID--Pamela WhiteThe U. S. Embassy in Tanzania is located in Dar es Salaam; the consulate on Zanzibar was closed on June 15, 1979. Foreign relations of Tanzania Foreign relations of the United States This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Tanzania - U. S. relations Waters, Tony. Markets and Morality: America's Relations with Tanzania. African Studies Quarterly, vol. 8, no. 3
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373, adopted unanimously on 28 September 2001, is a counter-terrorism measure passed following the 11 September terrorist attacks on the United States. The resolution was adopted under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, is therefore binding on all UN member states. According to the official record of the meeting, the meeting convoked at 9:55 pm and adjourned at 10:00 pm; the five-minute meeting exemplified the Security Council's working method, in which the meeting serves only as a public announcement of a decision, reached in secret in "informal consultations." Although the United States is credited with initiating Resolution 1373, once adopted unanimously, the resolution became a common act of the Security Council, therefore all its members at the time had ownership over it. The resolution aimed to hinder terrorist groups in various ways, it recalled provisions from resolutions 1269 and 1368 concerning terrorism. UN member states were encouraged to share their intelligence on terrorist groups in order to assist in combating international terrorism.
The resolution calls on all states to adjust their national laws so that they can ratify all of the existing international conventions on terrorism. It stated that all States "should ensure that terrorist acts are established as serious criminal offences in domestic laws and regulations and that the seriousness of such acts is duly reflected in sentences served."The resolution established the Security Council's Counter Terrorism Committee to monitor state compliance with is provisions. It aimed at restricting immigration law, stating that "before granting refugee status, all States should take appropriate measures to ensure that the asylum seekers had not planned, facilitated or participated in terrorist acts. Further, States should ensure that refugee status was not abused by the perpetrators, organizers or facilitators of terrorist acts, that claims of political motivation were not recognized as grounds for refusing requests for the extradition of alleged terrorists."However, the resolution failed to define'Terrorism', the working group only added Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime of Afghanistan on the sanctions list.
This entailed the possibility that authoritarian regimes could label non-violent activities as terrorist acts, thus infringing upon basic human rights. The absence of any specific reference to human rights considerations was remedied in part by Resolution 1456 which declared that "States must ensure that any measure taken to combat terrorism comply with all their obligations under international law, should adopt such measures in accordance with international law, in particular, international human rights and humanitarian law." UN Security Council Resolution 1566 picked up loose ends from 1373 by spelling out what the Security Council sees as terrorism: criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act.
Although this definition has operative effect for the purposes of Security Council action, it does not represent a definition of "terrorism" which binds all states in international law. That is a task which could only be achieved by way of agreeing to an international treaty under the auspices of the UN General Assembly. Negotiations towards agreeing to such are ongoing, a Comprehensive Convention exists in draft form, however agreement to its exact terms, most the definition of "terrorism", remains elusive. Resolution 1566 called for the creation of a working group that will expand the list of terrorist entities under sanction beyond the Taliban and Al-Qaeda. Most states complied with the resolution, with varying willingness, but only a few of them did so by explicitly referring to the UN resolution. Russia implemented the resolution with great willingness - President of Russia Vladimir Putin translated the resolution into Russian and enacted it as domestic law by 10 January 2002 in the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No 6 On Measures Towards the Implementation of UN Security Resolution 1373.
On 1st of April 2014, the Government of Sri Lanka signed an order designating 16 organisations functioning as terrorist fronts on foreign soil freezing all assets and economic resources of those, using this resolution. Recommendations of the Counter Terrorism Committee 2008 report included increased measures concerning illegal immigration as well as: to "Promote inter-agency coordination and the exchange of counter-terrorism information at the national and international levels". Oxford University public law professor Stefan Talmon argued that this resolution is an example of the United Nations Security Council veering into legislating law in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks when its role is to apply and