Victor Lonzo Fleming was an American film director and producer. His most popular films were The Wizard of Oz, Gone with the Wind, for which he won an Academy Award for Best Director. Fleming has those same two films listed in the top 10 of the American Film Institute's 2007 AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies list. Victor Fleming was born at the Banbury Ranch near what is now La Cañada Flintridge, the son of Eva and William Richard Lonzo Fleming, he served in the photographic section during World War I, acted as chief photographer for President Woodrow Wilson in Versailles, France. He showed a mechanical aptitude early in life, he soon rose to the rank of cinematographer, working with both Dwan and D. W. Griffith, directed his first film in 1919. Many of his silent films were action movies starring Douglas Fairbanks, or Westerns; because of his robust attitude and love of outdoor sports, he became known as a "man's director". Under his direction, Vivien Leigh won the Best Actress Oscar, Hattie McDaniel won for Best Supporting Actress, Olivia De Havilland was nominated.
In 1932, Fleming directed some of the studio's most prestigious films. Red Dust and Reckless showcasing Jean Harlow, while Treasure Island and Captains Courageous brought a touch of literary distinction to boy's-own adventure stories, his two most famous films came in 1939, when The Wizard of Oz was followed by Gone With the Wind. Fleming's version of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, with Spencer Tracy, was rated below Rouben Mamoulian's 1931 pre-code version, which had starred Fredric March. Fleming's 1942 film version of John Steinbeck's Tortilla Flat starred Tracy, John Garfield, Hedy Lamarr, Frank Morgan. Other films that Fleming made with Tracy include Captains Courageous, A Guy Named Joe, Test Pilot, he directed Clark Gable in a total of five films – Red Dust, The White Sister, Test Pilot, Gone with the Wind, Adventure. He owned the Moraga Estate in Bel Air, Los Angeles, California a horse ranch. Frequent guests to his estate included Clark Gable, Vivien Leigh, Ingrid Bergman, Spencer Tracy, he died while en route to a hospital in Cottonwood, Arizona after suffering a heart attack on January 6, 1949.
His death occurred shortly after completing Joan of Arc with Ingrid Bergman, one of the few films that he did not make for MGM. Despite mixed reviews, Fleming's film version of the life of Joan received seven Academy Award nominations, winning two, it was reported in James Curtis' book Spencer Tracy: A Biography that Anne Revere once said Fleming was "violently pro-Nazi" and opposed to the United States entering World War II. According to the Fleming biography Victor Fleming: An American Movie Master, by author Michael Sragow, Fleming had once mocked the UK at the outset of World War II by taking a bet as to how long the country could withstand an attack by Germany; the accuracy of Revere's characterization of Fleming has been disputed, however. According to Victor Fleming: An American Movie Master, Revere had made her comment because she felt she had been cast in the film The Yearling over Flora Robson because Robson was British. However, at the time of the casting, Fleming was working on the film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, which featured a British producer and a cast composed of British or British Commonwealth actors.
Furthermore, Revere did not know Fleming beyond their professional relationship. Victor Fleming on IMDb Victor Fleming at AllMovie Victor Fleming at the TCM Movie Database The Real Rhett Butler – David Denby on Victor Fleming
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision; the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film; the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director; some film directors started as screenwriters, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches; some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely.
Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films. A film director's task is to envisage a way to translate a screenplay into a formed film, to realize this vision. To do this, they oversee the technical elements of film production; this entails organizing the film crew in such a way to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus in the stressful, fast-paced environment of a film set. Moreover, it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary.
Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure", it adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again, if at all. The sole superiors of the director are the producer and the studio, financing the film, although sometimes the director can be a producer of the same film; the role of a director differs from producers in that producers manage the logistics and business operations of the production, whereas the director is tasked with making creative decisions. The director must work within the restrictions of the film's budget and the demands of the producer and studio. Directors play an important role in post-production. While the film is still in production, the director sends "dailies" to the film editor and explains his or her overall vision for the film, allowing the editor to assemble an editor's cut.
In post-production, the director works with the editor to edit the material into the director's cut. Well-established directors have the "final cut privilege", meaning that they have the final say on which edit of the film is released. For other directors, the studio can order further edits without the director's permission; the director is one of the few positions that requires intimate involvement during every stage of film production. Thus, the position of film director is considered to be a stressful and demanding one, it has been said that "20-hour days are not unusual". Some directors take on additional roles, such as producing, writing or editing. Under European Union law, the film director is considered the "author" or one of the authors of a film as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a film director's film reflects the director's personal creative vision, as if they were the primary "auteur". In spite of—and sometimes because of—the production of the film as part of an industrial process, the auteur's creative voice is distinct enough to shine through studio interference and the collective process.
Some film directors started as screenwriters, film producers or actors. Several American cinematographers have become directors, including Barry Sonnenfeld the Coen brothers' DP. Other film directors have attended a film school to get a bachelors degree studying cinema. Film students study the basic skills used in making a film; this includes, for example, shot lists and storyboards, protocols of dealing with professional actors, reading scripts. Some film schools are equipped with post-production facilities. Besides basic technical and logistical skills, students receive education on the nature of professional relationships that occur during film production. A full degree course can be designed for up to five years of studying. Future directors complete short films during their enrollment; the National Film School of Denmark has the student's final projects presented on national TV. Some film schools retain the rights for their students' works. Many directors prepared for making feature films by working in television.
The German Film and Television Academy Berlin cooperate
Corinne Anita Loos was an American screenwriter and author known for her successful novel, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. She became arguably the first-ever staff scriptwriter in 1912 when D. W. Griffith put her on the payroll at Triangle Film Corporation, she went on to write many of the Douglas Fairbanks films, as well as the stage adaptation of Colette’s Gigi. Anita Loos was born Corinne Anita Loos in Sisson, California, to Richard Beers Loos and Minerva "Minnie" Ellen Smith. Loos had two siblings: Gladys and Harry Clifford, a physician/co-founder of the Ross-Loos Medical Group. On pronouncing her name, Loos said, "The family has always used the correct French pronunciation, lohse. However, I myself pronounce my name as if it were spelled luce, since most people pronounce it that way and it was too much trouble to correct them." Loos' father, R. Beers Loos, founded a tabloid newspaper for which her mother, did most of the work of a publisher. In 1892, when Loos was four years old, the family moved to San Francisco, where Beers Loos bought the newspaper The Dramatic Event, a veiled version of the UK's Police Gazette, with money Minerva borrowed from her father.
By age six Loos knew she wanted to be a writer and while living in San Francisco she followed her alcoholic father on exciting fishing trips to the pier. Exploring the city's underbelly and making friends with the locals; this fed into Loos' lifelong fascination with loose women. In 1897, at their father's urging and her sister performed in the San Francisco stock company production of Quo Vadis. Gladys died at eight of appendicitis. Anita continued appearing on stage, being the family's breadwinner, but Beers Loos' spendthrift ways caught up with them, in 1903, he took an offer to manage a theater company in San Diego. Anita performed in her father's company and under another name with a more legitimate stock company. After graduating from San Diego High, Loos devised a method of cobbling together published reports of Manhattan social life, mailing them to a friend in New York who would submit them under their own name for publication in San Diego, her father had turned out some one-act plays for the stock company, encouraged Anita to work in the field herself.
She wrote a successful piece for which she received periodic royalties. In 1911, the theater was running one-reel films after each night's performances, she sent her first attempt at a screenplay, He Was A College Boy, to the Biograph Company, for which she received $25. The New York Hat, starring Mary Pickford and Lionel Barrymore and directed by D. W. Griffith, was her third screenplay and the first to be produced. Loos dredged real life and real situations for her scenarios: she dished up her father's cronies, her brother's friends and the rich vacationers from the San Diego resorts. By 1912, Loos had sold scripts to both the Lubin studios. Between 1912 and 1915, she turned out 105 scripts, only four of which went unproduced, she would write 200 scenarios before she saw the inside of a studio. In 1915, trying to escape her mother's influence and objections to a career in Hollywood, Loos married Frank Pallma, Jr. the son of the band conductor. But Frank proved to be penniless and dull – after six months, Anita sent him out for hair pins, while he was gone she packed her bags and went home to her mother.
After that, Minnie rethought her position on a Hollywood career. Accompanied by her mother, Anita joined the film colony in Hollywood where Griffith put Loos on the payroll for Triangle Film Corporation at $75 a week with a bonus for every produced script. Many of the scripts she turned out for Griffith went unproduced; some he considered unfilmable because the "laughs were all in the lines, there was no way to get them onto the screen", but he encouraged her to continue, because reading them amused him. Her first screen credit was for an adaptation of Macbeth in which her billing came right after Shakespeare's; when Griffith asked her to write the subtitling for his epic Intolerance, she traveled to New York City for the first time to attend its premiere. Instead of returning to Hollywood, Loos spent the fall of 1916 in New York and met with Frank Crowninshield of Vanity Fair, they had an instant rapport and Loos remained a Vanity Fair contributor for several decades. Loos returned to California as Griffith was leaving Triangle to make longer films, she joined director and future husband John Emerson for a string of successful Douglas Fairbanks movies.
Loos and company realized that Douglas Fairbanks' acrobatics were an extension of his effervescent personality and parlayed his natural athletic ability into swashbuckling adventure roles. His Picture in the Papers was noted for its wry style of discursive and witty subtitles: "My most popular subtitle introduced the name of a new character; the name was something like this:'Count Xxerkzsxxv.' There was a note,'To those of you who read titles aloud, you can't pronounce the Count's name. You can only think it.' "The five films Loos wrote. When Fairbanks was offered a sweetheart deal with Famous Players-Lasky, he took the team of Emerson-Loos with him at the high income of $500 a week. During this time Loos and Emerson collaborated well together, Loos was getting as much publicity as either Lillian Gish or Mary Pickford. Photoplay magazine labeled her "The Soubrette of Satire". In 1918, Famous Players-Lasky offered the couple a four-picture deal in New York for more money than they had been making with t
John Emerson (filmmaker)
John Emerson was an American stage actor, playwright and director of silent films. Emerson was married to Anita Loos from June 1919 until his death. Born and educated in Ohio, Emerson's earliest documented acting credits date from 1904, however like D. W. Griffith he played in regional stock companies before then. By 1912—the earliest known year for his involvement in film, as a writer—Emerson was working as a director and writer on the Broadway stage. After periods with American Film Manufacturing Company, where he worked with Allan Dwan and Famous Players-Lasky, Emerson collaborated with George Nichols in making Ghosts, a Griffith production made for Reliance-Majestic Studios during the waning days of work on The Birth of a Nation; the result impressed Griffith to such an extent that Emerson stayed on as Reliance-Majestic changed its name to Fine Arts Film Company and came under the Triangle Film Corporation banner. John Emerson became one Triangle's best-known directors after the partnership with writer Anita Loos began in 1916.
Emerson seemed to lose interest in direction around 1919, afterward worked as a producer and writer, though in projects more associated with Loos' taste than his own. Loos wrote extensively, disparagingly, of Emerson in her memoirs, but in her early career insisted on maintaining the appearance of partnership with Emerson if there was none. Emerson's years were marked by mental illness and long institutionalizations. Although Anita Loos' memoirs may not paint Emerson in the most flattering of terms, the silent films he directed from 1915–19 were important ones. Most of them survive, several—notably The Mystery of the Leaping Fish and The Americano—remain among the most seen films from this period, he was president of the Actors' Equity Association from 1920 to 1928. Geronimo's Last Raid Ghosts Old Heidelberg The Failure His Picture in the Papers The Flying Torpedo Macbeth The Mystery of the Leaping Fish Less Than the Dust The Americano In Again, Out Again Wild and Woolly The Isle of Conquest A Virtuous Vamp Dangerous Business Mama's Affair Woman's Place Red Hot Romance Dulcy Camille Gentlemen Prefer Blondes The Fall of Eve The Struggle San Francisco Saratoga John Emerson on IMDb John Emerson at the Internet Broadway Database 1920 passport photo of John Emerson Emerson, John.
Breaking into the Movies. Philadelphia: G. W. Jacobs
Triangle Film Corporation
Triangle Film Corporation was a major American motion-picture studio, founded in July 1915 in Culver City and terminated 7 years in 1922. The studio was founded in July 1915 by Harry and Roy Aitken, two brothers from the Wisconsin farmlands who pioneered the studio system of Hollywood's Golden Age. Harry was D. W. Griffith's partner at Reliance-Majestic Studios. Triangle was envisioned as a prestige studio based on the producing abilities of filmmakers D. W. Griffith, Thomas Ince and Mack Sennett. On November 23, 1915, the Triangle Film Corporation opened a state-of-the-art motion picture theater in Massillon, Ohio; the Lincoln Theater is still an operational movie theater owned and operated by the Massillon Lion's Club. The theater has been restored and is host to a yearly film festival dedicated to the films of Dorothy and Lillian Gish; the studio suffered from bloat. By 1917, producer Adolph Zukor had taken control of all of the studio's assets. In June 1917, Thomas H. Ince and Mack Sennett sold their remaining interests.
Triangle continued to produce films until 1919. Films using the Triangle name were still released to the general public until 1923. With the exception of Oh, Mabel Behave, all of Triangle's films were released between 1915 and 1919. Most films were made on the West Coast, but some of Triangle's production took place in Fort Lee, New Jersey. La Triangle - Cinéma: Archives and history at the Cinémathèque française Strategic failure of the Triangle - Marc Vernet
Wilfred Lucas was a Canadian-born American stage actor who found success in film as an actor and screenwriter. Wilfred Van Norman Lucas was born in Norfolk County, Ontario on January 30, 1871, most in the township of Townsend where at the time his father served as a Wesleyan Methodist minister, he was the youngest of three sons to be raised by Daniel Lucas and the former E. Adeline Reynolds, in Townsend and Montreal, Quebec. Lucas attended the High School of Montreal and McGill University before immigrating to America in the late 1880s, his early career there was that of a baritone singer performing at church functions and at small venues. Wilfred Lucas made a name for himself performing in light and grand opera in America and abroad, he made his Broadway debut on April 4, 1904, at the Savoy Theater playing in both the curtain raiser "The Blue Grass Handicap" and The Superstition of Sue in which he played Sue's brother, Percy Flage. Following his 1906 role in the successful play The Chorus Lady, Lucas was recruited to the fledgling Biograph Studios by D. W. Griffith.
At the time, the film business was still looked down upon by many members of the theatrical community. In her 1925 book titled When the Movies Were Young, Griffith's wife, actress Linda Arvidson, told the story of the early days at Biograph Studios. In it, she referred to Lucas as the "first real grand actor, democratic enough to work in Biograph movies." In 1908 Lucas made his motion picture debut in Griffith's The Greaser's Gauntlet, appearing in more than 50 of these short films over the next two years. In 1910 while still acting, he wrote the script for Griffith's film Sunshine Sue, followed by many more scripts by 1924. Lucas began directing in 1912 with Griffith on An Outcast Among Outcasts, directed another 44 films over the next 20 years. In early 1916 he starred as John Carter in Acquitted, about which Photoplay wrote, "No single performance in the records of active photography has surpassed his visualization of the humble book-keeper in "Acquitted". In 1916 he appeared in D. W. Griffith's film Intolerance.
Part of the group of Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood, Lucas became friends and sometimes starred with Mary Pickford, Sam De Grasse, Marie Dressler. Canadian-born director Mack Sennett hired him to both direct and act in a large number of films at his Keystone Studios. Wilfred Lucas made the successful transition from silent film to sound. While working in Hollywood, in 1926 he returned to the stage, he appeared as a foil for Laurel and Hardy in their feature films Pardon Us and A Chump at Oxford. During his long career, Wilfred Lucas appeared in more than 375 films. Although for a time he was cast in leading roles, he became successful as secondary and minor characters, making a good living in the film industry for more than three decades. On October 10, 1898, Lucas, by a member of a stock company headed by actor James Durkin, wed fellow cast member Louise Perine at Elmira, New York; the couple went on to have two sons, Wilfred "Irving" Lucas, Kirke LaShelle Lucas, one daughter, Alice Van Norman Lucas, before their divorce sometime before 1910.
Five years after he married Louise, Lucas became an American citizen at a ceremony held in San Bernardino, California. While working at Biograph Studios, Wilfred Lucas met and married actress/screenwriter Bess Meredyth with whom he had a son. John Meredyth Lucas became a successful writer and director including a number of episodes of Mannix and Star Trek. John Lucas wrote about his sometimes strained relationship with his father after his parents divorced in his book Eighty Odd years in Hollywood: Memoir of a Career in Film and Television Wilfred Lucas died on December 13, 1940, at Los Angeles and was interred at the Chapel of the Pines Crematory Wilfred Lucas on IMDb Wilfred Lucas at the TCM Movie Database Wilfred Lucas at Find a Grave
George Hill (director)
George William Hill was an American film director and cinematographer. He began his film career at age 13 as a stagehand with director D. W. Griffith. A cinematographer of silent films known for his skill in lighting female stars, he worked on a series of independently produced features for Mae Marsh and others in the years following World War I and was recruited by the burgeoning major studios to be a director, beginning in 1920. Hill directed The Midnight Express, which the New York Times noted was "...a far better production than one is apt to gather from the title..." and that "...the story is unfolded with skill and imagination."Through the following years, Hill's directing career began to gain serious traction and his assignments allowed him access to top stars such as Marion Davies and Jackie Coogan. Hill directed Lon Chaney's biggest money-maker. Four years Wallace Beery headed the cast of one of Hill's most memorable films, The Big House, a stark prison drama, regarded by critics as a major achievement in early sound film artistry.
For this film, many others, he worked with his eventual wife, screenwriter Frances Marion. Min and Bill paired Beery and Marie Dressler as alcoholic tugboat owner-operators, again with a script by Marion; this phenomenally popular film made both Beery and Dressler into Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's two top stars for the next couple of years, formed the basis for many stereotypical routines about hard-nosed seagoing men. Hill was injured in a June 1934 car accident just when his career was beginning to peak, it is rumored that his injuries were the root cause of his apparent suicide two months on August 10, 1934, his body was found in his Venice beach home with a self-inflicted gunshot wound. At the time of his death, Hill was preparing to direct, had done some shooting in China for, The Good Earth, produced at MGM by Irving Thalberg, an Oscar-winning film released to great acclaim in 1937; the Sea Wolf The Flying Torpedo Less Than the Dust Polly of the Circus Held Up for the Makin's The Foolish Virgin Zander the Great Tell It to the Marines The Callahans and the Murphys The Flying Fleet The Big House Min and Bill The Secret Six Hell Divers George Hill on IMDb George Hill at Find a Grave