Macbeth is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. It dramatises the damaging physical and psychological effects of political ambition on those who seek power for its own sake. Of all the plays that Shakespeare wrote during the reign of James I, patron of Shakespeare's acting company, Macbeth most reflects the playwright's relationship with his sovereign, it was first published in the Folio of 1623 from a prompt book, is Shakespeare's shortest tragedy. A brave Scottish general named Macbeth receives a prophecy from a trio of witches that one day he will become King of Scotland. Consumed by ambition and spurred to action by his wife, Macbeth murders King Duncan and takes the Scottish throne for himself, he is wracked with guilt and paranoia. Forced to commit more and more murders to protect himself from enmity and suspicion, he soon becomes a tyrannical ruler; the bloodbath and consequent civil war swiftly take Macbeth and Lady Macbeth into the realms of madness and death. Shakespeare's source for the story is the account of King of Scotland.
The events of the tragedy are associated with the execution of Henry Garnet for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. In the backstage world of theatre, some believe that the play is cursed, will not mention its title aloud, referring to it instead as "The Scottish Play". Over the course of many centuries, the play has attracted some of the most renowned actors to the roles of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, it has been adapted to film, opera, novels and other media. The play opens amid thunder and lightning, the Three Witches decide that their next meeting will be with Macbeth. In the following scene, a wounded sergeant reports to King Duncan of Scotland that his generals Macbeth, the Thane of Glamis, Banquo have just defeated the allied forces of Norway and Ireland, who were led by the traitorous Macdonwald, the Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth, the King's kinsman, is praised for his fighting prowess. In the following scene and Banquo discuss the weather and their victory; as they wander onto a heath, the Three Witches greet them with prophecies.
Though Banquo challenges them first, they address Macbeth, hailing him as "Thane of Glamis," "Thane of Cawdor," and that he will "be King hereafter." Macbeth appears to be stunned to silence. When Banquo asks of his own fortunes, the witches respond paradoxically, saying that he will be less than Macbeth, yet happier, less successful, yet more, he will father a line of kings, though he himself will not be one. While the two men wonder at these pronouncements, the witches vanish, another thane, Ross and informs Macbeth of his newly bestowed title: Thane of Cawdor; the first prophecy is thus fulfilled, Macbeth sceptical begins to harbour ambitions of becoming king. King Duncan welcomes and praises Macbeth and Banquo, declares that he will spend the night at Macbeth's castle at Inverness. Macbeth sends a message ahead to Lady Macbeth, telling her about the witches' prophecies. Lady Macbeth suffers none of her husband's uncertainty and wishes him to murder Duncan in order to obtain kingship; when Macbeth arrives at Inverness, she overrides all of her husband's objections by challenging his manhood and persuades him to kill the king that night.
He and Lady Macbeth plan to get Duncan's two chamberlains. They will be defenceless. While Duncan is asleep, Macbeth stabs him, despite his doubts and a number of supernatural portents, including a hallucination of a bloody dagger, he is so shaken. In accordance with her plan, she frames Duncan's sleeping servants for the murder by placing bloody daggers on them. Early the next morning, Lennox, a Scottish nobleman, Macduff, the loyal Thane of Fife, arrive. A porter opens the gate and Macbeth leads them to the king's chamber, where Macduff discovers Duncan's body. Macbeth murders the guards to prevent them from professing their innocence, but claims he did so in a fit of anger over their misdeeds. Duncan's sons Malcolm and Donalbain flee to England and Ireland fearing that whoever killed Duncan desires their demise as well; the rightful heirs' flight makes them suspects and Macbeth assumes the throne as the new King of Scotland as a kinsman of the dead king. Banquo reveals this to the audience, while sceptical of the new King Macbeth, he remembers the witches' prophecy about how his own descendants would inherit the throne.
Despite his success, Macbeth aware of this part of the prophecy, remains uneasy. Macbeth invites Banquo to a royal banquet, where he discovers that Banquo and his young son, will be riding out that night. Fearing Banquo's suspicions, Macbeth arranges to have him murdered, by hiring two men to kill them sending a Third Murderer; the assassins succeed in killing Banquo. Macbeth becomes furious: he fears that his power remains insecure as long as an heir of Banquo remains alive. At a banquet, Macbeth invites Lady Macbeth to a night of drinking and merriment. Banquo's ghost sits in Macbeth's place. Macbeth raves fearfully, as the ghost is only visible to him; the others panic at the sight of Macbeth ragi
Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery and sometimes dance or ballet; the performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor. Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition. Understood as an sung piece, in contrast to a play with songs, opera has come to include numerous genres, including some that include spoken dialogue such as musical theater, Singspiel and Opéra comique. In traditional number opera, singers employ two styles of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style and self-contained arias; the 19th century saw the rise of the continuous music drama. Opera originated in Italy at the end of the 16th century and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.
In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Christoph Willibald Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his "reform" operas in the 1760s; the most renowned figure of late 18th-century opera is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Così fan tutte, as well as Die Entführung aus dem Serail, The Magic Flute, landmarks in the German tradition. The first third of the 19th century saw the high point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini all creating works that are still performed, it saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer. The mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera and dominated by Giuseppe Verdi in Italy and Richard Wagner in Germany; the popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.
During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso and Maria Callas became known to much wider audiences that went beyond the circle of opera fans. Since the invention of radio and television, operas were performed on these mediums. Beginning in 2006, a number of major opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. Since 2009, complete performances are live streamed; the words of an opera are known as the libretto. Some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti. Traditional opera referred to as "number opera", consists of two modes of singing: recitative, the plot-driving passages sung in a style designed to imitate and emphasize the inflections of speech, aria in which the characters express their emotions in a more structured melodic style.
Vocal duets and other ensembles occur, choruses are used to comment on the action. In some forms of opera, such as singspiel, opéra comique and semi-opera, the recitative is replaced by spoken dialogue. Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, are referred to as arioso; the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. During both the Baroque and Classical periods, recitative could appear in two basic forms, each of, accompanied by a different instrumental ensemble: secco recitative, sung with a free rhythm dictated by the accent of the words, accompanied only by basso continuo, a harpsichord and a cello. Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra. By the 19th century, accompagnato had gained the upper hand, the orchestra played a much bigger role, Wagner revolutionized opera by abolishing all distinction between aria and recitative in his quest for what Wagner termed "endless melody". Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagner's example, though some, such as Stravinsky in his The Rake's Progress have bucked the trend.
The changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below. The Italian word opera means "work", both in the sense of the labour done and the result produced; the Italian word derives from the Latin opera, a singular noun meaning "work" and the plural of the noun opus. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Italian word was first used in the sense "composition in which poetry and music are combined" in 1639. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, it was writt
Lady Macduff is a character in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. She is the wife of Lord Macduff, the Thane of Fife, the mother of an unnamed son and other children, her appearance in the play is brief: she and her son are introduced in Act IV Scene II, a climactic scene that ends with her and her son being murdered on Macbeth's orders. Though Lady Macduff's appearance is limited to this scene, her role in the play is quite significant. Playwrights, Sir William Davenant expanded her role in adaptation and in performance. Macduff and Lady Macduff appear in both Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles and Hector Boece's Scotorum Historiæ. Holinshed's Chronicles was Shakespeare's main source for Macbeth, though he diverged from the Chronicles by delaying Macduff's knowledge of his wife's murder until his arrival in England; the latter part of Act IV Scene III is “wholly of Shakespeare’s invention.” In Act IV Scene II, Lady Macduff appears alongside the thane of her unnamed son. She is furious at her husband for his desertion of his family.
Ross attempts to comfort her, though he offers little consolation and Lady Macduff responds with sharp retorts that betray her anger toward her husband. Claiming to be overcome with emotion, Ross takes his leave. Lady Macduff is left with her son, whom she speaks with, her fury toward Macduff mingling with her affection for her child; this domesticity is interrupted by the arrival of a messenger who warns her of imminent danger and urges her to escape with her children. Lady Macduff is alarmed and moments the scene is invaded by a group of murderers sent by Macbeth; the son is killed first and he urges his mother to flee. She heeds his words and exits the scene screaming, “Murder!”. She is killed off-stage, one of several significant offstage murders in the play. Lady Macduff's entire portrait as a character is painted in this one scene, though it is clear through her actions that she is a fiercely protective mother and a woman, not afraid to speak out against others, she speaks out unabashedly against her husband's disloyalty, saying "He loves us not" and "His flight was madness."
When one of the murderers asks where her husband is she bravely replies, "I hope in no place so unsanctified / Where such as thou mayst find him." These interactions with other characters reveal her outspokenness. Lady Macduff challenges her husband's actions, questioning, "What had he done to make him fly the land?" and raising a question of loyalty that the play never resolves. This challenge is taken up by Macduff in the next scene, Act IV Scene iii; when Ross enters to tell him of the news of his wife and children's death, he asks after his wife and children. Macduff's fear for their safety and guilt is apparent when he questions, “The tyrant has not battered at their peace?”. When he hears the news, his reaction suggests both shock and guilt, he asks multiple times if his wife and "pretty ones" are dead. The murder of Macduff's family and his shock at this event convince Malcolm of Macduff's trustworthiness and disloyalty to Macbeth. Lady Macduff and Lady Macbeth are two who, "share some basic qualities but diverge in others".
Though Lady Macduff is a foil to Lady Macbeth, they are not opposites. Like Lady Macbeth, Lady Macduff has a husband who has abandoned her with the intention to manipulate power. Both feel the pain of loss and neither understands her spouse; the contrasts are just as ironic. Lady Macbeth believes her husband to be too full of the “milk of human kindness”, while Lady Macduff is furious at her husband for his unkind abandonment of his family. Lady Macduff is a domestic and caring figure: her scene is one of the few times when child and parent are seen together, parallel to an earlier scene between Banquo and his son Fleance; these nurturing parents contrast starkly with Lady Macbeth's assertion that she would dash her child's brains out rather than give up her ambitions. Lady Macbeth has control over her husband's action at the beginning while Lady Macduff did not have control as Macduff just left Lady Macduff without her consultation. Playwrights have found the parallels between Ladies Macduff and Macbeth fascinating and expanded Lady Macduff's role in the play to directly contrast with Lady Macbeth and her actions.
Sir William Davenant inaugurated this strategy in his adaptation of 1674, as part of his larger effort to educate the English populace on the proper discipline of human emotions. Davenant expanded Lady Macduff's role, having her appear in four new scenes: “the first with Lady Macbeth, the second with her husband in which they are visited by the witches, the third in which she tries to dissuade him from opposing Macbeth, the fourth where, hearing of Banquo’s murder, she urges Macduff to flee to England.” These revisions increased her role as a foil to Lady Macbeth, with Lady Macbeth dedicated to evil and Lady Macduff dedicated to good. In performances of Macbeth during the eighteenth century, the violence of the murder of children could not be tolerated and Act IV Scene ii was deleted as late as 1904. Samuel Taylor Coleridge argued for the tragic effectiveness of this scene: “This scene, dreadful as it is, is still a relief, because a variety, because domestic, therefore soothing, as associated with the only real pleasures of life.
The conversation between Lady Macduff and her child heightens the pathos, is preparatory for the deep tragedy of their assassination.” Complete Text of Shakespeare's Macbeth
James VI and I
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died childless, he continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58.
After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began. At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors, he achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture. James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies, Basilikon Doron, he sponsored the translation of the Bible into English that would be named after him: the Authorised King James Version.
Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch, he was committed to a peace policy, tried to avoid involvement in religious wars the Thirty Years' War that devastated much of Central Europe. He tried but failed to prevent the rise of hawkish elements in the English Parliament who wanted war with Spain. James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's difficult marriage, Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle, his godparents were Charles IX of France, Elizabeth I of England, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was the custom; the subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, to which the English guests took offence, thinking the satyrs "done against them". James's father, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James inherited his father's titles of Duke of Earl of Ross. Mary was unpopular, her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.
In June 1567, Protestant rebels imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent; the care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved and upbrought" in the security of Stirling Castle. James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567; the sermon at the coronation was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland, the Kirk; the Privy Council selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, Adam Erskine, David Erskine as James's preceptors or tutors. As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan subjected James to regular beatings but instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning. Buchanan sought to turn James into a God-fearing, Protestant king who accepted the limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos.
In 1568, Mary escaped from her i
Chicago Opera Theater
The Chicago Opera Theater is an American opera company based in Chicago, Illinois. COT has been a resident at the Harris Theater for Music and Dance in Chicago's Millennium Park and is in residence at the newly renovated Studebaker Theater in the historic Fine Arts Building. In addition to productions of selected operas from the core opera repertoire, COT has had an emphasis on American composers and performers who sing in English. Alan Stone founded the company as the Chicago Opera Studio in 1974. Stone utilised Jones Commercial High School as the mainstage location for the company until 1976. Subsequently, the company held a residency at the Athenaeum Theatre on the north side of Chicago through 2004; the company gave occasional performances at the Merle Reskin Theater of De Paul University and at Rosary College in River Forest, Illinois. Stone served as artistic director of COT until 1993. General managers of COT have included Marc Scorsa, Mark Tiarks, Jean Perkins, Joseph De Rugeriis. Long-standing financial difficulties led to the buildup of a deficit at COT of $500K by the spring of 1993.
De Rugeriis and the COT board of directors chose to cease operations before the close of the company's 19th season. Following this initial shutdown of the company, the plan was for COT to reorganise its board and staff, raise funds for a revival of the organisation. A $300K USD challenge grant caused the timetable to be accelerated; the company resumed operations following a further series of high-level donations. Brian Dickie became general director of COT in 1999, held the post until August 2012. In December 2011, COT named Andreas Mitisek as its next general director, effective in 2012. In February 2017, COT announced that Mitisek would step down as artistic director at the expiration of his contract in September 2017. Douglas Clayton the executive director, assumed the role of General Director on September 1, 2017. In June 2017, COT announced the appointment of Lidiya Yankovskaya as its next music director, with immediate effect. Yankovskaya is the first female conductor to hold the music directorship of COT.
Chicago Opera Theater websiteSources Marsh, Robert C. "Author's Preface" and "The Fox Years", in Pellegrini, Norman, 150 Years of Opera in Chicago, DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press, 2006 ISBN 0-87580-353-9
Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky was a Russian composer, one of the group known as "The Five". He was an innovator of Russian music in the romantic period, he strove to achieve a uniquely Russian musical identity in deliberate defiance of the established conventions of Western music. Many of his works were inspired by Russian history, Russian folklore, other national themes; such works include the opera Boris Godunov, the orchestral tone poem Night on Bald Mountain and the piano suite Pictures at an Exhibition. For many years Mussorgsky's works were known in versions revised or completed by other composers. Many of his most important compositions have posthumously come into their own in their original forms, some of the original scores are now available; the spelling and pronunciation of the composer's name has caused some confusion. The family name derives from a 15th- or 16th-century ancestor, Roman Vasilyevich Monastyryov, who appears in the Velvet Book, the 17th-century genealogy of Russian boyars.
Roman Vasilyevich bore the nickname "Musorga", was the grandfather of the first Mussorgsky. The composer could trace his lineage to Rurik, the legendary 9th-century founder of the Russian state. In Mussorgsky family documents the spelling of the name varies: "Musarskiy", "Muserskiy", "Muserskoy", "Musirskoy", "Musorskiy", "Musurskiy"; the baptismal record gives the composer's name as "Muserskiy". In early letters to Mily Balakirev, the composer signed his name "Musorskiy"; the "g" made its first appearance in a letter to Balakirev in 1863. Mussorgsky used this new spelling to the end of his life, but reverted to the earlier "Musorskiy"; the addition of the "g" to the name was initiated by the composer's elder brother Filaret to obscure the resemblance of the name's root to an unsavory Russian word: мусoр — n. m. debris, refuseMussorgsky did not take the new spelling and played on the "rubbish" connection in letters to Vladimir Stasov and to Stasov's family signing his name Musoryanin "garbage-dweller".
The first syllable of the name received the stress, does so to this day in Russia and in the composer's home district. The mutability of the second-syllable vowel in the versions of the name mentioned above gives evidence that this syllable did not receive the stress; the addition of the "g" and the accompanying shift in stress to the second syllable, sometimes described as a Polish variant, was supported by Filaret Mussorgsky's descendants until his line ended in the 20th century. Their example was followed by many influential Russians, such as Fyodor Shalyapin, Nikolay Golovanov, Tikhon Khrennikov, who dismayed that the great composer's name was "reminiscent of garbage", supported the erroneous second-syllable stress that has become entrenched in the West; the Western convention of doubling the first "s", not observed in scholarly literature arose because in many Western European languages a single intervocalic /s/ becomes voiced to /z/, unlike in Slavic languages where it can be both voiced and unvoiced.
Doubling the consonant thus reinforces its voiceless sibilant /s/ sound.'Modest' is the Russian form of the name'Modestus' which means'moderate' or'restrained' in Late Latin. Mussorgsky was born in Karevo, Toropets Uyezd, Pskov Governorate, Russian Empire, 400 km south of Saint Petersburg, his wealthy and land-owning family, the noble family of Mussorgsky, is reputedly descended from the first Ruthenian ruler, through the sovereign princes of Smolensk. At age six, Mussorgsky began herself a trained pianist, his progress was sufficiently rapid that three years he was able to perform a John Field concerto and works by Franz Liszt for family and friends. At 10, he and his brother were taken to Saint Petersburg to study at the elite German language Petrischule. While there, Modest studied the piano with the noted Anton Gerke. In 1852, the 12-year-old Mussorgsky published a piano piece titled "Porte-enseigne Polka" at his father's expense. Mussorgsky's parents planned the move to Saint Petersburg so that both their sons would renew the family tradition of military service.
To this end, Mussorgsky entered the Cadet School of the Guards at age 13. Sharp controversy had arisen over the educational attitudes at the time of both this institute and its director, a General Sutgof. All agreed the Cadet School could be a brutal place for new recruits. More tellingly for Mussorgsky, it was where he began his eventual path to alcoholism. According to a former student and composer Nikolai Kompaneisky, Sutgof "was proud when a cadet returned from leave drunk with champagne."Music remained important to him, however. Sutgof's daughter was a pupil of Gerke, Mussorgsky was allowed to attend lessons with her, his skills as a pianist made him much in demand by fellow-cadets. In 1856 Mussorgsky – who had developed a strong interest in history and studied German philosophy – graduated from the Cadet School. Following family tradition he received a commission with the Preobrazhensky Regiment, the foremost regiment of the Russian Imperial Guard. In October 1856 the 17-year-old Mussorgsky met the 22-year-old Alexander Borodin while both men served at a military hospital in Saint Petersburg.
The two were soon
François Ruhlmann was a Belgian conductor. Born in Brussels, Ruhlmann was a pupil of Joseph Dupont in his native city; as a child he sang in the chorus at the Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie, at 7 played the oboe in the orchestra. Ruhlmann's first conducting engagement was at the Théâtre des Arts in Rouen in 1892; this was followed by further work in Liège and Antwerp, before a return to the Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in 1898. François Ruhlmann began his career at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 6 September 1905 at the death of Alexandre Luigini became principal conductor in 1906. Although mobilised in 1914, he returned during the war to conduct. From 1911 he conducted at the theatre of the Casino of Aix-les-Bains, he championed works by Dukas, Fauré and Ravel at the Concerts Populaires in Brussels. In 1920 Ruhlmann tried to mediate in a dispute involving the musicians unions in Paris, although he sympathised with the players. In 1919 he moved to the Palais Garnier, where he remained until 1938, he conducted many operatic premieres: Les Pêcheurs de Saint Jean 1905 Les Armaillis 1906 Le roi aveugle 1906 Ariane et Barbe-bleue 1907 Le Chemineau 1907 La Habanéra 1908 The Snow maiden Paris premiere 1908 Chiquito 1909 On ne badine pas avec l'amour 1910 Bérénice 1911 L’Ancêtre Paris premiere 1911 L’heure espagnole 1911 Thérèse Paris premiere 1911 La sorcière 1912 La Lépreuse 1912 La vida breve Paris premiere 1913 Mârouf 1914 Lorenzaccio 1920 Esther, princesse d'Israël 1925He was long associated with Pathé, for which he made many recordings, including six complete operas after 1910, including Rigoletto on 28 sides.
He conducted the 1911 Pathé recording of Carmen. François Ruhlmann died in Paris at age 80