Lord Macduff, the Thane of Fife, is a character in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. Macduff plays a pivotal role in the play: he suspects Macbeth of regicide and kills Macbeth in the final act, he can be seen as the avenging hero. The character is first known from Chronica Gentis Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland. Shakespeare drew from Holinshed's Chronicles. Although characterised sporadically throughout the play, Macduff serves as a foil to Macbeth and a figure of morality; the overall plot that would serve as the basis for Macbeth is first seen in the writings of two chroniclers of Scottish history, John of Fordun, whose prose Chronica Gentis Scotorum was begun about 1363, Andrew of Wyntoun's Scots verse Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, written no earlier than 1420. These served as the basis for the account given in Holinshed's Chronicles, on whose narratives of King Duff and King Duncan Shakespeare in part based Macbeth. Duff was a 10th century King of Alba. In John of Fordun's work, the reign of Duff is portrayed as having suffered from pervasive witchcraft.
The Orygynale Cronykil suggests. Due to the Irish use of tanistry, Duff's immediate descendants did not become rulers of Alba, instead became mormaers of Fife, their clan – the Clan MacDuff – remained the most powerful family in Fife in the Middle Ages. In Holinshed's narrative, attributes of King Duff are transposed onto the MacDuff mormaer from Macbeth's era. Macduff first appears in Holinshed's narrative of King Duncan after Macbeth has killed the latter and reigned as King of Scotland for 10 years; when Macbeth calls upon his nobles to contribute to the construction of Dunsinane castle, Macduff avoids the summons, arousing Macbeth's suspicions. Macduff leaves Scotland for England to prod Duncan's son, Malcolm III of Scotland, into taking the Scottish throne by force. Meanwhile, Macbeth murders Macduff's family. Malcolm and the English forces march on Macbeth, Macduff kills him. Shakespeare follows Holinshed's account of Macduff with his only deviations being Macduff's discovery of Duncan's body in 2.3, Macduff's brief conference with Ross in 2.4.
The ruins of Macduff's Castle lie in the village of East Wemyss next to the cemetery. Macduff first speaks in the play in act 2, scene 3 to the drunken porter to report to his duty of awaking King Duncan when he is sleeping for the night at Macbeth's castle; when he discovers the corpse of King Duncan, he raises an alarm, informing the castle that the king has been murdered. Macduff begins to suspect Macbeth of regicide when Macbeth says, "O, yet I do repent me of my fury / That I did kill them". Macduff's name does not appear in this scene. In 2.4 Macbeth has left for the ancient royal city where Scottish kings were crowned. Macduff, meets with Ross and an Old Man, he reveals that he will not be attending the coronation of Macbeth and will instead return to his home in Fife. However, Macduff flees to England to join Malcolm, the slain King Duncan's elder son, convinces him to return to Scotland and claim the throne. Macbeth, visits the Three Witches again after the spectre of Banquo appears at the royal banquet.
The Witches warn Macbeth to "beware Macduff, beware the Thane of Fife". However, they inform Macbeth that, "The power of man, for none of woman born / Shall harm Macbeth" — leading one to infer that no human could defeat Macbeth. Macbeth, fearing for his position as King of Scotland, learns soon afterward that Macduff has fled to England to try to raise an army against him and orders the deaths of Macduff's wife and relatives. Macduff, still in England, learns of his family's deaths through Ross, another Scottish thane, he joins Malcolm, they return to Scotland with their English allies to face Macbeth at Dunsinane Castle. After Macbeth slays the young Siward, Macduff charges into confronts Macbeth. Although Macbeth believes that he cannot be killed by any man born of a woman, he soon learns that Macduff was "from his mother's womb / Untimely ripped" — meaning that Macduff was born by cesarean section; the two fight, Macduff slays Macbeth offstage. Macduff presents Macbeth's head to Malcolm, hailing him as king and calling on the other thanes to declare their allegiance with him.
As a supporting character, Macduff serves as a foil to Macbeth. In an exchange between the Scottish thane Lennox and another lord, Lennox talks of Macduff’s flight to England and refers to him as "some holy angel" who "may soon return to this our suffering country / Under a hand accursed"; the play positions the characters of Macduff and Macbeth as holy versus evil The contrast between Macduff and Macbeth is accentuated by their approaches to death. Macduff, hearing of his family’s death, reacts with a tortured grief, his words, "But I must feel it as a man", indicate a capacity for emotional sensitivity. While Macbeth and Lady Macbeth insist that manhood implies a denial of feeling, Macduff insists that emotional depth and sensitivity are part of what it means to be a man; this interpretation is supported by Macduff’s reaction upon his discovery of Duncan’s corpse and the echo of Macduff’s words when Macbeth responds to the news of Lady Macbeth’s death. Macduff struggles to find the
Lord Banquo, the Thane of Lochaber, is a character in William Shakespeare's 1606 play Macbeth. In the play, he is at first an ally to Macbeth and they meet the Three Witches together. After prophesying that Macbeth will become king, the witches tell Banquo that he will not be king himself, but that his descendants will be. Macbeth in his lust for power sees Banquo as a threat and has him murdered by two hired assassins. Banquo's ghost returns in a scene, causing Macbeth to react with alarm during a public feast. Shakespeare borrowed the character of Banquo from Holinshed's Chronicles, a history of Britain published by Raphael Holinshed in 1587. In Chronicles Banquo is an accomplice to Macbeth in the murder of the king, rather than a loyal subject of the king, seen as an enemy by Macbeth. Shakespeare may have changed this aspect of his character to please King James, thought at the time to be a descendant of the real Banquo. Critics interpret Banquo's role in the play as being a foil to Macbeth, resisting evil where Macbeth embraces it.
Sometimes, his motives are unclear, some critics question his purity. He does nothing to accuse Macbeth of murdering the king though he has reason to believe Macbeth is responsible. Shakespeare used Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England and Ireland—commonly known as Holinshed's Chronicles—as a source for his plays, in Macbeth he borrows from several of the tales in that work. Holinshed portrays Banquo as an historical figure: he is an accomplice in Mac Bethad mac Findlaích's murder of Donnchad mac Crínáin and plays an important part in ensuring that Macbeth, not Máel Coluim mac Donnchada, takes the throne in the coup that follows. Holinshed in turn used an earlier work, the Scotorum Historiae by Hector Boece, as his source. Boece's work is the first known record of his son Fleance. In Shakespeare's day, they were considered historical figures of great repute, the king, James I, based his claim to the throne in part on a descent from Banquo; the House of Stuart was descended from Walter fitz Alan, Steward of Scotland, he was believed to have been the grandson of Fleance and Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's daughter, Nesta ferch Gruffydd.
In reality, Walter fitz Alan was the son of a Breton knight. Unlike his sources, Shakespeare gives Banquo no role in the King's murder, making it a deed committed by Macbeth and his wife, Lady Macbeth. Why Shakespeare's Banquo is so different from the character described by Holinshed and Boece is not known, though critics have proposed several possible explanations. First among them is the risk associated with portraying the king's ancestor as a murderer and conspirator in the plot to overthrow a rightful king, as well as the author's desire to flatter a powerful patron, but Shakespeare may simply have altered Banquo's character because there was no dramatic need for another accomplice to the murder. There was, however; when Jean de Schelandre wrote about Banquo in his Stuartide in 1611, he changed the character by portraying him as a noble and honourable man—the critic D. W. Maskell describes him as "... Schelandre's paragon of virtue" -- for reasons similar to Shakespeare's. Banquo's role in the coup that follows the murder is harder to explain.
Banquo's loyalty to Macbeth, rather than Malcolm, after Duncan's death makes him a passive accomplice in the coup: Malcolm, as Prince of Cumberland, is the rightful heir to the throne and Macbeth a usurper. Daniel Amneus argued that Macbeth as it survives is a revision of an earlier play, in which Duncan granted Macbeth not only the title of Thane of Cawdor, but the "greater honor" of Prince of Cumberland. Banquo's silence may be a survival from the posited earlier play, in which Macbeth was the legitimate successor to Duncan. Banquo is as both a human and a ghost; as significant as he is to the plot, he has fewer lines than the insignificant Ross, a Scottish nobleman who survives the play. In the second scene of the play, King Duncan describes the manner in which Macbeth, Thane of Glamis, Banquo, Thane of Lochaber, bravely led his army against invaders, fighting side by side. In the next scene and Macbeth, returning from the battle together, encounter the Three Witches, who predict that Macbeth will become Thane of Cawdor, king.
Banquo, sceptical of the witches, challenges them to predict his own future, they foretell that Banquo will never himself take the throne, but will beget a line of kings. Banquo remains sceptical after the encounter, wondering aloud if evil can speak the truth, he warns Macbeth that evil will offer men a small, hopeful truth only to catch them in a deadly trap. When Macbeth kills the king and takes the throne, Banquo—the only one aware of this encounter with the witches—reserves judgment for God, he is unsure whether Macbeth committed regicide to gain the throne, but muses in a soliloquy that "I fear / Thou play'dst most foully for't". He pledges loyalty. Worried that Banquo's descendants and not his own will rule Scotland, Macbeth sends two men, a Third Murderer, to kill Banquo and his son Fleance. During the melee, Banquo holds off the assailants so that Fleance is himself killed; the ghost of Banquo returns to haunt Macbeth at the banquet in Act Three, Scene Four. A terrified Macbeth sees him
Siward, Earl of Northumbria
Siward or Sigurd was an important earl of 11th-century northern England. The Old Norse nickname Digri and its Latin translation Grossus are given to him by near-contemporary texts. Siward was of Scandinavian origin a relative of Earl Ulf, emerged as a powerful regional strongman in England during the reign of Cnut. Cnut was a Scandinavian ruler who conquered England in the 1010s, Siward was one of the many Scandinavians who came to England in the aftermath of that conquest. Siward subsequently rose to become sub-ruler of most of northern England. From 1033 at the latest Siward was in control of southern Northumbria, that is, present-day Yorkshire, governing as earl on Cnut's behalf, he entrenched his position in northern England by marrying Ælfflæd, the daughter of Ealdred, Earl of Bamburgh. After killing Ealdred's successor Eadulf in 1041, Siward gained control of all Northumbria, he exerted his power in support of Cnut's successors, kings Harthacnut and Edward, assisting them with vital military aid and counsel.
He gained control of the middle shires of Northampton and Huntingdon by the 1050s, there is some evidence that he spread Northumbrian control into Cumberland. In the early 1050s Earl Siward turned against the Scottish king Mac Bethad mac Findlaích. Despite the death of his son Osbjorn, Siward defeated Mac Bethad in battle in 1054. More than half a millennium the adventure in Scotland earned him a place in William Shakespeare's Macbeth. Siward died in 1055, leaving one son, who would succeed to Northumbria. St Olave's church in York and nearby Heslington Hill are associated with Siward. Source material on Siward's life and career is scarce, only a small and unrepresentative amount of information exists. No contemporary or near-contemporary biography has survived, narratives from around the time of his life such as the Encomium Emmae and the Vita Ædwardi Regis scarcely mention him. Anglo-Norman histories may or may not be reliable depending on their source material, but useful ones include the Chronicle of John of Worcester, William of Malmesbury, Henry of Huntingdon, Orderic Vitalis.
Other sources include. Legendary material, such as that in hagiography or medieval sources such as John of Fordun or Andrew of Wyntoun, is not regarded as useful beyond its limited potential for cleanly preserving earlier source material. Siward's career in northern England spanned the reigns of four different monarchs, it began during the reign of Cnut, lasted through those of Harold Harefoot and Harthacnut into the early years of Edward the Confessor. Most important was the reign of Cnut, in which so many new political figures rose to power that some historians think it comparable to the Norman conquest five decades later; these "new men" were military figures with weak hereditary links to the West Saxon royal house that Cnut had deposed. As Cnut ruled several Scandinavian kingdoms in addition to England, power at the highest level was delegated to such strongmen. In England, it fell to a handful of newly promoted "ealdormen" or "earls", who ruled a shire or group of shires on behalf of the king.
Siward was, in the words of historian Robin Fleming, "the third man in Cnut's new triumvirate of earls", the other two being Godwine, Earl of Wessex and Leofwine, Earl of Mercia. Northern England in the 11th-century was a region quite distinct from the rest of the country; the former kingdom of Northumbria stretched from the Humber and Mersey estuaries, northward to the Firth of Forth, passing the western Kingdom of Strathclyde, it met the Kingdom of Alba. Northumbria had been united with the West Saxon English kingdom only in the 950s, by King Eadred, subsequent control was exerted through the agency of at least two ealdormen, one to the north and one to the south of the River Tees; the former is associated with the stronghold of Bamburgh, while the latter is associated with the great Roman city of York. It was a politically fragmented region; the western part, from Lancashire to Cumberland, was settled by Norse-Gaels, while in the rest of Northumbria English and Anglo-Scandinavian regional magnates—thegns and high-reeves—exercised a considerable degree of independence from the ealdormen.
One such example was the magnate Thurbrand, a hold in Yorkshire based in Holderness, whose family were at odds with the ruling earls at Bamburgh. Historians claim Siward to be of Scandinavian origin, a conclusion supported by the Vita Ædwardi Regis, which states that Siward was " Digri in the Danish tongue". Legendary material incorporated in the Vita et passio Waldevi comitis, the hagiographic biography of Siward's son Waltheof, states that Siward was the son of a Scandinavian earl named Bjorn and provides a genealogy claiming that he was the descendant of a polar bear, a commonplace piece of Germanic folklore. Historian Timothy Bolton has argued that the similarities between these genealogies is evidence of a shared family tradition between the descendants of Siward and Thorgil Sprakling. Bolton hypothesized that Siward's alleged father Bjorn was a historical figure, a brother of Thorgil Sprakling. Siward would have been first cousin
Macbeth (1916 film)
Macbeth is a silent, black-and-white 1916 film adaptation of the William Shakespeare play Macbeth.. It was directed by John Emerson, assisted by Erich von Stroheim, produced by D. W. Griffith, with cinematography by Victor Fleming; the film starred Herbert Beerbohm Tree and Constance Collier, both famous from the stage and for playing Shakespearean parts. Although released during the first decade of feature filmmaking, it was the seventh version of Macbeth to be produced, one of eight during the silent film era, it is considered to be a lost film. In the companion book to his Hollywood television series, Kevin Brownlow states that Sir Herbert failed to understand that the production was a silent film and that speech was not needed so much as pantomime. Tree, who had performed the play numerous times on the stage, kept spouting reams of dialogue. So Emerson and Fleming removed the film and cranked an empty camera so as not to waste film when he did so. Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree as Macbeth Constance Collier as Lady Macbeth Wilfred Lucas as Macduff Spottiswoode Aitken as Duncan Ralph Lewis as Banquo Mary Alden as Lady Macduff Olga Grey as Lady Agnes Lawrence Noskowski as Malcolm Bessie Buskirk as Donalbain Jack Conway as Lennox Seymour Hastings as Ross Karl Formes, Jr. as the Bishop Jack Brammal as Seyton L. Tylden as First Witch Scott McKee as Second Witch Jack Leonard as Third Witch Francis Carpenter, Thema Burns and Madge Dyer as Macduff's children Raymond Wells as the Thane of Cawdor George McKenzie as the Doctor Chandler House as Fleance Monte Blue Buchanan, Judith.
"6". Shakespeare on Silent Film: An Excellent Dumb Discourse. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87199-0. Macbeth on IMDb allmovie/synopsis.
Macbeth (1961 film)
Macbeth is a 1961 Canadian television film adaptation of William Shakespeare's Macbeth starring Sean Connery in his first North-American role. The screenplay was adapted by Paul Almond who directed the production, it was broadcast by CBC in five parts on 30 November, 5 December, 7 December, 12 December, 14 December 1961. The Scottish lord, he commits regicide to become king and furthers his moral descent with a reign of murderous terror to stay in power plunging the country into civil war. In the end, he loses everything that gives meaning and purpose to his life before losing his life itself. Sean Connery – Macbeth Zoe Caldwell – Lady Macbeth William Needles – Banquo Ted Follows – Macduff Robin Gammell – Malcolm Powys Thomas – King Duncan This adaptation was filmed in black and white in Toronto, Ontario. Macbeth on IMDb
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Malcolm III of Scotland
Malcolm III was King of Scots from 1058 to 1093. He was nicknamed "Canmore". Malcolm's long reign of 35 years preceded the beginning of the Scoto-Norman age. Henry I of England and Eustace III of Boulogne were his sons-in-law, making him the maternal grandfather of Empress Matilda, William Adelin and Matilda of Boulogne. All three of them were prominent in English politics during the 12th century. Malcolm's kingdom did not extend over the full territory of modern Scotland: the north and west of Scotland remained under Scandinavian rule following the Norse invasions. Malcolm III fought a series of wars against the Kingdom of England, which may have had as its objective the conquest of the English earldom of Northumbria; these wars did not result in any significant advances southward. Malcolm's primary achievement was to continue a lineage that ruled Scotland for many years, although his role as founder of a dynasty has more to do with the propaganda of his youngest son David I and his descendants than with history.
Malcolm's second wife, St. Margaret of Scotland, is Scotland's only royal saint. Malcolm himself had no reputation for piety. Malcolm's father Duncan I became king in late 1034, on the death of Malcolm II, Duncan's maternal grandfather and Malcolm's great-grandfather. According to John of Fordun, whose account is the original source of part at least of William Shakespeare's Macbeth, Malcolm's mother was a niece of Siward, Earl of Northumbria, but an earlier king-list gives her the Gaelic name Suthen. Other sources claim that either a daughter or niece would have been too young to fit the timeline, thus the relative would have been Siward's own sister Sybil, which may have translated into Gaelic as Suthen. Duncan's reign was not successful and he was killed in battle with the men of Moray, led by Macbeth, on 15 August 1040. Duncan was young at the time of his death, Malcolm and his brother Donalbane were children. Malcolm's family attempted to overthrow Macbeth in 1045, but Malcolm's grandfather Crínán of Dunkeld was killed in the attempt.
Soon after the death of Duncan his two young sons were sent away for greater safety—exactly where is the subject of debate. According to one version, Malcolm was sent to England, his younger brother Donalbane was sent to the Isles. Based on Fordun's account, it was assumed that Malcolm passed most of Macbeth's seventeen-year reign in the Kingdom of England at the court of Edward the Confessor. Today's British Royal family can trace their family history back to Malcolm III via his daughter Matilda. According to an alternative version, Malcolm's mother took both sons into exile at the court of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Earl of Orkney, an enemy of Macbeth's family, Duncan's kinsman by marriage. An English invasion in 1054, with Siward, Earl of Northumbria in command, had as its goal the installation of one "Máel Coluim, son of the king of the Cumbrians"; this Máel Coluim has traditionally been identified with the Malcolm III. This interpretation derives from the Chronicle attributed to the 14th-century chronicler of Scotland, John of Fordun, as well as from earlier sources such as William of Malmesbury.
The latter reported that Macbeth was killed in the battle by Siward, but it is known that Macbeth outlived Siward by two years. A. A. M. Duncan argued in 2002 that, using the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry as their source writers innocently misidentified "Máel Coluim" with the Scottish king of the same name. Duncan's argument has been supported by several subsequent historians specialising in the era, such as Richard Oram, Dauvit Broun and Alex Woolf, it has been suggested that Máel Coluim may have been a son of Owain Foel, British king of Strathclyde by a daughter of Malcolm II, King of Scotland. In 1057 various chroniclers report the death of Macbeth at Malcolm's hand, on 15 August 1057 at Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire. Macbeth was succeeded by his stepson Lulach, crowned at Scone on 8 September 1057. Lulach was killed by Malcolm, "by treachery", near Huntly on 23 April 1058. After this, Malcolm became king being inaugurated on 25 April 1058, although only John of Fordun reports this. If Orderic Vitalis is to be relied upon, one of Malcolm's earliest actions as king was to travel to the court of Edward the Confessor in 1059 to arrange a marriage with Edward's kinswoman Margaret, who had arrived in England two years before from Hungary.
If a marriage agreement was made in 1059, it was not kept, this may explain the Scots invasion of Northumbria in 1061 when Lindisfarne was plundered. Malcolm's raids in Northumbria may have been related to the disputed "Kingdom of the Cumbrians", reestablished by Earl Siward in 1054, under Malcolm's control by 1070; the Orkneyinga saga reports that Malcolm married the widow of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Ingibiorg, a daughter of Finn Arnesson. Although Ingibiorg is assumed to have died shortly before 1070, it is possible that she died much earlier, around 1058; the Orkneyinga Saga records that Malcolm and Ingibiorg had a son, Duncan II, king. Some Medieval commentators, following William of Malmesbury, claimed that Duncan was illegitimate, but this claim is propaganda reflecting the need of Malcolm's descendants by Margaret to undermine the claims of Duncan's descendants, the Meic Uilleim. Malcolm's son Domnall, whose death is reported in 1085, is not mentioned by the author of the Orkneyinga Sa