Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences. While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role in the self-definition of Western civilisation; that tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans, in one cultural form. From its origins in the theatre of ancient Greece 2500 years ago, from which there survives only a fraction of the work of Aeschylus and Euripides, as well as a large number of fragments from other poets. A long line of philosophers—which includes Plato, Saint Augustine, Hume, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Freud, Camus and Deleuze—have analysed, speculated upon, criticised the genre. In the wake of Aristotle's Poetics, tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, whether at the scale of poetry in general or at the scale of the drama.
In the modern era, tragedy has been defined against drama, the tragicomic, epic theatre. Drama, in the narrow sense, cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti- or a-generic deterritorialisation from the mid-19th century onwards. Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects against models of tragedy. Taxidou, reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments of mourning and speculation; the word "tragedy" appears to have been used to describe different phenomena at different times. It derives from Classical Greek τραγῳδία, contracted from trag-aoidiā = "goat song", which comes from tragos = "he-goat" and aeidein = "to sing". Scholars suspect this may be traced to a time when a goat was either the prize in a competition of choral dancing or was that around which a chorus danced prior to the animal's ritual sacrifice. In another view on the etymology, Athenaeus of Naucratis says that the original form of the word was trygodia from trygos and ode, because those events were first introduced during grape harvest.
Writing in 335 BCE, Aristotle provides the earliest-surviving explanation for the origin of the dramatic art form in his Poetics, in which he argues that tragedy developed from the improvisations of the leader of choral dithyrambs: Anyway, arising from an improvisatory beginning, grew little by little, as developed whatever of it had appeared. In the same work, Aristotle attempts to provide a scholastic definition of what tragedy is: Tragedy is an enactment of a deed, important and complete, of magnitude, by means of language enriched, each used separately in the different parts: it is enacted, not recited, through pity and fear it effects relief to such emotions. There is some dissent to the dithyrambic origins of tragedy based on the differences between the shapes of their choruses and styles of dancing. A common descent from pre-Hellenic fertility and burial rites has been suggested. Friedrich Nietzsche discussed the origins of Greek tragedy in his early book The Birth of Tragedy. Here, he suggests the name originates in the use of a chorus of goat-like satyrs in the original dithyrambs from which the tragic genre developed.
Scott Scullion writes: There is abundant evidence for tragoidia understood as "song for the prize goat". The best-known evidence is Horace, Ars poetica 220-24. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, continued to be popular until the beginning of the Hellenistic period. No tragedies from the 6th century and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in the 5th century have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus and Euripides. Athenian tragedies
Sir Thomas Sean Connery is a retired Scottish actor and producer, who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards, one being a BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award, three Golden Globes, including the Cecil B. DeMille Award and a Henrietta Award. Connery was the first actor to portray the character James Bond in film, starring in seven Bond films, between 1962 and 1983. In 1988, Connery won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in The Untouchables, his film career includes such films as Marnie, The Name of the Rose, The Man Who Would Be King, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, The Hunt for Red October, Finding Forrester, Murder on the Orient Express and The Rock. Connery has been polled in The Sunday Herald as "The Greatest Living Scot" and in a EuroMillions survey as "Scotland's Greatest Living National Treasure", he was voted by People magazine as both the “Sexiest Man Alive” in 1989 and the “Sexiest Man of the Century” in 1999. Connery was knighted in the 2000 New Year Honours for services to film drama.
Thomas Sean Connery, named Thomas after his grandfather, was born in Fountainbridge, Scotland on 25 August 1930. His mother, Euphemia McBain "Effie", was a cleaning woman, his father, Joseph Connery, was a factory worker and lorry driver, his paternal grandfather's parents emigrated to Scotland from Ireland in the mid-19th century. The remainder of his family was of Scottish descent, his maternal great-grandparents were native Scottish Gaelic speakers from Fife, Uig on Skye, his father was a Roman Catholic, his mother was a Protestant. He has Neil. Connery has said that he was called Sean, his middle name, long before becoming an actor, explaining that when he was young he had an Irish friend named Séamus and that those who knew them both had decided to call Connery by his middle name whenever both were present, he was referred to in his youth as "Tommy". Although he was small in primary school, he grew around the age of 12, reaching his full adult height of 6 ft 2 in at 18, he was known during his teen years as "Big Tam", has stated that he lost his virginity to an adult woman in an ATS uniform at the age of 14.
Connery's first job was as a milkman in Edinburgh with St. Cuthbert's Co-operative Society. In 2009, Connery recalled a conversation in a taxi: When I took a taxi during a recent Edinburgh Film Festival, the driver was amazed that I could put a name to every street we passed. "How come?" he asked. "As a boy I used to deliver milk round here," I said. "So what do you do now?" That was rather harder to answer. Connery joined the Royal Navy, during which time he acquired two tattoos, of which his official website says "unlike many tattoos, his were not frivolous—his tattoos reflect two of his lifelong commitments: his family and Scotland.... One tattoo is a tribute to his parents and reads'Mum and Dad,' and the other is self-explanatory,'Scotland Forever.'"Connery was discharged from the navy on medical grounds because of a duodenal ulcer, a condition that affected most of the males in previous generations of his family. Afterwards, he returned to the co-op worked as, among other things, a lorry driver, a lifeguard at Portobello swimming baths, a labourer, an artist's model for the Edinburgh College of Art, after a suggestion by former Mr. Scotland, Archie Brennan, a coffin polisher.
The modelling earned him 15 shillings an hour. Artist Richard Demarco, at the time a student who painted several early pictures of Connery, described him as "very straight shy, too beautiful for words, a virtual Adonis". Connery began bodybuilding at the age of 18, from 1951 trained with Ellington, a former gym instructor in the British army. While his official website claims he was third in the 1950 Mr. Universe contest, most sources place him in the 1953 competition, either third in the Junior class or failing to place in the Tall Man classification. Connery stated that he was soon deterred from bodybuilding when he found that the Americans beat him in competitions because of sheer muscle size and, unlike Connery, refused to participate in athletic activity which could make them lose muscle mass. Connery was a keen footballer, he was offered a trial with East Fife. While on tour with South Pacific, Connery played in a football match against a local team that Matt Busby, manager of Manchester United, happened to be scouting.
According to reports, Busby was impressed with his physical prowess and offered Connery a contract worth £25 a week after the game. Connery admits that he was tempted to accept, but he recalls, "I realised that a top-class footballer could be over the hill by the age of 30, I was 23. I decided to become an actor and it turned out to be one of my more intelligent moves." Looking to pick up some extra money, Connery helped out backstage at the King's Theatre in late 1951. He became interested in the proceedings, a career was launched. During a bodybuilding competition held in London in 1953, one of the competitors mentioned that auditions were being held for a production of South Pacific, Connery landed a small part as one of the Seabees chorus boys. By the time the production reached Edinburgh, he had been given the part of Marine Cpl Hamilton Steeves and was understudying two of the juvenile leads, his salary was raised from £12 to £14–10s a week; the production returned the following year out of popular demand, Connery was promoted to the featured role of Lieutenant Buzz Adams, which Larry Hagman had
Alan Cumming is a Scottish-American actor, writer, producer and activist who has appeared in numerous films, television shows, plays. His London stage appearances include Hamlet, the Maniac in Accidental Death of an Anarchist, the lead in Bent, the National Theatre of Scotland's The Bacchae. On Broadway, he has appeared in The Threepenny Opera, as the master of ceremonies in Cabaret, Design for Living and a one-man adaptation of Macbeth, his best-known film roles include his performances in Emma, GoldenEye, the Spy Kids trilogy, Son of the Mask, X2. Cumming introduces Masterpiece Mystery! for PBS and appeared on The Good Wife, for which he has been nominated for three Primetime Emmy Awards, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, two Golden Globe Awards and a Satellite Award. A filming of his Las Vegas cabaret show, Alan Cumming Sings Sappy Songs, aired on PBS stations in November 2016; as of March 2018, Cumming is starring in the CBS TV series Instinct with Bojana Novakovic. Cumming has written a novel, Tommy's Tale, an autobiography, Not My Father's Son: A Memoir, had a cable talk show called Eavesdropping with Alan Cumming, produced a line of perfumed products labelled "Cumming".
He has contributed opinion pieces to many publications and performed cabaret shows, I Bought a Blue Car Today and Alan Cumming Sings Sappy Songs. Cumming was born in Aberfeldy, Scotland, his mother, Mary Darling, was an insurance company secretary, his father, Alex Cumming, was the head forester of Panmure Estate, located near Carnoustie, on the east coast of Scotland, where Cumming grew up. He has described the environment as "feudal", he has a brother, six years older, a niece and two nephews. His brother is a property manager in England. Brought up in Angus, Cumming attended Carnoustie High School. In his autobiography Not My Father's Son, Cumming describes emotional and physical violence his abusive father inflicted on him in his childhood, his mother found it impossible to obtain a divorce. Cumming said that after he reached his early 20s, he did not have any communication with his father until just before the filming of his episode of the series Who Do You Think You Are? He found out that his father had believed that Cumming was not his biological son.
Cumming and his brother took DNA tests that proved they were indeed his biological children. Cumming said that his difficult childhood taught him how to act by "needing to suppress my own emotions and feelings around him when I was a little boy". Cumming made his film debut in Gillies MacKinnon's Passing Glory in 1986, his feature film debut came in 1992 when he starred alongside Sandrine Bonnaire and Bruno Ganz in Ian Sellar's Prague, which premiered at the Cannes Film Festival and earned him the Best Actor award at the Atlantic Film Festival and a Scottish BAFTA Best Actor nomination. American audiences first saw him portraying the smarmy Sean Walsh, an unwanted suitor of Minnie Driver's character, in Circle of Friends, an Irish film released in 1995. In 1995 he played Boris Ivanovich Grishenko in the James Bond film GoldenEye. In 1996, he had a success as the Revd Mr Elton in Emma, his first film in the United States was 1997's Romy and Michele's High School Reunion, playing Sandy Frink opposite Lisa Kudrow and Mira Sorvino.
Cumming co-wrote, co-directed, co-produced, co-starred in the ensemble film The Anniversary Party with friend and former Cabaret co-star Jennifer Jason Leigh, in 2001. The two starred in the film as a Hollywood couple; the film premiered at Cannes and garnered two Independent Spirit nominations and a National Board of Review award. He went on to star in and direct Suffering Man's Charity released as Ghost Writer, he had prominent roles in the Spy Kids trilogy, X2, Stanley Kubrick's Eyes Wide Shut and played Saturninus in the 1999 Julie Taymor film production of Titus. His many other films include Investigating Sex and the Pussycats, Get Carter and Macleane, Son of the Mask, The Flintstones in Viva Rock Vegas, Full Grown Men, Spice World, The Tempest, Boogie Woogie and the animated films Garfield: The Movie, Jackboots on Whitehall and The Smurfs. Earlier in his career, Cumming directed two short films and Burn Your Phone; the latter began its life as a one-off drama on BBC Radio 4. In December 1984 Cumming made his TV debut in ITV Granada's Travelling Man, before going on to appear in the 1980s in the Scottish Television series Take the High Road and Taggart.
His breakthrough role was as Bernard Bottle in the Christmas 1991 BBC comedy Bernard and the Genie, a Richard Curtis-scripted film in which he starred alongside Lenny Henry and Rowan Atkinson. He featured in a comic relief sketch in 1993 on the popular UK TV show Blind Date with Atkinson playing Mr. Bean. Cumming went on to star as flight attendant Sebastian Flight in the BBC2 sitcom The High Life in 1995; the series was written by Cumming and co-star Forbes Masson, continuing an acting-writing partnership the two had developed since their drama school days. In 1995, Cumming appeared in the series Ghosts. Cumming returned to British TV screens in 2011 to star as Desrae, a transvestite, on the Sky series The Runaway, he has made several documentaries: My Brilliant Britain, about Scottish humour, The Real Cabaret in which he investigated the Weimar cabaret artistes and the BBC's Who Do You Think You Are? in 2010 in which he discovered his maternal grandfather was a war hero who had died playing Russian roulette.
In 2018, he played King James
Lady Macbeth is a leading character in William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth. The wife of the play's tragic hero, Lady Macbeth goads her husband into committing regicide, after which she becomes queen of Scotland. However, she suffers pangs of guilt for her part in the crime, which drives her to sleepwalk, she dies off-stage in an apparent suicide. According to some genealogists, Lady Macbeth and King Duncan's wife were siblings or cousins, where Duncan's wife had a stronger claim to the throne than Lady Macbeth, it was this that incited her hatred of Duncan. The character's origins lie in the accounts of Kings Duff and Duncan in Holinshed's Chronicles, a history of Britain familiar to Shakespeare. Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth appears to be a composite of two separate and distinct personages in Holinshed's work: Donwald's nagging, murderous wife in the account of King Duff and Macbeth's ambitious wife Gruoch of Scotland in the account of King Duncan. Lady Macbeth is a powerful presence in the play, most notably in the first two acts.
Following the murder of King Duncan, her role in the plot diminishes. She becomes an uninvolved spectator to Macbeth's plotting and a nervous hostess at a banquet dominated by her husband's hallucinations, her sleepwalking scene in the fifth act is a turning point in the play, her line "Out, damned spot!" has become a phrase familiar to many speakers of the English language. The report of her death late in the fifth act provides the inspiration for Macbeth's "Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow" speech. Analysts see in the character of Lady Macbeth the conflict between femininity and masculinity as they are impressed in cultural norms. Lady Macbeth suppresses her instincts toward compassion and fragility — associated with femininity — in favour of ambition and the singleminded pursuit of power; this conflict colours the entire drama and sheds light on gender-based preconceptions from Shakespearean England to the present. The role has attracted countless notable actors over the centuries, including Sarah Siddons, Charlotte Melmoth, Helen Faucit, Ellen Terry, Jeanette Nolan, Vivien Leigh, Simone Signoret, Vivien Merchant, Glenda Jackson, Francesca Annis, Judith Anderson, Judi Dench, Renee O'Connor, Keeley Hawes, Alex Kingston and Marion Cotillard and Hannah Taylor-Gordon Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth appeared to be a composite of two personages found in the account of King Duff and in the account of King Duncan in Holinshed's Chronicles.
In the account of King Duff, one of his captains, suffers the deaths of his kinsmen at the orders of the king. Donwald considers regicide at "the setting on of his wife", who "showed him the means whereby he might soonest accomplish it." Donwald perseveres at the nagging of his wife. After plying the king's servants with food and drink and letting them fall asleep, the couple admit their confederates to the king's room, where they commit the regicide; the murder of Duff has its motivation in revenge rather than ambition. In Holinshed's account of King Duncan, the discussion of Lady Macbeth is confined to a single sentence: "The words of the three Weird Sisters greatly encouraged him hereunto. Not found in Holinshed are the invocation to the "spirits that tend on mortal thoughts," the sleepwalking scene, various details found in the drama concerning the death of Macbeth. Lady Macbeth makes her first appearance late in scene five of the first act, when she learns in a letter from her husband that three witches have prophesied his future as king.
When King Duncan becomes her overnight guest, Lady Macbeth seizes the opportunity to effect his murder. Aware her husband's temperament is "too full o' the milk of human kindness" for committing a regicide, she plots the details of the murder; the king retires after a night of feasting. Lady Macbeth lays daggers ready for the commission of the crime. Macbeth kills the sleeping king; when he brings the daggers from the king's room, Lady Macbeth orders him to return them to the scene of the crime. He refuses, she smears the drugged attendants with blood. The couple retire to wash their hands. Following the murder of King Duncan, Lady Macbeth's role in the plot diminishes; when Duncan's sons flee the land in fear for their own lives, Macbeth is appointed king. Without consulting his queen, Macbeth plots other murders in order to secure his throne, and, at a royal banquet, the queen is forced to dismiss her guests when Macbeth hallucinates. In her last appearance, she sleepwalks in profound torment, she dies off-stage, with suicide being suggested as its cause, when Malcolm declares that she died by "self and violent hands."
In the First Folio, the only source for the play, she is never referred to as Lady Macbeth, but variously as "Macbeth's wife", "Macbeth's lady", or just "lady". The sleepwalking scene is one of the more celebrated scenes from Macbeth, indeed, in all of Shakespeare, it has no counterpart in Holinshed's Chronicles, Shakespeare's source material for the play, but is the bard's invention. A. C. Bradley notes that, with the exception of the scene's few closing lines, the scene is in prose with Lady Macbeth being the only major character in Shakespearean tragedy to make a last appearance "denied the dignity of verse." According to Bradley
Macbeth is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. It dramatises the damaging physical and psychological effects of political ambition on those who seek power for its own sake. Of all the plays that Shakespeare wrote during the reign of James I, patron of Shakespeare's acting company, Macbeth most reflects the playwright's relationship with his sovereign, it was first published in the Folio of 1623 from a prompt book, is Shakespeare's shortest tragedy. A brave Scottish general named Macbeth receives a prophecy from a trio of witches that one day he will become King of Scotland. Consumed by ambition and spurred to action by his wife, Macbeth murders King Duncan and takes the Scottish throne for himself, he is wracked with guilt and paranoia. Forced to commit more and more murders to protect himself from enmity and suspicion, he soon becomes a tyrannical ruler; the bloodbath and consequent civil war swiftly take Macbeth and Lady Macbeth into the realms of madness and death. Shakespeare's source for the story is the account of King of Scotland.
The events of the tragedy are associated with the execution of Henry Garnet for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. In the backstage world of theatre, some believe that the play is cursed, will not mention its title aloud, referring to it instead as "The Scottish Play". Over the course of many centuries, the play has attracted some of the most renowned actors to the roles of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, it has been adapted to film, opera, novels and other media. The play opens amid thunder and lightning, the Three Witches decide that their next meeting will be with Macbeth. In the following scene, a wounded sergeant reports to King Duncan of Scotland that his generals Macbeth, the Thane of Glamis, Banquo have just defeated the allied forces of Norway and Ireland, who were led by the traitorous Macdonwald, the Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth, the King's kinsman, is praised for his fighting prowess. In the following scene and Banquo discuss the weather and their victory; as they wander onto a heath, the Three Witches greet them with prophecies.
Though Banquo challenges them first, they address Macbeth, hailing him as "Thane of Glamis," "Thane of Cawdor," and that he will "be King hereafter." Macbeth appears to be stunned to silence. When Banquo asks of his own fortunes, the witches respond paradoxically, saying that he will be less than Macbeth, yet happier, less successful, yet more, he will father a line of kings, though he himself will not be one. While the two men wonder at these pronouncements, the witches vanish, another thane, Ross and informs Macbeth of his newly bestowed title: Thane of Cawdor; the first prophecy is thus fulfilled, Macbeth sceptical begins to harbour ambitions of becoming king. King Duncan welcomes and praises Macbeth and Banquo, declares that he will spend the night at Macbeth's castle at Inverness. Macbeth sends a message ahead to Lady Macbeth, telling her about the witches' prophecies. Lady Macbeth suffers none of her husband's uncertainty and wishes him to murder Duncan in order to obtain kingship; when Macbeth arrives at Inverness, she overrides all of her husband's objections by challenging his manhood and persuades him to kill the king that night.
He and Lady Macbeth plan to get Duncan's two chamberlains. They will be defenceless. While Duncan is asleep, Macbeth stabs him, despite his doubts and a number of supernatural portents, including a hallucination of a bloody dagger, he is so shaken. In accordance with her plan, she frames Duncan's sleeping servants for the murder by placing bloody daggers on them. Early the next morning, Lennox, a Scottish nobleman, Macduff, the loyal Thane of Fife, arrive. A porter opens the gate and Macbeth leads them to the king's chamber, where Macduff discovers Duncan's body. Macbeth murders the guards to prevent them from professing their innocence, but claims he did so in a fit of anger over their misdeeds. Duncan's sons Malcolm and Donalbain flee to England and Ireland fearing that whoever killed Duncan desires their demise as well; the rightful heirs' flight makes them suspects and Macbeth assumes the throne as the new King of Scotland as a kinsman of the dead king. Banquo reveals this to the audience, while sceptical of the new King Macbeth, he remembers the witches' prophecy about how his own descendants would inherit the throne.
Despite his success, Macbeth aware of this part of the prophecy, remains uneasy. Macbeth invites Banquo to a royal banquet, where he discovers that Banquo and his young son, will be riding out that night. Fearing Banquo's suspicions, Macbeth arranges to have him murdered, by hiring two men to kill them sending a Third Murderer; the assassins succeed in killing Banquo. Macbeth becomes furious: he fears that his power remains insecure as long as an heir of Banquo remains alive. At a banquet, Macbeth invites Lady Macbeth to a night of drinking and merriment. Banquo's ghost sits in Macbeth's place. Macbeth raves fearfully, as the ghost is only visible to him; the others panic at the sight of Macbeth ragi
Ross is a region of Scotland, a former earldom and, under the name Ross and Cromarty, a county. The name Ross derives from a Gaelic word meaning "headland" a reference to the Black Isle. Another possible origin is the West Norse word for Orkney – Hrossey – meaning horse island. Ross is a historical comital region predating the Mormaerdom of Ross, it is a region used by the Church, with the Presbytery of Ross being part of the Synod of Ross and Caithness. Excavations of a rock shelter and shell midden at Sand, Applecross on the coast of Wester Ross have shown that the coast was occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, it may be doubted whether the Romans effected a temporary settlement in the area of the modern county. In Roman times, for long afterwards, the land was occupied by Picts, who, in the 6th and 7th centuries, were converted to Christianity by followers of Saint Columba. Throughout the next three centuries the natives were continually harassed by Norwegian Viking raiders, of whose presence tokens have survived in several place-names.
At this time the country formed part of the great province of Moray, which extended as far as the Dornoch Firth and the Oykel, included the whole of Ross and Cromarty. William, the 4th Earl of Ross, was present with his clan at the Battle of Bannockburn, a century the castle of Dingwall, the chief seat on the mainland of Donald, Lord of the Isles, was captured after the disastrous fight at Harlaw in Aberdeenshire, which Donald had provoked when his claim to the earldom was rejected; the earldom reverted to the crown in 1424, but James I soon afterwards restored it to the heiress of the line, the mother of Alexander Macdonald, 3rd Lord of the Isles, who thus became the 11th Earl. In consequence, however, of the treason of John Macdonald, 4th and last Lord of the Isles and 12th Earl of Ross, the earldom was again vested in the crown. Five years James III bestowed it on his second son, James Stewart, whom he created Duke of Ross in 1488. By the 16th century the whole area of the county was occupied by different clans.
The Rosses held. The county of Ross was constituted in 1661, Cromarty in 1685 and 1698, both being consolidated into the present county in 1889. Apart from occasional conflicts between rival clans, the only battles in the county were at Invercarron, at the head of Dornoch Firth, when Montrose was crushed by Colonel Archibald Strachan on 27 April 1650. Ross lies south of Sutherland and the Dornoch Firth, west of the North Sea and the Moray Firth, north of the Beauly Firth and Inverness-shire and east of The Minch. There are a number of small islands off the area's west coast, among which are: Gillean in the parish of Lochalsh Crowlin Islands in Applecross Eilean Horrisdale, Isle of Ewe in Gairloch parish Isle Martin and Tanera More, of the Summer Isles group in the parish of LochbroomThe area of the mainland is 1,572,332 acres. On the North Sea side of the county the major firths are the Beauly Firth and the Moray Firth, which separate the Black Isle from Inverness-shire. On the Atlantic coastline—which has a length of nearly 311 miles —the principal sea lochs and bays, from south to north, are Loch Duich, Loch Alsh, Loch Carron, Loch Kishorn, Loch Torridon, Loch Shieldaig, Upper Loch Torridon, Gair Loch, Loch Ewe, Gruinard Bay, Loch Broom and Enard Bay.
The chief capes include Tarbat Ness on the east coast, Coigach, Greenstone Point, Rubha Reidh and Hamha Point on the west. All the southern boundary with Inverness-shire consists of a rampart of peaks, many of them Munros: An Riabhachan, Sgurr na Lapaich, Carn Eige, Mam Sodhail, Beinn Fhada, Sgurr Fhuaran, The Saddle. To the north of Glen Torridon are the masses of Liathach, Beinn Eighe, Beinn Alligin and Beinn Dearg. On the northeastern shore of Loch Maree rises Slioch, while the Fannich group contains six Munros, the highest being Sgurr Mor; the immense isolated bulk of Ben Wyvis, forms the most noteworthy feature in the north-east, An Teallach in the north-west appears conspicuous, though less solitary. Only a small fraction of the west and south of the area is under 1,000 ft in height. Easter Ross and the peninsula of the Black Isle are comparatively level; the longest stream of the mainland portion of Ross and Cromarty is the River Orrin, which rises from the slopes of An Sidhean and pursues a north-easterly course to its confluence with the River Conon after a run of about 26 miles, a small part of which forms the boundary with Inverness-shi
Samuel Henry John Worthington is an English-born Australian actor and writer. He portrayed Jake Sully in the 2009 film Avatar, Marcus Wright in Terminator Salvation, Perseus in Clash of the Titans as well as its sequel Wrath of the Titans, he transitioned to more dramatic roles, appearing in Everest, Hacksaw Ridge, The Shack, Manhunt: Unabomber. He played the main protagonist, Captain Alex Mason, in Call of Duty: Black Ops. In 2004, Worthington received Australia's highest film award for his lead role in Somersault. Worthington was born to English parents in Godalming, Surrey, in South East England, moved to Perth, Western Australia when he was six months old, he grew up in a suburb of Rockingham. His mother, Jeanne J. a housewife, raised his sister, Lucinda. His father, Ronald W. Worthington, was a power plant employee, he attended John Curtin College of the Arts, a school specialising in the dramatic arts, located in Fremantle, Western Australia, where he studied drama but did not graduate. When he left the college, his father gave him $400 and sent him on a one-way trip to Cairns, telling him to "work his way home".
He began working on construction and odd jobs settling in Sydney. At age 19, while working as a bricklayer, he auditioned for the National Institute of Dramatic Art and was accepted with a scholarship. In 2000, Worthington played a small role along side Adam Garcia in Aussie dance film “Bootmen”. In 2003, he played a lead role in the low budget Aussie comedy “gettin’ square”. Worthington had a major role in Somersault and played the lead in a modern Australian retelling of Macbeth, he won the AFI Award for Best Lead Actor for his role in Somersault. He was well known in Australia for his role as Howard in the acclaimed Australian TV series Love My Way, in which he played the main love interest of the female lead. Worthington's international film career began with a series of small roles in Hollywood production The Great Raid, filmed in Australia, he lost the role to Daniel Craig. He starred in the Australian creature-feature film Rogue, as a man named Neil, which gained a 100 percent fresh rating from Rotten Tomatoes.
In Terminator Salvation, Worthington plays cyborg Marcus Wright who assists the humans despite their suspicions of him. Shot prior to the release of Terminator Salvation, the James Cameron-directed science-fiction film Avatar was Worthington's next project. In the film, he played Jake Sully, a paraplegic US Marine who, assigned to control an alien body called an avatar through a neural link, finds himself at the centre of a war between his own species and the indigenous Na'vi people of the moon Pandora; the film went on to become the highest-grossing film of all time, grossing more than $2.73 billion in box-office receipts worldwide. In November 2010, Worthington told GQ Australia that he went to audition, but wasn't told what it was for and got annoyed. So he did his part, forgot about it – and was called back. "I was a bit pissed off, I think that came across," he says. "I think Jim saw a spark and liked it because that's Sully's character – a guy who doesn't like to be bullied and a guy who just wants to set things right."He provided voice work for Captain Alex Mason, the protagonist character in the video game Call of Duty: Black Ops.
Some gamers criticised Worthington's inability to mask his Australian accent, as in Avatar. In November 2010, The Hollywood Reporter named Worthington as one of the young male actors who are "pushing – or being pushed" into taking over Hollywood as the new "A-List", he was selected as one of the entrants to the in Australia 2011 edition. In 2012, Worthington starred in the sequel to Clash of the Titans, called Wrath of the Titans, alongside Liam Neeson; as in the first film, Worthington played the son of Zeus, Perseus. He reprised his role as Alex Mason in Call of Duty: Black Ops II. In 2012, Worthington starred as Nick Cassidy in Man on a Ledge, a suspense-thriller film directed by Asger Leth. Worthington portrays Jim Fitzgerald in the Discovery Channel television series, Manhunt: Unabomber. Worthington has said that when he was about 30, he sold most of his possessions and ended up with around $2,000 to his name, he says he bought a car with the proceeds and was living in it before he auditioned for his role in the film Avatar.
He found a place to live. On 18 October 2013, Worthington had confirmed rumours of a relationship with fellow Australian, model Lara Bingle, they married on 28 December 2014 and had a son, Rocket Zot, in 2015. In October 2016, Bingle and Worthington had another son, Racer. Worthington is a Christian. On 23 February 2014, Worthington was arrested in New York City for assault, after punching a paparazzo, Sheng Li, who kicked Bingle in the shin. Video footage of the incident depicts Worthington referring to Bingle as his "wife", furthering speculation about the pair's marital status. Worthington was released on a desk appearance ticket, while Li was arrested on charges of reckless endangerment and harassment. On 26 February 2014, Worthington appeared in Manhattan Criminal Court, where he was ordered to stay away from Li for six months; the case was adjourned until 8 May 2014, with the actor to face charges of assault in the third degree, attempted assault, harassment. On 1 April 2014, Li called for her to be arrested.
That month, Worthington secured a conditional discharge deal on a misdemeanour assault charge, therefore avoiding any jail time, while the charges against Li were dismis