Macbeth is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. It dramatises the damaging physical and psychological effects of political ambition on those who seek power for its own sake. Of all the plays that Shakespeare wrote during the reign of James I, patron of Shakespeare's acting company, Macbeth most reflects the playwright's relationship with his sovereign, it was first published in the Folio of 1623 from a prompt book, is Shakespeare's shortest tragedy. A brave Scottish general named Macbeth receives a prophecy from a trio of witches that one day he will become King of Scotland. Consumed by ambition and spurred to action by his wife, Macbeth murders King Duncan and takes the Scottish throne for himself, he is wracked with guilt and paranoia. Forced to commit more and more murders to protect himself from enmity and suspicion, he soon becomes a tyrannical ruler; the bloodbath and consequent civil war swiftly take Macbeth and Lady Macbeth into the realms of madness and death. Shakespeare's source for the story is the account of King of Scotland.
The events of the tragedy are associated with the execution of Henry Garnet for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. In the backstage world of theatre, some believe that the play is cursed, will not mention its title aloud, referring to it instead as "The Scottish Play". Over the course of many centuries, the play has attracted some of the most renowned actors to the roles of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, it has been adapted to film, opera, novels and other media. The play opens amid thunder and lightning, the Three Witches decide that their next meeting will be with Macbeth. In the following scene, a wounded sergeant reports to King Duncan of Scotland that his generals Macbeth, the Thane of Glamis, Banquo have just defeated the allied forces of Norway and Ireland, who were led by the traitorous Macdonwald, the Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth, the King's kinsman, is praised for his fighting prowess. In the following scene and Banquo discuss the weather and their victory; as they wander onto a heath, the Three Witches greet them with prophecies.
Though Banquo challenges them first, they address Macbeth, hailing him as "Thane of Glamis," "Thane of Cawdor," and that he will "be King hereafter." Macbeth appears to be stunned to silence. When Banquo asks of his own fortunes, the witches respond paradoxically, saying that he will be less than Macbeth, yet happier, less successful, yet more, he will father a line of kings, though he himself will not be one. While the two men wonder at these pronouncements, the witches vanish, another thane, Ross and informs Macbeth of his newly bestowed title: Thane of Cawdor; the first prophecy is thus fulfilled, Macbeth sceptical begins to harbour ambitions of becoming king. King Duncan welcomes and praises Macbeth and Banquo, declares that he will spend the night at Macbeth's castle at Inverness. Macbeth sends a message ahead to Lady Macbeth, telling her about the witches' prophecies. Lady Macbeth suffers none of her husband's uncertainty and wishes him to murder Duncan in order to obtain kingship; when Macbeth arrives at Inverness, she overrides all of her husband's objections by challenging his manhood and persuades him to kill the king that night.
He and Lady Macbeth plan to get Duncan's two chamberlains. They will be defenceless. While Duncan is asleep, Macbeth stabs him, despite his doubts and a number of supernatural portents, including a hallucination of a bloody dagger, he is so shaken. In accordance with her plan, she frames Duncan's sleeping servants for the murder by placing bloody daggers on them. Early the next morning, Lennox, a Scottish nobleman, Macduff, the loyal Thane of Fife, arrive. A porter opens the gate and Macbeth leads them to the king's chamber, where Macduff discovers Duncan's body. Macbeth murders the guards to prevent them from professing their innocence, but claims he did so in a fit of anger over their misdeeds. Duncan's sons Malcolm and Donalbain flee to England and Ireland fearing that whoever killed Duncan desires their demise as well; the rightful heirs' flight makes them suspects and Macbeth assumes the throne as the new King of Scotland as a kinsman of the dead king. Banquo reveals this to the audience, while sceptical of the new King Macbeth, he remembers the witches' prophecy about how his own descendants would inherit the throne.
Despite his success, Macbeth aware of this part of the prophecy, remains uneasy. Macbeth invites Banquo to a royal banquet, where he discovers that Banquo and his young son, will be riding out that night. Fearing Banquo's suspicions, Macbeth arranges to have him murdered, by hiring two men to kill them sending a Third Murderer; the assassins succeed in killing Banquo. Macbeth becomes furious: he fears that his power remains insecure as long as an heir of Banquo remains alive. At a banquet, Macbeth invites Lady Macbeth to a night of drinking and merriment. Banquo's ghost sits in Macbeth's place. Macbeth raves fearfully, as the ghost is only visible to him; the others panic at the sight of Macbeth ragi
Dame Edith Margaret Emily Ashcroft, known professionally as Peggy Ashcroft, was an English actress whose career spanned more than sixty years, who, along with contemporaries John Gielgud, Laurence Olivier and Ralph Richardson, dominated the British stage of the mid-20th century. Born to a comfortable middle-class family, Ashcroft was determined from an early age to become an actress, despite parental opposition, she was working in smaller theatres before graduating from drama school, within two years thereafter she was starring in the West End. Ashcroft maintained her leading place in British theatre for the next fifty years. Always attracted by the ideals of permanent theatrical ensembles, she did much of her work for the Old Vic in the early 1930s, John Gielgud's companies in the 1930s and 1940s, the Royal Shakespeare Company from the 1950s and the National Theatre from the 1970s. While well regarded in Shakespeare, Ashcroft was known for her commitment to modern drama, appearing in plays by Bertolt Brecht, Samuel Beckett and Harold Pinter.
Her career was wholly spent in the live theatre until the 1980s, when she turned to television and cinema with considerable success, winning an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and several British and European awards. Ashcroft was born in Croydon, the younger child and only daughter of William Worsley Ashcroft, a land agent, his wife, Violetta Maud, née Bernheim. According to her biographer Michael Billington Violetta Ashcroft was of Danish and German-Jewish descent and a keen amateur actress. Ashcroft's father was killed on active service in the First World War, she attended Woodford School, East Croydon, where one of her teachers encouraged her love of Shakespeare, but neither her teachers nor her mother approved of her desire to become a professional actress. Ashcroft was determined, at the age of sixteen, she enrolled at the Central School of Speech and Drama, run by Elsie Fogerty, from whom her mother had taken lessons some years before; the school's emphasis was on the voice and elegant diction, which did not appeal to Ashcroft or to her fellow pupil Laurence Olivier.
She learned more from reading My Life in Art by Constantin Stanislavski, the influential director of the Moscow Art Theatre. While still a student, Ashcroft made her professional stage debut at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre in a revival of J. M. Barrie's Dear Brutus opposite Ralph Richardson, with whom she had been impressed when she saw him in Charles Doran's touring company while she was still a schoolgirl, she graduated from the Central School in 1927 with London University's Diploma in Dramatic Art. Never much drawn to the West End or stardom, she learned her craft with small companies in fringe theatres, her first notable West End role was Naemi in Jew Süss in 1929, an extravagantly theatrical production, in which she won praise for the naturalism and truth of her playing. In the same year she married Rupert Hart-Davis an aspiring actor a well-known publisher, he described the marriage as "a sad failure: we were much too young to know what we wanted... after much agony we parted and were duly divorced.
Nowadays Peggy and I lunch together once or twice a year in a Soho restaurant and have a lovely nostalgic-romantic talk of shared memories of long ago. She is a lovely person and the best actress living." In 1930 Ashcroft was cast as Desdemona in a production of Othello at the Savoy Theatre, starring Paul Robeson in the title role. The production was not well received; the production prompted a political awakening in Ashcroft, astonished to receive hate-mail for appearing onstage with a black actor. During the run she had a brief affair with Robeson, followed by another with the writer J. B. Priestley, put an end to her first marriage. Hart-Davis was granted a divorce in 1933, on the grounds of Ashcroft's adultery with the director Theodore Komisarjevsky. Among those impressed by Ashcroft's performance as Desdemona was John Gielgud established as a West End star, he recalled, "When Peggy came on in the Senate scene it was as if all the lights in the theatre had gone up". In 1932 he was invited by the Oxford University Dramatic Society to try his hand at directing, in the society's production of Romeo and Juliet.
Ashcroft as Juliet and Edith Evans as the nurse won golden notices, although their director notorious for his innocent slips of the tongue, referred to them as "Two leading ladies, the like of whom I hope I shall never meet again." Ashcroft joined the Old Vic company for the 1932–33 season. The theatre, in an unfashionable area of London south of the Thames, was run by Lilian Baylis to offer plays and operas to a working-class audience at low ticket prices, she paid her performers modest wages, but the theatre was known for its unrivaled repertory of classics Shakespeare, many West End stars took a large pay cut to work there. It was, in the place to learn Shakespearean technique and try new ideas. During the season Ashcroft played five Shakespeare heroines, as well as Kate in She Stoops to Conquer, Mary Stuart in a new play by John Drinkwater, Lady Teazle in The School for Scandal. In 1933 she made The Wandering Jew, she was not attracted to the medium of cinema and made only four more films over the next quarter-century.
During her professional and personal relationship with Komisarjevsky, whom she married in 1934 and left in 1936, Ashcroft learned from him what Billington calls "the vital importance of discipline and the idea that t
James VI and I
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died childless, he continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58.
After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began. At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors, he achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture. James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies, Basilikon Doron, he sponsored the translation of the Bible into English that would be named after him: the Authorised King James Version.
Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch, he was committed to a peace policy, tried to avoid involvement in religious wars the Thirty Years' War that devastated much of Central Europe. He tried but failed to prevent the rise of hawkish elements in the English Parliament who wanted war with Spain. James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's difficult marriage, Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle, his godparents were Charles IX of France, Elizabeth I of England, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was the custom; the subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, to which the English guests took offence, thinking the satyrs "done against them". James's father, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James inherited his father's titles of Duke of Earl of Ross. Mary was unpopular, her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.
In June 1567, Protestant rebels imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent; the care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved and upbrought" in the security of Stirling Castle. James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567; the sermon at the coronation was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland, the Kirk; the Privy Council selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, Adam Erskine, David Erskine as James's preceptors or tutors. As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan subjected James to regular beatings but instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning. Buchanan sought to turn James into a God-fearing, Protestant king who accepted the limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos.
In 1568, Mary escaped from her i
Sir Terence Mervyn Rattigan, CBE was a British dramatist. He was one of England's most popular mid twentieth century dramatists, his plays are set in an upper-middle-class background. He wrote The Winslow Boy, The Browning Version, The Deep Blue Sea and Separate Tables, among many others. A troubled homosexual, who saw himself as an outsider, his plays centred on issues of sexual frustration, failed relationships, a world of repression and reticence. Terence Rattigan was born in 1911 in London, of Irish Protestant extraction, he had Brian. They were the grandsons of Sir William Henry Rattigan, a notable India-based jurist, a Liberal Unionist Member of Parliament for North-East Lanarkshire, his father was Frank Rattigan CMG, a diplomat whose exploits included an affair with Princess Elisabeth of Romania which resulted in her having an abortion. The Royal House of Romania is considered to be the inspiration of Rattigan's play The Sleeping Prince. Rattigan's birth certificate and his birth announcement in The Times indicate he was born on 9 June 1911.
However, most reference books state. There is evidence suggesting, he was given no middle name. Rattigan was educated at Sandroyd School from 1920 to 1925, at the time based in Cobham and Harrow School. Rattigan played cricket for the Harrow First XI and scored 29 in the Eton–Harrow match in 1929, he was a member of the Harrow School Officer Training Corps and organised a mutiny, informing the Daily Express. More annoying to his headmaster, Cyril Norwood, was the telegram from the Eton OTC, "offering to march to his assistance", he went to Trinity College, Oxford. Success as a playwright came early, with the comedy French Without Tears in 1936, set in a crammer; this was inspired by a 1933 visit to a village called Marxzell in the Black Forest, where young English gentlemen went to learn German. Rattigan's determination to write a more serious play produced After the Dance, a satirical social drama about the "bright young things" and their failure to politically engage; the outbreak of the Second World War scuppered any chances of a long run.
Shortly before the war, Rattigan had written a satire about Follow My Leader. During the war, Rattigan served in the Royal Air Force as a tail gunner, he was a friend of Spike Milligan's junior officer, Lieutenant Tony Goldsmith, killed in the Battle of Longstop Hill, whilst on observation post duty. Rattigan sent it to The Times. A copy of it is in "Rommel?" "Gunner Who?", one volume of Milligan's war memoirs. After the war, Rattigan alternated between comedies and dramas, establishing himself as a major playwright: the most famous of which were The Winslow Boy, The Browning Version, The Deep Blue Sea, Separate Tables, he believed in understated emotions and craftsmanship, deemed old fashioned and "pre-war" after the overnight success in 1956 of John Osborne's Look Back in Anger began the era of kitchen sink dramas by the writers known as the Angry Young Men. Rattigan responded to this critical disfavour with some bitterness, his plays Ross and Boy, In Praise of Love, Cause Célèbre, however show no sign of any decline in his talent.
Rattigan explained that he wrote his plays to please a symbolic playgoer, "Aunt Edna", someone from the well-off middle-class who had conventional tastes. "Aunt Edna" inspired Joe Orton to create "Edna Welthorpe", a mischievous alter ego stirring up controversy about his own plays. Rattigan was gay, with numerous lovers but no long-term partners, a possible exception being his "congenial companion... and occasional friend" Michael Franklin. It has been claimed his work is autobiographical, containing coded references to his sexuality, which he kept secret from all but his closest friends. There is some truth in this. On the other hand, for the Broadway staging of Separate Tables, he wrote an alternative version of the newspaper article in which Major Pollock's indiscretions are revealed to his fellow hotel guests. However, Rattigan changed his mind about staging it, the original version proceeded. Rattigan was fascinated with the character of T. E. Lawrence. In 1960 he wrote. Preparations were made to film it, Dirk Bogarde accepted the role.
However, it did not proceed because the Rank Organisation withdrew its support, not wishing to offend David Lean and Sam Spiegel, who had started to film Lawrence of Arabia. Bogarde called Rank's decision "my bitterest disappointment". In 1960, a musical version of French Without Tears was staged as Joie de Vivre, with music b
Lord Banquo, the Thane of Lochaber, is a character in William Shakespeare's 1606 play Macbeth. In the play, he is at first an ally to Macbeth and they meet the Three Witches together. After prophesying that Macbeth will become king, the witches tell Banquo that he will not be king himself, but that his descendants will be. Macbeth in his lust for power sees Banquo as a threat and has him murdered by two hired assassins. Banquo's ghost returns in a scene, causing Macbeth to react with alarm during a public feast. Shakespeare borrowed the character of Banquo from Holinshed's Chronicles, a history of Britain published by Raphael Holinshed in 1587. In Chronicles Banquo is an accomplice to Macbeth in the murder of the king, rather than a loyal subject of the king, seen as an enemy by Macbeth. Shakespeare may have changed this aspect of his character to please King James, thought at the time to be a descendant of the real Banquo. Critics interpret Banquo's role in the play as being a foil to Macbeth, resisting evil where Macbeth embraces it.
Sometimes, his motives are unclear, some critics question his purity. He does nothing to accuse Macbeth of murdering the king though he has reason to believe Macbeth is responsible. Shakespeare used Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles of England and Ireland—commonly known as Holinshed's Chronicles—as a source for his plays, in Macbeth he borrows from several of the tales in that work. Holinshed portrays Banquo as an historical figure: he is an accomplice in Mac Bethad mac Findlaích's murder of Donnchad mac Crínáin and plays an important part in ensuring that Macbeth, not Máel Coluim mac Donnchada, takes the throne in the coup that follows. Holinshed in turn used an earlier work, the Scotorum Historiae by Hector Boece, as his source. Boece's work is the first known record of his son Fleance. In Shakespeare's day, they were considered historical figures of great repute, the king, James I, based his claim to the throne in part on a descent from Banquo; the House of Stuart was descended from Walter fitz Alan, Steward of Scotland, he was believed to have been the grandson of Fleance and Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's daughter, Nesta ferch Gruffydd.
In reality, Walter fitz Alan was the son of a Breton knight. Unlike his sources, Shakespeare gives Banquo no role in the King's murder, making it a deed committed by Macbeth and his wife, Lady Macbeth. Why Shakespeare's Banquo is so different from the character described by Holinshed and Boece is not known, though critics have proposed several possible explanations. First among them is the risk associated with portraying the king's ancestor as a murderer and conspirator in the plot to overthrow a rightful king, as well as the author's desire to flatter a powerful patron, but Shakespeare may simply have altered Banquo's character because there was no dramatic need for another accomplice to the murder. There was, however; when Jean de Schelandre wrote about Banquo in his Stuartide in 1611, he changed the character by portraying him as a noble and honourable man—the critic D. W. Maskell describes him as "... Schelandre's paragon of virtue" -- for reasons similar to Shakespeare's. Banquo's role in the coup that follows the murder is harder to explain.
Banquo's loyalty to Macbeth, rather than Malcolm, after Duncan's death makes him a passive accomplice in the coup: Malcolm, as Prince of Cumberland, is the rightful heir to the throne and Macbeth a usurper. Daniel Amneus argued that Macbeth as it survives is a revision of an earlier play, in which Duncan granted Macbeth not only the title of Thane of Cawdor, but the "greater honor" of Prince of Cumberland. Banquo's silence may be a survival from the posited earlier play, in which Macbeth was the legitimate successor to Duncan. Banquo is as both a human and a ghost; as significant as he is to the plot, he has fewer lines than the insignificant Ross, a Scottish nobleman who survives the play. In the second scene of the play, King Duncan describes the manner in which Macbeth, Thane of Glamis, Banquo, Thane of Lochaber, bravely led his army against invaders, fighting side by side. In the next scene and Macbeth, returning from the battle together, encounter the Three Witches, who predict that Macbeth will become Thane of Cawdor, king.
Banquo, sceptical of the witches, challenges them to predict his own future, they foretell that Banquo will never himself take the throne, but will beget a line of kings. Banquo remains sceptical after the encounter, wondering aloud if evil can speak the truth, he warns Macbeth that evil will offer men a small, hopeful truth only to catch them in a deadly trap. When Macbeth kills the king and takes the throne, Banquo—the only one aware of this encounter with the witches—reserves judgment for God, he is unsure whether Macbeth committed regicide to gain the throne, but muses in a soliloquy that "I fear / Thou play'dst most foully for't". He pledges loyalty. Worried that Banquo's descendants and not his own will rule Scotland, Macbeth sends two men, a Third Murderer, to kill Banquo and his son Fleance. During the melee, Banquo holds off the assailants so that Fleance is himself killed; the ghost of Banquo returns to haunt Macbeth at the banquet in Act Three, Scene Four. A terrified Macbeth sees him
Vivien Leigh was an English stage and film actress. She won two Academy Awards for Best Actress, for her iconic performances as Scarlett O'Hara in Gone with the Wind and Blanche DuBois in the film version of A Streetcar Named Desire, a role she had played on stage in London's West End in 1949, she won a Tony Award for her work in the Broadway musical version of Tovarich. After completing her drama school education, Leigh appeared in small roles in four films in 1935 and progressed to the role of heroine in Fire Over England. Lauded for her beauty, Leigh felt that her physical attributes sometimes prevented her from being taken as an actress. Despite her fame as a screen actress, Leigh was a stage performer. During her 30-year career, she played roles ranging from the heroines of Noël Coward and George Bernard Shaw comedies to classic Shakespearean characters such as Ophelia, Cleopatra and Lady Macbeth. In life, she performed as a character actress in a few films. At the time, the public identified Leigh with her second husband, Laurence Olivier, her spouse from 1940 to 1960.
Leigh and Olivier starred together in many stage productions, with Olivier directing, in three films. She earned a reputation for being difficult to work with, for much of her adult life, she suffered from bipolar disorder, as well as recurrent bouts of chronic tuberculosis, first diagnosed in the mid-1940s and claimed her life at the age of 53. Although her career had periods of inactivity, in 1999 the American Film Institute ranked Leigh as the 16th greatest female movie star of classic Hollywood cinema. Leigh was born Vivian Mary Hartley on 5 November 1913 in British India on the campus of St. Paul's School, Darjeeling, she was the only child of Ernest Richard Hartley, a British broker, his wife, Gertrude Mary Frances. Her father was born in Scotland in 1882, while her mother, a devout Roman Catholic, was born in Darjeeling in 1888 and may have been of Irish and Armenian or Indian ancestry. Gertrude's parents, who lived in India, were Michael John Yackjee, a man of independent means, Mary Teresa Robinson, born to an Irish family killed during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and grew up in an orphanage, where she met Yackjee.
Ernest and Gertrude Hartley were married in 1912 in London. In 1917, Ernest Hartley was transferred to Bangalore as an officer in the Indian Cavalry, while Gertrude and Vivian stayed in Ootacamund. At the age of three, young Vivian made her first stage appearance for her mother's amateur theatre group, reciting "Little Bo Peep". Gertrude Hartley tried to instill an appreciation of literature in her daughter and introduced her to the works of Hans Christian Andersen, Lewis Carroll and Rudyard Kipling, as well as stories of Greek mythology and Indian folklore. At the age of six, Vivian was sent by her mother from Loreto Convent, Darjeeling, to the Convent of the Sacred Heart situated in Roehampton, southwest London. One of her friends there was future actress Maureen O'Sullivan, two years her senior, to whom Vivian expressed her desire to become "a great actress", she was removed from the school by her father, travelling with her parents for four years, she attended schools in Europe, notably in Dinard, the Sacred Heart in San Remo on the Italian Riviera, in Paris, becoming fluent in both French and Italian.
The family returned to Britain in 1931. She attended A Connecticut Yankee, one of O'Sullivan's films playing in London's West End, told her parents of her ambitions to become an actress. Shortly after, her father enrolled Vivian at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London. Vivian met Herbert Leigh Holman, known as Leigh Holman, a barrister 13 years her senior, in 1931. Despite his disapproval of "theatrical people", they married on 20 December 1932 and she terminated her studies at RADA, her attendance and interest in acting having waned after meeting Holman. On 12 October 1933 in London, she gave birth to a daughter, Suzanne Mrs. Robin Farrington. Leigh's friends suggested she take a small role as a schoolgirl in the film Things Are Looking Up, her film debut, albeit uncredited as an extra, she engaged an agent, John Gliddon, who believed that "Vivian Holman" was not a suitable name for an actress. After rejecting his many suggestions, she took "Vivian Leigh" as her professional name. Gliddon recommended her to Alexander Korda as a possible film actress, but Korda rejected her as lacking potential.
She was cast in the play The Mask of Virtue, directed by Sidney Carroll in 1935, received excellent reviews, followed by interviews and newspaper articles. One such article was from the Daily Express, in which the interviewer noted "a lightning change came over her face", the first public mention of the rapid changes in mood which had become characteristic of her. John Betjeman, the future poet laureate, described her as "the essence of English girlhood". Korda attended her opening night performance, admitted his error, signed her to a film contract, she continued with the play but, when Korda moved it to a larger theatre, Leigh was found to be unable to project her voice adequately or to hold the attention of so large an audience, the play closed soon after. In the playbill, Carroll had revised the spelling of her first name to "Vivien". In 1960 Leigh recalled her ambivalence towards her first experience of critical acclaim and sudden fame, commenting, "t
Maxine Audley was an English theatre and film actress. She made her professional stage debut in July 1940 at the Open Air Theatre. Audley performed with the Royal Shakespeare Company many times, she appeared in more than 20 films, the first of, the 1948 adaptation of Anna Karenina. Maxine Audley was born in London on 29 April 1923, her parents were a coloratura soprano. Audley attended the Westonbirt School in Gloucestershire, she trained for the stage at the Tamara Daykharhanova School in New York City and the London Mask Theatre School. Audley was married four times, to the pianist Leonard Cassini, to company manager Andrew Broughton, to Frederick Granville the impresario, with whom she had a daughter, Deborah Jane, to the Irish singer, songwriter and lyricist Leo Maguire. Audley died in London on 23 July 1992. Audley made her first professional stage appearance in July 1940 at the Open Air Theatre in a walk-on role in a production of A Midsummer Night's Dream. From 1940 to 1942, Audley performed with repertory companies in Tonbridge and Birmingham.
She again performed at the Open Air Theatre in 1942 and 1943, appearing in such roles as Nerissa in The Merchant of Venice and Hippolyta in A Midsummer Night's Dream. After the Second World War, Audley toured with the Old Vic company in Arms and the Man and made her West End theatre debut in the 1948 musical Carissima. From 1948 to 1949, Audley performed in repertory theatre at the Nottingham Playhouse; the following year, she joined the company of what was referred to as the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, touring Germany in the roles of Goneril in King Lear, Mariana in Measure for Measure and Ursula in Much Ado About Nothing. Audley continued to work with this company throughout her career, appearing with them again for their 1955 and 1957 seasons. In the 1955 season, Audley appeared as Lady Macduff in Macbeth, a performance, praised by Kenneth Tynan as having "exceptional power". Audley portrayed Tamora in the 1957 production of Titus Andronicus, a role that she would list as one of her favourites, along with Amanda in Private Lives and Blanche du Bois in A Streetcar Named Desire.
In 1961, Audley joined the Old Vic company, appearing as Constance in King John at the Royal Lyceum Theatre and the Old Vic. The following year, she performed with the Royal Shakespeare Company at the Edinburgh Festival, she worked with the Royal Shakespeare Company again in 1977, playing Volumnia in Coriolanus in Stratford and at the Aldwych Theatre. Other venues at which Audley has appeared include the Haymarket Theatre in 1963, the Palace Theatre, Watford in 1968 and the Warehouse Theatre in 1978. Maxine Audley appeared in more than 20 films, her first appearance being in the 1948 adaptation of Anna Karenina, she appeared in The Prince and the Showgirl, A King in New York, The Vikings and Our Man in Havana in 1959. The following year, she created arguably Mrs. Stephens in Peeping Tom, her other films include The Trials of Oscar Wilde as Ada Leverson, The Battle of the Villa Fiorita, Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush, House of Cards, Frankenstein Must Be Destroyed, Sinful Davey, The Looking Glass War and Running Scared.
Her television appearances included International Detective and Danger Man, "The Edgar Wallace Mysteries" and "The Man From the Carlton Tower", The Adventures of Black Beauty, Space: 1999 and the television miniseries adaptations of Zastrozzi: A Romance and A Ghost in Monte Carlo. Maxine Audley on IMDb "Audley, Maxine ". BFI Screenonline. Retrieved 20 August 2016