Macdonald Randolph Hotel
Macdonald Randolph Hotel is a hotel in Oxford, England. It is in central Oxford on the south side of Beaumont Street, at the corner with Magdalen Street, opposite the Ashmolean Museum and close to the Oxford Playhouse; the hotel's architecture is Victorian Gothic in style. The hotel featured in the Inspector Morse television series several times, in particular in the episode entitled "The Wolvercote Tongue"; the cast stayed at the hotel during filming in 1987 and there is now a Morse Bar. It was in episodes of the Morse followup, "Lewis", it is only recently that Macdonald Hotels Ltd renamed the Randolph Hotel as the "Macdonald Randolph Hotel". Construction of the Randolph Hotel began in 1864 by William Wilkinson, an architect who designed many houses in North Oxford. There was debate about the building's design. John Ruskin favoured Gothic revival like the nearby Martyrs' Memorial; the City Council wanted a classical style since the rest of Beaumont Street was early 19th century Regency. A compromise was attained with a simplified Gothic façade, similar to the Oxford University Museum and the Oxford Union buildings, but in brick.
The hotel was named not after Lord Randolph Churchill, connected with Blenheim Palace to the north of Oxford, but after Dr Francis Randolph, an eighteenth century university benefactor. The University or Randolph Galleries were built as a result of a thousand pound gift left by Dr Randolph, a former Principal of St Alban Hall, who died in 1796; the hotel was opened in 1866. Major refurbishments of the hotel were undertaken in 1952, 1978, 1988 and 2000. During the 1952 renovations, an extension was added to the west, designed by J. Hopgood; the building is Grade II listed. On 17 April 2015, the Randolph Hotel had a "significant fire"; the fire was confirmed to have started in the kitchens on the ground floor. The fire spread through building voids reaching the roof; the emergency services were called at 16:46 and came at about 16:52. There were no casualties, the Oxfordshire Fire Service praised the hotel for its "quick evacuation processes." Certain roads were closed including Magdalen Street and St Giles.
Cars were diverted via Walton Street and on to St Margaret's Road and Woodstock Road, taxis and buses diverted via Parks Road, Broad Street and George Street. The fire ended around 20:00. A performance at the Oxford Playhouse at 20:00 went ahead; the fire was caused by the cooking of flambéed beef in the kitchen. Hotel website
Morpeth is a historic market town in Northumberland, North East England, lying on the River Wansbeck. Nearby villages include Pegswood. In the 2011 census, the population of Morpeth was given as 14,017, up from 13,833 in the 2001 census; the earliest record of the town is believed to be from the Neolithic period. The meaning of the town's name is uncertain, but it may refer to its position on the road to Scotland and a murder which occurred on that road; the de Marley family was granted the Barony of Morpeth in c. 1080 and built two castles in the town in the late 11th century and the 13th century. The town was granted its coat of arms in 1552. By the mid 1700s it had become one of the main markets in England, having been granted a market charter in 1199, but the opening of the railways in the 1800s lead the market to decline; the town's history is celebrated in the annual Northumbrian Gathering. Morpeth is governed by Morpeth Town Council; the town is split into three wards – North and Stobhill – for the purposes of parish elections.
In 2008 the town suffered a severe flood, repeated in 2012, resulting in the construction of new flood defences. Morpeth railway station is on the east coast line and a curve to the south of it has caused several rail crashes. Several sports teams compete in Morpeth, with Morpeth Town A. F. C. Having been the winner of the FA Vase in 2016; the town hosted its own Olympics from 1873 to 1958. Two middle schools and seven primary schools are situated in Morpeth, as well as several churches of Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Reformed and Methodist denominations. Morpeth's Carlisle Park, the recipient of several awards, contains one of the four floral clocks in England. Morpeth was founded at a crossing point of the River Wansbeck. Remains from prehistory are scarce, but the earliest evidence of occupation found is a stone axe thought to be from the Neolithic period. There is a lack of evidence of activity during the Roman occupation of Britain, although there were settlements in the area at that time.
Morpeth is recorded in the Assize Rolls of Northumberland of 1256 as Morpath and Morthpath, was archaically spelt Morepath. The meaning of the town's name is uncertain. Another possible meaning is that the name derives from the Old English pre-7th-century compound morð-pæð or Morthpaeth, meaning "murder path", in remembrance of "some forgotten" slaying on the road, although some old documents suggest that this meaning is a fallacy; the barony of Morpeth was granted to the de Merlay family in around 1080, by 1095 a motte-and-bailey castle had been built by William de Merlay. Newminster Abbey, located on the outskirts of Morpeth, was founded in 1138 by William's son, Ranulf de Merlay, lord of Morpeth, his wife, daughter of Gospatric II, Earl of Lothian, as one of the first daughter houses of Fountains Abbey. King John granted a market charter for the town to Roger de Merlay in 1199, it became one of the main markets in Northern England by the mid 1700s and by the mid 18th century was one of the key cattle markets in England.
The market is still held on Wednesdays. The town was badly damaged by fire set by the barons in 1215 during the First Barons' War, in an attempt to block the military operations of King John; the motte-and-bailey castle was burnt down by King John in 1216. Morpeth Castle was built in the 13th century by Ranulph de Merlay, to the south of Haw Hill. In the 13th century, a stone bridge was built over the Wansbeck in Morpeth, to the west of the current bridge, replacing the ford in use in Morpeth. For some months in 1515–16, Margaret Tudor, the Queen Consort of Scotland, had laid ill in Morpeth Castle, having been brought there from Harbottle Castle; the only remains of the castle are the gatehouse, restored by the Landmark Trust, parts of the ruined castle walls. In 1540, Morpeth was described by the royal antiquary John Leland as "long and metely well-builded, with low houses" and "a far fairer town than Alnwick". During the 1543–51 war of the Rough Wooing, Morpeth was occupied by a garrison of Italian mercenaries, who "pestered such a little street standing in the highway" by killing deer and withholding payment for food.
In 1552, William Hervey, Norroy King of Arms, granted the borough of Morpeth a coat of arms. The arms were the same with the addition of a gold tower. In the letters patent, Hervey noted that he had included the arms of the "noble and valyaunt knyght... for a p'petuall memory of his good will and benevolence towardes the said towne". Morpeth was a borough by prescription, but received its first charter of confirmation from Charles II; the corporation it created was controlled by seven companies: the Merchant Tailors, the Tanners, the Fullers and Dyers, the Smiths, the Cordwainers, the Weavers and the Butchers. This remained the governing charter until the borough was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. During the Second World War, RAF Morpeth, an air-gunnery training school, opened at nearby Tranwell; the town and the county's history and culture are celebrated at the annual Northumbrian Gathering. The gathering includes the Border Cavalcade and Pageant; the 50th gathering took place in 2017.
Morpeth has two tiers of local government. The lower tier is Morpeth Town Council. Morpeth is a civil pa
North Berwick is a seaside town and former royal burgh in East Lothian, Scotland. It is situated on the south shore of the Firth of Forth 25 miles east-northeast of Edinburgh. North Berwick became a fashionable holiday resort in the nineteenth century because of its two sandy bays, the East Bay and the West Bay, continues to attract holidaymakers. Golf courses at the ends of each bay are open to visitors; the name North Berwick means North "barley farmstead". The word North was applied to distinguish this Berwick from Berwick-upon-Tweed, which throughout the Middle Ages the Scots called South Berwick, it was recorded as Northberwyk in 1250. On the south of North Berwick Law there is evidence of at least eighteen hut circles, rich middens and a field system dating from 2,000 years ago. Excavations have shown that from as early as the eighth century, a ferry crossing to Earlsferry, near Elie in Fife was in existence, serving pilgrims on their way to the shrine of Saint Andrew. North Berwick Harbour was built in the twelfth century to meet the demands made of the existing ferry trade.
This ferry was reinstated. Around 1150, Earl of Fife of the Clan MacDuff founded an influential Cistercian nunnery. Duncan's family shortly afterwards, at the start of the thirteenth century built North Berwick Castle erecting a wooden motte and bailey on the site of what is now Castle Hill in the East end of the town at the start of Tantallon Terrace; this castle was attacked and held by the Earl of Pembroke around 1306. In the late-fourteenth century, the Lauder family erected a stone tower with a barmkin on the site. In the fourteenth century, the town became a baronial burgh under William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas, who built nearby Tantallon Castle to consolidate his power. During the fifteenth century, the town became a royal burgh in the reign of James I of Scotland; the "Auld Kirk Green" at the harbour was used for gatherings by the accused in the North Berwick Witch Trials. Legend has it that "Satan himself" attended a ritual there in 1590, although it is more that Satan was "played" by Francis Stewart Hepburn, 5th Earl of Bothwell.
During the sixteenth century, at least seventy people were implicated in the Witch Trials, the events inspired works such as Burns' "Tam o' Shanter" and "The Thirteenth Member" by Mollie Hunter. One of the most famous Witch Trials at North Berwick: was of a woman named Agnes Sampson, she was accused of making a potion to make the storms rough as King James VI of Scotland was sailing home from Denmark with his new wife, Anne of Denmark. The trial took place in 1591, King James himself, was present. Sampson was tortured to confess and burned at the stake, like many other innocent people. Whaling in the eighteenth century. Local lore, place names, the jawbone arch atop the Law erected in 1709, suggest that the port was involved in the whaling industry though there is little written evidence left to prove it. In any event it would have been overshadowed by nearby Leith. Whales have been known to have washed ashore here. Despite the railway arriving in 1850, the Industrial Revolution bypassed the town.
The late-nineteenth century saw North Berwick develop holiday facilities. The town soon became popular as a home for Edinburgh retirees; the size and population of the town remained steady until the 1970s, at which point housebuilding began in earnest around the periphery of the town, first to the south a series of major expansions to the west along the line of the railway. There is talk of further developments focussing on "affordable housing" on the south side of the town. While the population might not have "exploded", house prices have. North Berwick appears at the top of national house price surveys, like-for-like prices are comparable to Edinburgh. North Berwick was listed as the most expensive seaside town in Scotland in 2006, was second to St. Andrews in 2009. Several of the Islands of the Forth are near the town and visible from it: e.g. Fidra, The Lamb and Bass Rock; the Bass Rock appears white, but this is due to the gannets and their guano that cover much of its surface. The seabirds themselves can be observed at close range through remote cameras operated from the developed Scottish Seabird Centre near the harbour.
Boat trips to the Bass Rock and other islands, although landings are restricted and dependant upon sea conditions. Scottish Seabird Centre – Visitor centre about seabirds found on Bass Rock and elsewhere. North Berwick Law – A 613-foot volcanic hill which rises above the town, with a Napoleonic era signal station; the whale's jawbone "arch" at the summit collapsed in June 2005, was replaced by a fibreglass replica in June 2008. Beaches – One of North Berwick's main attractions, the beaches have golden sands and rocks, a tide-filled boating pond/paddling pool on the East Sands. Seacliff. Just to the east of the town, an entry fee is charged at this private and unspoilt beach and est
East Kilbride is the largest town in South Lanarkshire in Scotland and the 6th largest settlement in Scotland. It was designated Scotland's first new town on 6 May 1947; the area lies on a raised plateau to the south of the Cathkin Braes, about 8 miles southeast of Glasgow and close to the boundary with East Renfrewshire. The town is enclosed by the White Cart Water to the west and the Rotten Calder Water to the east, the latter flowing northwards adjacent to Blantyre, before joining the River Clyde opposite Daldowie near Cambuslang; this area was the site of the small village of East Kilbride, prior to its post-war development into a New Town. The old village still is integrated with the town close to its town centre; the earliest known evidence of occupation in the area dates as far back as the late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age, as archaeological investigation has demonstrated that burial cairns in the district began as ceremonial or ritual sites of burial during the Neolithic, with the use of cup-marked, other inscribed stones at key elevated sites, only to be built upon with earth and re-used for burial into the Bronze Age.
These findings have found further support through ongoing research indicating that many East Kilbride Cairns first noticed by the Reverend David Ure in his History of Rutherglen and East Kilbride 1793, are embedded, alongside other monuments, into a ritual landscape related to ancestor cults and relationships with key topographical features and annual solar events. A flint arrow head was discovered by Allan Forrest, a child resident whilst groundworks were taking place in his family's garden at Glen Bervie, St Leonards in 1970, identified as dating to 1500 BC. Ancient graves have been found near the Kype Water to the south of the town near Strathaven, Roman coins and footwear have been found in the area. East Kilbride traditionally takes its name from an Irish saint named St Bride, alleged to have founded a monastery for nuns and monks in Kildare in Leinster, Ireland, in the 6th century. Dál Riatan monks afterwards introduced her order to Scotland; the anglicisation Kil takes its root from the early Celtic monastics that St. Brigit is representative of: the Culdees or Céli Dé.
The Céile Dé were'the clients or companions of God'. In modern Gaelic, Cille Bhrìghde translates as'the clients or companions of Brigit', can be interpreted as the'church of Bride' or'burial place dedicated to Bride'. Alternatively the dedication may commemorate the Scottish St Bryde, born in 451 AD and dying at Abernethy 74 years later. Culdee type Christian settlements were essential to the spread of the Celtic church in Scotland, with small pagan sites being converted and chapels or cells forming little more than crude shelters, or timber and turf buildings with crude circular enclosures; the evidence of Culdee type small-scale habitation is supported by the number of early stone cross sites around East Kilbride, their associated holy fonts and both with pre-canonisation saintly dedications. The original parish church was located on what is believed to be the site of a pre-Christian sacred area, the origin of the association with St. Brigit, since the site may be dedicated to the Celtic goddess Brigid, whose traditions have been continued through the reverence of St. Brigit brought on by the Celtic Church.
Many sites in mainland Britain associated with Saint Bridget involve early dedications to sacred wells, the number of which in East Kilbride may indicate that the chosen site for the early Christian settlement centered around a sacred spring, although such a feature has not yet been identified close to the church. East Kilbride grew from a small village of around 900 inhabitants in 1930 to become a large burgh; the rapid industrialisation of the twentieth century underpins this growth and left much of the working population throughout Scotland's Central Belt, from Glasgow to Edinburgh, living in the housing stock built at the end of the previous century. The Great War postponed any housing improvements, as did the Treaty of Versailles and the period of post-war settlement it created. In turn, this was followed by the Great Depression. After the Second World War, Glasgow suffering from chronic housing shortages, incurred bomb damage from the war. From this unlikely backdrop a new dawn emerged which would bring East Kilbride to its unlikely success.
In 1946, the Clyde Valley Regional Plan allocated sites where overspill satellite "new towns" could be constructed to help alleviate the housing shortage. Glasgow would undertake the development of its peripheral housing estates. East Kilbride was the first of five new towns in Scotland to be designated, in 1947, followed by Glenrothes, Cumbernauld and Irvine; the town has been subdivided into residential precincts, each with its own local shops, primary schools and community facilities. The housing precincts surround the shopping centre, bound by a ring road. Industrial estates are concentrated on the outskirts of the town, in northern and southern directions; the Calderglen gorge bordering the eastern fringe of East Kilbride, was celebrated in a high number of printed works as a picturesque forest and'magnificent in its grouping of craggy heights, sprinkled with trees and the richly wooded and festooned valley', with'delightful cascades', described as indescribable, or as'the GRAND, the ROMANTIC, BEAUTIFUL' - the latter being the only part of David Ure's book where he emphasised the descriptive characteristics of a place in bold characters.
The northern part of the gorge and adjoining Calderwood, the gorge's namesake, w
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi
Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county; the city is 51 miles from London, 61 miles from Bristol, 59 miles from Southampton, 57 miles from Birmingham and 24 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold. Oxford has a broad economic base, its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots. Oxford was first settled in Anglo-Saxon times and was known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "ford of the oxen".
It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the England-wide St. Brice's Day massacre, a killing of Danes ordered by King Æthelred the Unready; the skeletons of more than 30 suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College. The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to King Sweyn I of Denmark’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004. Oxford was damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area; the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks.
The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Additionally, there is evidence of Jews living in the city as early as 1141, during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100; the city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142. In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin, "Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place. Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island.
We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this confirmation. Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom. Oxford's status as a liberty obtained from this period until the 19th century. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order. Parliaments were held in the city during the 13th century; the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort. Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were both born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events; the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall remains.
What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College and Merton; these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way; these colleges at Oxf
Camberley is a town in Surrey, England, 31 miles southwest of Central London, between the M3 and M4 motorways. The town is in the far west of the county, close to the borders of Berkshire, it is the main town in the borough of Surrey Heath. Camberley's suburbs include Crawley Hill, York Town, Diamond Ridge and Old Dean. Before the 19th century, the area now occupied by Camberley was referred to as Bagshot or Frimley Heath. An Iron Age fort liberally among one of many examples known as Caesar's Camp was to the north of this area alongside the Roman Road The Devil's Highway; the Intenarium Curiosum, published in 1724, describes a collection of Roman pottery around the area, a further collection was discovered at Frimley Green in the late 20th century. In the Middle Ages, the area was part of Windsor Forest. In the 17th century, the area along the turnpike road through Bagshot Heath was known as a haunt of highwaymen, such as William Davies – known as the Golden Farmer – and Claude Duval; the land remained undeveloped and uncultivated due to a sandy topsoil making it unsuitable for farming.
In A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, written between 1724 and 1726, Daniel Defoe described the area as barren and sterile. A brick tower was built on top of The Knoll by John Norris of Blackwater, it may have been used for communications but there is no firm evidence. The remains are now known as The Obelisk; the town as it now stands has its roots in the building of The Royal Military College, which became the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, in 1812. A settlement known as "New Town" grew in the area around the college which in 1831 was renamed Yorktown, after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. At this time, the population was 702. In 1848, the first parish church of St. Michael, Yorktown was built by Henry Woodyer, in an area part of Frimley, itself only a chapelry of Ash; the Staff College was established to the east of the Academy, a property speculator built the nearby Cambridge Hotel. The surrounding area became known as Cambridge Town, but was renamed "Camberley" in January 1877 to avoid confusion by the General Post Office with Cambridge in Cambridgeshire.
The renaming of Camberley was mentioned in the 1963 film adaptation of William Golding's Lord of the Flies. The character Piggy states. Hugh Edwards, the child actor who played Piggy, attended Camberley Primary School, demolished to make way for the town centre redevelopment. During the 19th century, Camberley grew in size; this was given added impetus with the arrival of the branch-line railway and railway station in 1878 and a reputation for healthy air, due to the vast number of pine trees, which were said to be good for those suffering from pulmonary disorders. By the end of the century the population had reached 8,400. Since the town has absorbed the original settlement of Yorktown, now regarded as part of Camberley; the Southern Scott Scramble, the first known motorcycle scrambling event, took place on Camberley Heath on 29 March 1924. The event, won by A. B. Sparks, attracted a crowd in the thousands and is considered to be the first instance of what developed in the sport of motocross. During the Second World War, the Old Dean common was used as an instruction camp of the Free French Forces.
The Kremer prize was conceived in the Cambridge Hotel in Camberley in 1959 after Henry Kremer toured a Microcell factory. Barossa Golf Club was located on Barossa Common; the club was founded in 1893 and continued until WW2. The Old Dean housing estate was built in the 1950s on the "Old Dean Common" for residents of bombed Surrey-area's homeless after World War II. Many of the roads on that half of the Old Dean are named after areas of London, with the others named after places on the common. Camberley falls under the siren test area of Broadmoor Hospital, a secure mental hospital in nearby Crowthorne; the siren was installed following a public outcry at the escape of child-murderer John Thomas Straffen in April 1952. The siren is still tested every Monday at 10am. In 1969 there was an outbreak of rabies when a dog, just released from a sixth month quarantine after returning from Germany, attacked two people on Camberley Common; the scare resulted in restriction orders for dogs and large-scale shoots to carry out the destruction of foxes and other wildlife.
After debate and delay, in 2006, a 7-acre mixed-use development west of Park Street named The Atrium was built of residential and retail buildings with wide pedestrianised areas and 683 public parking spaces. Its 217 mid-rise apartments split into courtyards in the Barcelona style. Fourteen new retail units face directly opposite the Main Square shopping centre. Park Street has been landscaped as part of the development. Leisure facilities include a nine-screen cinema, a bowling alley, a health and fitness club, cafés and restaurants. Various