A dovecote or dovecot or doocot is a structure intended to house pigeons or doves. Dovecotes may be free-standing structures in a variety of shapes, or built into the end of a house or barn, they contain pigeonholes for the birds to nest. Pigeons and doves were an important food source in Western Europe and were kept for their eggs and dung. In some cultures Medieval Europe, the possession of a dovecote was a symbol of status and power and was regulated by law. Only nobles had this special privilege known as droit de colombier. Many ancient manors in France and the United Kingdom have a dovecote in one section of the manorial enclosure or in nearby fields. Examples include Château de Kerjean in Brittany, Houchin, Bodysgallen Hall in Wales, Muchalls Castle and Newark Castle in Scotland; the oldest dovecotes are thought to have been the fortified dovecotes of Upper Egypt, the domed dovecotes of Iran. In dry regions, the droppings were prized by farmers and were thus collected for fertilizing their arid fields.
The presence of dovecotes is not noted in France before the Roman invasion of Gaul by Caesar. The pigeon farm was a passion in Rome: the Roman round, columbarium had its interior covered with a white coating of marble powder. Varro and Pliny the Elder wrote about pigeon farms and dovecote construction. In the city of Rome in the time of the Republic and the Empire the internal design of the banks of pigeonholes was adapted for the purpose of disposing of cremated ashes after death: these columbaria were constructed underground; the French word for dovecote is colombier. In some French provinces Normandy, the dovecotes were built of wood in a stylized way. Stone was the other popular building material for these old dovecotes; these stone structures were built in circular and octagonal form. Some of the medieval French abbeys had large stone dovecotes on their grounds. In Brittany, the dovecote was sometimes built directly into the upper walls of the farmhouse or manor-house. In rare cases, it was built into the upper gallery of the lookout tower.
Dovecotes of this type are called tour-fuie in French. Some of the larger château-forts, such as the Château de Suscinio in Morbihan, still have a complete dovecote standing on the grounds, outside the moat and walls of the castle. In France, it was called a colombier or fuie from the 13th century onwards and pigeonnier until the 19th century; the dovecote interior, the space granted to the pigeons, is divided into a number of boulins. Each boulin is the lodging of a pair of pigeons; these boulins can be in rock, brick or cob and installed at the time of the construction of the dovecote or be in pottery, in braided wicker in the form of a basket or of a nest. It is the number of boulins; the one at the chateau d'Aulnay with its 2,000 boulins and the one at Port-d'Envaux with its 2,400 boulins of baked earth are among the largest ones in France. In the Middle Ages in France, the possession of a colombier à pied, constructed separately from the corps de logis of the manor-house, was a privilege of the seigneurial lord.
He was granted permission by his overlord to build two on his estate lands. For the other constructions, the dovecote rights varied according to the provinces, they had to be in proportion to the importance of the property, placed in a floor above a henhouse, a kennel, a bread oven a wine cellar. The aviaries were integrated into a stable, a barn or a shed, were permitted to use no more than 1 hectares of arable land. Although they produced an excellent fertilizer, the lord's pigeons were seen as a nuisance by the nearby peasant farmers, in particular when sowing new crops. In numerous regions where the right to possess a dovecote was reserved for the nobility, the complaint rolls frequently recorded formal requests for the suppression of this privilege and a law for its abolition, ratified on 4 August 1789 in France. Dovecotes were included in several of the villa designs of Andrea Palladio; as an integral part of the World Heritage Site "Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto", dovecotes such as those at Villa Barbaro enjoy a high level of protection.
Dovecotes in Belgium are associated with pigeon racing. They have special features, such as trap doors that allow pigeons to fly in, but not out; the Flemish word for dovecote is "duivenkot". Dovecotes in Spain are known as a Palomares; these structures are popular in the Tierra de Campos region and has a scale model of this type of building at a Theme Park located in the Mudéjar de Olmedo. Other good examples are located at Museums located in Castroverde de Campos, Villafáfila and the famous "Palomar de la Huerta Noble" in the municipality of Isla Cristina, built in the 18th century to house 36,000 pigeons; the Szekely people of Transylvania incorporate a dovecote into the design of their famous gates. These intricately carved wooden structures feature a large arch with a slatted door, meant to admit drivers of carriages and wagons, a smaller arch with a similar door for pedestrians. Across the top of the gate is
Clan MacDuff or Clan Duff is a Lowland Scottish clan. The clan does not have a chief and is therefore considered an Armigerous clan, registered with the Lyon Court; the early chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the original Earls of Fife, although this title went to the Stewarts of Albany in the late fourteenth century. The title returned to the MacDuff chief when William Duff was made Earl Fife in 1759, his descendant Alexander Duff was made Duke of Fife in 1889. The Clan Duff claims descent from the original Royal Scoto-Pictish line of which Queen Gruoch of Scotland, wife of Macbeth, King of Scotland was the senior representative. After the death of MacBeth, Malcolm III of Scotland seized the Crown and his son, married the daughter of Queen Gruoch. Aedh was created abbot of Abernethy; the early chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the Earls of Fife. Sir Iain Moncreiffe wrote. Today, the Earls of Wemyss are thought to be the descendants in the male line of Gille Míchéil, Earl of Fife, thought to be one of the first Clan MacDuff chiefs.
Gille-michael MacDuff was one of the witnesses to the great charter of David I of Scotland to Dunfermline Abbey. In 1306 during the Wars of Scottish Independence, Duncan MacDuff, Earl of Fife was as a minor, held by Edward I of England at the coronation of Robert the Bruce as his ward while Duncan's sister, Isabella MacDuff, placed the golden circlet upon King Robert's head; as a result, when she fell into the hands of King Edward's army, she was imprisoned in a cage, suspended from the walls of Berwick Castle. Duncan MacDuff married Mary, the niece of King Edward, threw in his lot against the Bruce. However, he was captured and imprisoned in Kildrummy Castle where he died in 1336; the Earldom fell into the hands of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, although the MacDuff family lost their rank, they continued to prosper. In 1384, the earl of Fife was described as capitalis legis de Clenmcduffe, meaning chief of the law of Clan MacDuff. In 1404, David Duff received a charter from Robert III of Scotland for lands in Banffshire.
In 1626, John Duff sold the lands in Bannfshire which his ancestor had acquired in 1404. The title of The Fife returned with William Duff, 1st Earl Fife and Viscount Macduff in 1759; the 1st Earl of Fife's cousin, Captain Robert Duff of the Royal Navy supported the British-Hanoverian Government during the Jacobite rising of 1745 and was involved in the Skirmish of Arisaig. James Duff, 4th Earl of Fife fought with distinction in the Peninsular War where he was wounded at the Battle of Talavera in 1809 and was made a Knight of the Order of St Ferdinand of Spain. Alexander Duff, 6th Earl of Fife married Louise, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of Edward VII. Alexander was advanced to the rank of Duke of Fife in July 1889. With the death of the 1st Duke of Fife, the Clan MacDuff had its last Chief; as of 2014, the representative that should succeed to its Headship is, according to thepeerage.com, James Richard Valentine Duff, born on 19 October 1941. Clan Macduff was the first Scottish clan to be recognized as a clan by the Scottish Parliament, by legislation dated November 1384.
The Earl of Fife and the Abbot of Abernethy were both "Capitals of Law of the Clan MacDuff". The law protected all murderers within ninth degree of kin to the Earl of Fife, as they could claim sanctuary at the Cross of MacDuff near Abernethy, could find remission by paying compensation to the victim's family; the chiefs of the clan had the right to enthrone the King on the Stone of Scone. When the Stone of Scone was taken to England by Edward I of England, Robert I of Scotland had himself crowned King of Scots a second time, in order to be crowned by a member of clan MacDuff, in that case the Earl of Fife's sister. In 1425, the last Earl of Fife, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, was beheaded; the Clan MacDuff's hereditary right of bearing the Crown of Scotland passed to the Lord Abernethy. The current Lord Abernethy, bearer of the Scottish Crown, is Alexander Douglas-Hamilton, 16th Duke of Hamilton. Macduff's Castle in East Wemyss, Fife is now a ruinous castle, once held by the MacDuff Earls of Fife.
The property went to the Clan Wemyss who built the present castle. Airdit House in Leuchers, Fife was held by the MacDuffs but went to the Clan Stewart who held it in 1425 when Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany was executed. Barnslee Castle near Markinch, Fife was held by the Clan MacDuff. One story is that an underground tunnel led from it to Maiden Castle, about three miles away. Castle Hill in North Berwick in East Lothian was held by the MacDuff Earls of Fife who had a ferry from North Berwick to Earlsferry in Fife. Cupar Castle in Cupar, was held by the Clan MacDuff. Falkland Palace in Falkland, there was a castle here, held by the MacDuff Earls of Fife although it was destroyed by the English in 1337, it was re-built in 1371 and passed to Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, also Earl of Fife. Fernie Castle in Cupar, Fife was once held by the MacDuff Earls of Fife. Maiden Castle near Methil, Fife was once held by the Clan MacDuff. One story is that an underground tunnel led from it to Barnslee Castle, about three miles away.
Earl Fife Earl of Fife Duke of Fife Clan MacDuff Society of America The Scottish Studies Foundation
Fife is a council area and historic county of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with inland boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. By custom it is held to have been one of the major Pictish kingdoms, known as Fib, is still known as the Kingdom of Fife within Scotland. Fife is one of the six local authorities part of the South East Scotland city region, it is a lieutenancy area, was a county of Scotland until 1975. It was occasionally known by the anglicisation Fifeshire in old documents and maps compiled by English cartographers and authors. A person from Fife is known as a Fifer. Fife was a local government region divided into three districts: Dunfermline and North-East Fife. Since 1996 the functions of the district councils have been exercised by the unitary Fife Council. Fife is Scotland's third largest local authority area by population, it has a resident population of just under 367,000, over a third of whom live in the three principal towns of Dunfermline and Glenrothes.
The historic town of St Andrews is located on the northeast coast of Fife. It is well known for the University of St Andrews, one of the most ancient universities in the world and is renowned as the home of golf. Fife, bounded to the north by the Firth of Tay and to the south by the Firth of Forth, is a natural peninsula whose political boundaries have changed little over the ages; the Pictish king list and De Situ Albanie documents of the Poppleton manuscript mention the division of the Pictish realm into seven sub-kingdoms or provinces, one being Fife, though this is now regarded as a medieval invention. The earliest known reference to the common epithet The Kingdom of Fife dates from only 1678, in a proposition that the term derives from the quasi-regal privileges of the Earl of Fife; the notion of a kingdom may derive from a misinterpretation of an extract from Wyntoun. The name is recorded as Fib in A. D. 1150 and Fif in 1165. It was associated with Fothriff; the hill-fort of Clatchard Craig, near Newburgh, was occupied as an important Pictish stronghold between the sixth and eighth centuries AD.
Fife was an important royal and political centre from the reign of King Malcolm III onwards, as the leaders of Scotland moved southwards away from their ancient strongholds around Scone. Malcolm had his principal home in Dunfermline and his wife Margaret was the main benefactor of Dunfermline Abbey; the Abbey replaced Iona as the final resting place of Scotland's royal elite, with Robert I amongst those to be buried there. The Earl of Fife was until the 15th century considered the principal peer of the Scottish realm, was reserved the right of crowning the nation's monarchs, reflecting the prestige of the area. A new royal palace was constructed at Falkland the stronghold of Clan MacDuff, was used by successive monarchs of the House of Stuart, who favoured Fife for its rich hunting grounds. King James VI of Scotland described Fife as a "beggar's mantle fringed wi gowd", the golden fringe being the coast and its chain of little ports with their thriving fishing fleets and rich trading links with the Low Countries.
Wool, linen and salt were all traded. Salt pans heated by local coal were a feature of the Fife coast in the past; the distinctive red clay pan tiles seen on many old buildings in Fife arrived as ballast on trading boats and replaced the thatched roofs. In 1598, King James VI employed a group of 12 men from Fife, who became known as the Fife adventurers, to colonise the Isle of Lewis in an attempt to begin the "civilisation" and de-gaelicisation of the region; this endeavour lasted until 1609 when the colonists, having been opposed by the native population, were bought out by Kenneth Mackenzie, the clan chief of the Mackenzies. Fife became a centre of heavy industry in the 19th century. Coal had been mined in the area since at least the 12th century, but the number of pits increased ten-fold as demand for coal grew in the Victorian period. Rural villages such as Cowdenbeath swelled into towns as thousands moved to Fife to find work in its mines; the opening of the Forth and Tay rail bridges linked Fife with Dundee and Edinburgh and allowed the rapid transport of goods.
Modern ports were constructed at Methil and Rosyth. Kirkcaldy became the world centre for the production of linoleum. Postwar Fife saw the development of Glenrothes. To be based around a coal mine, the town attracted a high number of modern Silicon Glen companies to the region. Fife Council and Fife Constabulary centre their operations in Glenrothes. There are numerous notable historical buildings in Fife, some of which are managed by the National Trust for Scotland or Historic Scotland, they include Dunfermline Abbey, the palace in Culross, Ravenscraig Castle in Kirkcaldy, Dysart Harbour area, Balgonie Castle near Coaltown of Balgonie, Falkland Palace, Kellie Castle near Pittenweem, Hill of Tarvit, St. Andrews Castle, St. Andrews Cathedral and St. Rule's Tower. Fife is represented by five constituency members of the Scottish Parliament and four members of the United Kingdom parliament who are sent to Holyrood and the British Parliament respectively. Following the 2015 General Election, all four of the MPs constituencies were held by the Scottish National Party.
In the 2017 General Election Kirkcaldy and Cowdenbeath was regained by Labour. At the same election, the seat of North East Fife became the closest seat in the country with the SNP holding a majority of 2 over the Liberal Democrats Three of
Culross is a village and former royal burgh, parish, in Fife, Scotland. According to the 2006 estimate, the village has a population of 395. Culross served as a port city on the Firth of Forth and is believed to have been founded by Saint Serf during the 6th century; the civil parish had a population of 4,348 in 2011. A legend states that when the British princess Teneu, daughter of the king of Lothian, became pregnant before marriage, her family threw her from a cliff, she survived the fall unharmed, was soon met by an unmanned boat. She knew she had no home to go to, so she got into the boat. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the town was a centre of the coal mining industry. Sir George Bruce of Carnock, who built the splendid'Palace' of Culross and whose elaborate family monument stands in the north transept of the Abbey church, established a coal mine at Culross in 1575 and in 1595 constructed the Moat Pit by which it became the first coal mine in the world to extend under the sea; the mine worked what is now known as the Upper Hirst coal seam, with ingenious contrivances to drain the constant leakage from above.
This mine was considered one of the marvels of the British Isles in the early 17th century, described by one visitor, John Taylor, The Water Poet, as "a wonder... an unfellowed and unmatchable work", until the Moat Pit was destroyed in a storm on 30 March 1625. Culross' secondary industry was salt panning. There was a considerable export trade by sea in the produce of these industries and the prevalence of red roof tiles in Culross and other villages in Fife is thought to be a direct result of collier ships returning to Culross with Dutch roof tiles as ballast; the town was known for its monopoly on the manufacture of'girdles', i.e. flat iron plates for baking over an open fire. In the late 18th century, Archibald Cochrane, 9th Earl of Dundonald established kilns for extracting coal tar using his patented method; the town's role as a port declined from the 18th century, by Victorian times it had become something of a'ghost town'. The harbour was filled in and the sea cut off by the coastal railway line in the second half of the 19th century.
During the 20th century, it became recognised that Culross contained many unique historical buildings and the National Trust for Scotland has been working on their preservation and restoration since the 1930s. Notable buildings in the burgh include Culross Town House used as a courthouse and prison, the 16th century Culross Palace, 17th century Study, the remains of the Cistercian house of Culross Abbey, founded 1217; the tower and choir of the Abbey Church remain in use as the parish church, while the ruined claustral buildings are cared for by Historic Environment Scotland. Just outside the town is the 18th-century Dunimarle Castle, built by the Erskine family to supersede a medieval castle. Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald spent much of his early life in Culross, where his family had an estate. There is now a bust in his honour outside the Culross Town House, he was the first Vice Admiral of Chile. The war memorial was erected in 1921 to a design by Sir Robert Lorimer. Prior to the 1890s, the parish of Culross formed an exclave of Perthshire.
It is within the West Fife Westminster Parliamentary constituency. Several motion pictures have used Culross as a filming location, including Kidnapped, The Little Vampire, A Dying Breed, The 39 Steps, Captain America: The First Avenger. In September 2013, the Starz television series, started filming in Culross for its premiere in August 2014. George Bruce of Carnock, Lord Bruce Elizabeth Melville, "Lady Culross", Scotland's earliest known published female poet Stewart McPherson, recipient of the Victoria Cross Rev Robert Pont radical church figure during the Reformation, five times Moderator of the Church of Scotland Jackie Sinclair, Scottish international footballer Culross is twinned with Veere in the Netherlands, the port through which its export goods entered the Low Countries. Culross community site at Fife Council Entry in A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland Culross Arts and Music Festival Engraving of Culross in 1693 by John Slezer at National Library of Scotland
Robert the Bruce
Robert I, popularly known as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329. Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, led Scotland during the First War of Scottish Independence against England, he fought during his reign to regain Scotland's place as an independent country and is today revered in Scotland as a national hero. Descended from the Anglo-Norman and Gaelic nobility, his paternal fourth great-grandfather was King David I. Robert's grandfather, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne during the "Great Cause"; as Earl of Carrick, Robert the Bruce supported his family's claim to the Scottish throne and took part in William Wallace's revolt against Edward I of England. Appointed in 1298 as a Guardian of Scotland alongside his chief rival for the throne, John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, William Lamberton, Bishop of St Andrews, Robert resigned in 1300 due to his quarrels with Comyn and the imminent restoration of John Balliol to the Scottish throne.
After submitting to Edward I in 1302 and returning to "the king's peace", Robert inherited his family's claim to the Scottish throne upon his father's death. In February 1306, having wounded Comyn, rushed from the church where they had met and encountered his attendants outside, he told them what had happened and said, "I must be off, for I doubt I have slain the Red Comyn." "Doubt?" Roger de Kirkpatrick of Closeburn answered, "I mak sikker," and, rushing into the church, killed Comyn. For this Bruce was excommunicated by the Pope. Bruce moved to seize the throne and was crowned king of Scots on 25 March 1306. Edward I's forces defeated Robert in battle, forcing him to flee into hiding before re-emerging in 1307 to defeat an English army at Loudoun Hill and wage a successful guerrilla war against the English. Bruce defeated his other Scots enemies, destroying their strongholds and devastating their lands, in 1309 held his first parliament. A series of military victories between 1310 and 1314 won him control of much of Scotland, at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Robert defeated a much larger English army under Edward II of England, confirming the re-establishment of an independent Scottish kingdom.
The battle marked a significant turning point, with Robert's armies now free to launch devastating raids throughout northern England, while extending his war against the English to Ireland by sending an army to invade there and by appealing to the Irish to rise against Edward II's rule. Despite Bannockburn and the capture of the final English stronghold at Berwick in 1318, Edward II refused to renounce his claim to the overlordship of Scotland. In 1320, the Scottish nobility submitted the Declaration of Arbroath to Pope John XXII, declaring Robert as their rightful monarch and asserting Scotland's status as an independent kingdom. In 1324, the Pope recognised Robert I as king of an independent Scotland, in 1326, the Franco-Scottish alliance was renewed in the Treaty of Corbeil. In 1327, the English deposed Edward II in favour of his son, Edward III, peace was concluded between Scotland and England with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, by which Edward III renounced all claims to sovereignty over Scotland.
Robert died in June 1329. His body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey, while his heart was interred in Melrose Abbey and his internal organs embalmed and placed in St Serf’s Chapel, site of the medieval Cardross Parish church. Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale, the first of the Bruce, or de Brus, line arrived in Scotland with David I in 1124 and was given the lands of Annandale in Dumfries and Galloway. Several members of the Bruce family were called Robert, the future king was one of ten children, the eldest son, of Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale, Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, claimed the Scottish throne as a fourth great-grandson of David I, his mother was by all accounts a formidable woman who, legend would have it, kept Robert Bruce's father captive until he agreed to marry her. From his mother, he inherited the Earldom of Carrick, through his father, a royal lineage that would give him a claim to the Scottish throne; the Bruces held substantial estates in Aberdeenshire, County Antrim, County Durham, Essex and Yorkshire.
Although Robert the Bruce's date of birth is known, his place of birth is less certain, although it is most to have been Turnberry Castle in Ayrshire, the head of his mother's earldom. However there are claims that he may have been born in Lochmaben in Dumfriesshire, or Writtle in Essex. Little is known of his youth, he was brought up in a mixture of the Anglo-Norman culture of northern England and south-eastern Scotland, the Gaelic culture of south-west Scotland and most of Scotland north of the River Forth. Annandale was feudalised and the form of Northern Middle English that would develop into the Scots language was spoken throughout the region. Carrick was an integral part of Galloway, though the earls of Carrick had achieved some feudalisation, the society of Carrick at the end of the thirteenth century remained emphatically Celtic and Gaelic speaking. Robert the Bruce would most have become trilingual at an early age, he would have been schooled to speak and write in the Anglo-Norman language of his Scots-Norman peers and his father's family.
He would have spoken both the Gaeli
Wemyss Castle is situated in Wemyss on the sea cliffs between the villages of East Wemyss and West Wemyss in Fife, Scotland. Accounts date the construction of the castle to 1421 when Sir John Wemyss decided to build a fortified castle to replace one destroyed by the Duke of Rothesay at Kilconquhar in 1402; the castle is thus the ancient seat of the Earls of their families. The castle is best known as the location where Mary, Queen of Scots, met her future husband Lord Darnley, in 1565. Wemyss is an imposing castle sitting high atop cliffs with a view over the Firth of Forth. Two particular points of interest are that one of the towers from an earlier building has been re-used, first as a windmill and as a dovecote. There is an oval-shaped dungeon within the castle, connected to the building by a 30m zigzag passage. Wemyss castle remains a residence. Members of today's Royal Family, including the Queen, have visited; some believe Wemyss possesses, like a number of Scottish castles, a "Green Lady".
Green, in Scotland at any rate, has always been an unlucky colour, associated with death and misfortune. Unfortunate is the girl who wears green on her wedding day. In the case of Wemyss, the ghost is that of a young woman wearing a trailing dress of green silk which rustles as she floats along the corridors within the castle. A news report in 2007 suggested. Http://www.wemysscastlegardens.com
In the United Kingdom, a scheduled monument is a "nationally important" archaeological site or historic building, given protection against unauthorised change. The various pieces of legislation used for protecting heritage assets from damage and destruction are grouped under the term ‘designation’; the protection provided to scheduled monuments is given under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979, a different law from that used for listed buildings. A heritage asset is a part of the historic environment, valued because of its historic, architectural or artistic interest. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have extra legal protection through designation. There are about 20,000 scheduled monuments in England representing about 37,000 heritage assets. Of the tens of thousands of scheduled monuments in the UK, most are inconspicuous archaeological sites, but some are large ruins. According to the 1979 Act, a monument cannot be a structure, occupied as a dwelling, used as a place of worship or protected under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973.
As a rule of thumb, a protected historic asset, occupied would be designated as a listed building. Scheduled monuments are defined in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979. In England and Scotland they are referred to as a scheduled ancient monument, although the Act defines only ancient monument and scheduled monument. A monument can be: A building or structure, cave or excavation, above or below the surface of the land. A site comprising any vehicle, aircraft or other moveable structure. In Northern Ireland they are designated under separate legislation and are referred to as a scheduled historic monument or a monument in state care; the first Act to enshrine legal protection for ancient monuments was the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882. This identified an initial list of 68 prehistoric sites that were given a degree of legal protection; this was the result of strenuous representation by William Morris and the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, founded in 1877.
Following various previous attempts, the 1882 legislation was guided through parliament by John Lubbock, who in 1871 had bought Avebury, Wiltshire, to ensure the survival of the stone circle. The first Inspector of Ancient Monuments, as set up by the act, was Augustus Pitt Rivers. At this point, only the inspector, answering directly to the First Commissioner of Works, was involved in surveying the scheduled sites and persuading landowners to offer sites to the state; the act established the concept of guardianship, in which a site might remain in private ownership, but the monument itself become the responsibility of the state, as guardian. However the legislation could not compel landowners, as that level of state interference with private property was not politically possible; the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1900 extended the scope of the legislation to include medieval monuments. Pressure grew for stronger legislation. In a speech in 1907, Robert Hunter, chairman of the National Trust, observed that only a further 18 sites had been added to the original list of 68.'Scheduling' in the modern sense only became possible with the passing of the Ancient Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Act 1913.
When Pitt Rivers died in 1900 he was not replaced as Inspector. Charles Peers, a professional architect, was appointed as Inspector in 1910 in the Office of Works becoming Chief Inspector in 1913; the job title'Inspector' is still in use. Scheduling offers protection because it makes it illegal to undertake a great range of'works' within a designated area, without first obtaining'scheduled monument consent'. However, it does not affect the owner’s freehold title or other legal interests in the land, nor does it give the general public any new rights of public access; the process of scheduling does not automatically imply that the monument is being poorly managed or that it is under threat, nor does it impose a legal obligation to undertake any additional management of the monument. In England and Wales the authority for designating, re-designating and de-designating a scheduled monument lies with the Secretary of State for the Department for Culture and Sport; the Secretary of State keeps the schedule, of these sites.
The designation process was first devolved to Scotland and Wales in the 1970s and is now operated there by the Scottish Government and the Welsh Assembly respectively. The government bodies with responsibility for archaeology and the historic environment in Britain are: Historic England in England, Cadw in Wales, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland; the processes for application and monitoring scheduled monuments is administered in England by Historic England. In Northern Ireland, the term "Scheduled Historic Monument" is used; these sites protected under Article 3 of the Historic Monuments and Archaeological Objects Order 1995. The schedule contains over 1,900 sites, is maintained by the Department for Communities. There is no positive distinction yet for a single method of registering sites of heritage; the long tradition of legal issues did not lead to a condensed register nor to any single authority to take care of over the course of the last 130 years. The UK