The Ramayana is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana. Along with the Mahabharata, it forms the Sanskrit Itihasa, the Ramayana is one of the largest ancient epics in world literature. It consists of nearly 24,000 verses, divided into seven Kandas, in Hindu tradition, it is considered to be the adi-kavya. It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying characters like the ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife. The Ramayana was an important influence on Sanskrit poetry and Hindu life, like the Mahabharata, the Ramayana is not just a story, it presents the teachings of ancient Hindu sages in narrative allegory, interspersing philosophical and ethical elements. The name Ramayana is a compound of the name Rāma and ayana. According to Hindu tradition—and according to the Ramayana itself—the epic belongs to the genre of itihasa like Mahabharata, the definition of itihāsa is a narrative of past events which includes teachings on the goals of human life.
According to Hindu tradition, Ramayana takes place during a period of known as Treta Yuga. In its extant form, Valmikis Ramayana is a poem of some 24,000 verses. The text survives in several thousand partial and complete manuscripts, the oldest of which is a manuscript found in Nepal. A Times of India report dated 18 December 2015 informs about discovery of a 6th-century manuscript of the Ramayana at the Asiatic Society library, the Ramayana text has several regional renderings and subrecensions. Goldman differentiates two major regional recensions, the northern and the southern, scholar Romesh Chunder Dutt writes that the Ramayana, like the Mahabharata, is a growth of centuries, but the main story is more distinctly the creation of one mind. There has been discussion as to whether the first and the last chapters of Valmikis Ramayana were composed by the original author. Most Hindus still believe they are parts of the book, in spite of some style differences. Some cultural evidence, such as the presence of sati in Mahabharata but not in the body of Ramayana.
By tradition, the text belongs to the Treta Yuga, second of the four eons of Hindu chronology, Rama is said to have been born in the Treta yuga to king Dasharatha in the Ikshvaku dynasty. The names of the characters are all known in late Vedic literature, nowhere in the surviving Vedic poetry is there a story similar to the Ramayana of Valmiki. Also, in the epic Mahabharata, there is a version of Ramayana known as Ramopakhyana and this version is depicted as a narration to Yudhishthira
A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education, the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means community of teachers and scholars. Universities were created in Italy and evolved from Cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages, the original Latin word universitas refers in general to a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members, an important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom. The first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the first university, the University of Bologna adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education.
Today this is claimed as the origin of academic freedom and this is now widely recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988,430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bolognas foundation. The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, the university is generally regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting. The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and it is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception. Later they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries, the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, and the University of Oxford.
The students had all the power … and dominated the masters and leaders of city governments perceived the potential benefits of having a scholarly expertise develop with the ability to address difficult problems and achieve desired ends. The emergence of humanism was essential to understanding of the possible utility of universities as well as the revival of interest in knowledge gained from ancient Greek texts. The rediscovery of Aristotles works–more than 3000 pages of it would eventually be translated–fuelled a spirit of inquiry into natural processes that had begun to emerge in the 12th century. Some scholars believe that these represented one of the most important document discoveries in Western intellectual history. Richard Dales, for instance, calls the discovery of Aristotles works a turning point in the history of Western thought and this became the primary mission of lecturers, and the expectation of students. The university culture developed differently in northern Europe than it did in the south, Latin was the language of the university, used for all texts, lectures and examinations.
Professors lectured on the books of Aristotle for logic, natural philosophy, and metaphysics, while Hippocrates, outside of these commonalities, great differences separated north and south, primarily in subject matter
A ceremonial mace is a highly ornamented staff of metal or wood, carried before a sovereign or other high official in civic ceremonies by a mace-bearer, intended to represent the officials authority. The mace, as used today, derives from the mace used as a weapon. Processions often feature maces, as on parliamentary or formal academic occasions, the ceremonial mace was used as a symbol of authority of military commanders. By the 14th century, these sergeants maces had started to become increasingly decorative, as a weapon, the mace fell out of use with the disappearance of heavy armor. The history of the civic mace begins around the middle of the 13th century, the oldest civic mace in England is that of Hedon. However, the sergeants of London gained this privilege, as did those of York, records exist of maces covered with silver in use at Exeter in 1387–1388, Norwich bought two in 1435, and Launceston others in 1467 and 1468. Several other cities and towns subsequently acquired silver maces, and the 16th century saw almost universal use, early in the 15th century the flanged end of the mace was carried uppermost, with the small button bearing the royal arms in the base.
The Guildford mace provides one of the finest of the fifteen specimens of the 15th century, craftsmen often pierced and decorated the flanged ends of the maces of this period beautifully. These flanges gradually became smaller, and by the 16th or early 17th century had developed into pretty projecting scroll-brackets and other ornaments, the next development in the embellishment of the shaft was the reappearance of these small scroll-brackets on the top, immediately under the head of the mace. They disappear altogether from the foot in the last half of the 17th century, the silver mace-heads were mostly plain, with a cresting of leaves or flowers in the 15th and 16th centuries. In the reign of James I of England they began to be engraved and decorated with heraldic devices, as the custom of having sergeants maces began to die out about 1650, the large maces borne before the mayor or bailiffs came into general use. Thomas Maundy functioned as the maker of maces during the English Commonwealth.
He made the mace for the House of Commons in 1649 and this mace is still in use today, though without the original head. The original head, which was not engraved with symbols, was replaced by one with regal symbols at the time of the Restoration of the monarchy. Oliver Cromwell referred to the House of Commons mace as a fools bauble when he dissolved the Rump Parliament in 1653, There are 10 large silver-gilt maces of the sergeants-at-arms kept as part of the Crown Jewels in the Jewel House at the Tower of London. Two date from the reign of Charles II, two from the reign of James II, three from William and Marys reign, and one from Queen Annes reign, all these are of a type almost universally adopted, with slight variations, at the Restoration. Each mace weighs an average of 10 kilograms, in the Houses of Parliament, two ceremonial maces represent the monarchs authority. The monarch is referred to as the part of Parliament and signs into law the Bills which are voted on
Ukraine is currently in territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula which Russia annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine and most of the international community recognise as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country entirely within Europe and it has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC, during the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near the end of World War I and another during World War II.
Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as The Ukraine, following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited partnership with the Russian Federation and other CIS countries. In the 2000s, the government began leaning towards NATO, and it was agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych considered the current level of co-operation between Ukraine and NATO sufficient, and was against Ukraine joining NATO and these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep, Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands and is one of the worlds largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace.
Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers, executive. Its capital and largest city is Kiev, taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel, Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia. Ukrainian is the language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, there are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older and most widespread hypothesis, it means borderland, while more recently some studies claim a different meaning, homeland or region. The Ukraine now implies disregard for the sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites include a mammoth bone dwelling
Ramesses II, known as Ramesses the Great and Ozymandias, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He often is regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and his successors and Egyptians called him the Great Ancestor. Ramesses II led several expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali, at age fourteen, Ramesses was appointed Prince Regent by his father Seti I. He is believed to have taken the throne in his teens and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 BC to 1213 BC. Manetho attributes Ramesses II a reign of 66 years and 2 months, most Egyptologists today believe he assumed the throne on May 31,1279 BC, estimates of his age at death vary,90 or 91 is considered most likely. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented 14 sed festivals during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings, his was moved to a royal cache where it was discovered in 1881.
The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples and he established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and used it as the main base for his campaigns in Syria. He is known as Ozymandias in the Greek sources, from a transliteration into Greek of a part of Ramesses throne name, Usermaatre Setepenre, The justice of Rê is powerful – chosen of Rê. Early in his life, Ramesses II embarked on campaigns to restore possession of previously held territories lost to the Nubians and Hittites. He was responsible for suppressing some Nubian revolts and carrying out a campaign in Libya, during Ramesses IIs reign, the Egyptian army is estimated to have totaled about 100,000 men, a formidable force that he used to strengthen Egyptian influence. The Sherden people probably came from the coast of Ionia, from southwest Anatolia or perhaps, a stele from Tanis speaks of their having come in their war-ships from the midst of the sea, and none were able to stand before them.
In that sea battle, together with the Sherden, the pharaoh defeated the Lukka, the immediate antecedents to the Battle of Kadesh were the early campaigns of Ramesses II into Canaan. The inscription is almost totally illegible, due to weathering, additional records tell us that he was forced to fight a Canaanite prince who was mortally wounded by an Egyptian archer, and whose army subsequently, was routed. Ramesses carried off the princes of Canaan as live prisoners to Egypt, Ramesses plundered the chiefs of the Asiatics in their own lands, returning every year to his headquarters at Riblah to exact tribute. In the fourth year of his reign, he captured the Hittite vassal state of Amurru during his campaign in Syria, the Battle of Kadesh in his fifth regnal year was the climactic engagement in a campaign that Ramesses fought in Syria, against the resurgent Hittite forces of Muwatallis. The pharaoh wanted a victory at Kadesh both to expand Egypts frontiers into Syria, and to emulate his father Seti Is triumphal entry into the city just a decade or so earlier and he constructed his new capital, Pi-Ramesses
Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. It is produced when felsic lava extruded from a volcano cools rapidly with minimal crystal growth, Obsidian is commonly found within the margins of rhyolitic lava flows known as obsidian flows, where the chemical composition induces a high viscosity and polymerization degree of the lava. The inhibition of atomic diffusion through this highly viscous and polymerized lava explains the lack of crystal growth. Obsidian is hard and brittle, it therefore fractures with very sharp edges, which were used in the past in cutting and piercing tools, among the various forms of glass we may reckon Obsidian glass, a substance very similar to the stone found by Obsidius in Ethiopia. Obsidian is the rock formed as a result of quickly cooled lava, tektites were once thought by many to be obsidian produced by lunar volcanic eruptions, though few scientists now adhere to this hypothesis. Obsidian is mineral-like, but not a true mineral because as a glass it is not crystalline, in addition and it is sometimes classified as a mineraloid.
Though obsidian is usually dark in color similar to mafic rocks such as basalt, Obsidian consists mainly of SiO2, usually 70% or more. Crystalline rocks with obsidians composition include granite and rhyolite, because obsidian is metastable at the Earths surface, no obsidian has been found that is older than Cretaceous age. This breakdown of obsidian is accelerated by the presence of water, having a low water content when newly formed, typically less than 1% water by weight, obsidian becomes progressively hydrated when exposed to groundwater, forming perlite. Pure obsidian is usually dark in appearance, though the color varies depending on the presence of impurities and other transition elements may give the obsidian a dark brown to black color. Very few samples are nearly colorless, in some stones, the inclusion of small, radially clustered crystals of cristobalite in the black glass produce a blotchy or snowflake pattern. Obsidian may contain patterns of gas bubbles remaining from the lava flow and these bubbles can produce interesting effects such as a golden sheen.
An iridescent, rainbow-like sheen is caused by inclusions of magnetite nanoparticles, Obsidian can be found in locations which have experienced rhyolitic eruptions. Obsidian can be found in the eastern U. S. states of Virginia, as well as Pennsylvania, there are only four major deposit areas in the central Mediterranean, Pantelleria and Monte Arci. Ancient sources in the Aegean were Milos and Gyali, acıgöl town and the Göllü Dağ volcano were the most important sources in central Anatolia, one of the more important source areas in the prehistoric Near East. Use of obsidian in pottery of the Neolithic in the area around Lipari was found to be less at a distance representing two weeks journeying. Anatolian sources of obsidian are known to have been the used in the Levant. The first attested civilized use is from excavations at Tell Brak dated the late fifth millennia, Obsidian was valued in Stone Age cultures because, like flint, it could be fractured to produce sharp blades or arrowheads
A war hammer is a late medieval weapon of war intended for close combat action, whose design resembles the hammer. Its appearance is similar to that of an ice axe, the war hammer consists of a handle and a head. The length of the handle may vary, the longest being roughly equivalent to that of the halberd, long war hammers were pole weapons meant for use against riders, whereas short ones were used in closer quarters and from horseback. The surface of the armor was now as hard as the edge of a blade and battleaxes were likely to only give a glancing blow, losing much of the impact, especially on the high curvature of the helmet. The war hammer could deliver the full force to the target, war hammers, especially when mounted on a pole, could damage without penetrating the armour. In particular, they transmitted the impact through even the thickest helmet, war hammers often had a spike on one side of the head, making them more versatile weapons. A blade or spike tended to be used not against helmets but against other parts of the body where the armor was thinner and penetration was easier.
The spike end could be used for grappling the targets armor, reins, or shield, against mounted opponents, the weapon could be directed at the legs of the horse, toppling the armoured foe to the ground where he could be more easily attacked. The maul is a hammer with a heavy metal head. Similar in appearance and function to a sledgehammer, it is sometimes shown as having a spear-like spike on the fore-end of the haft. The use of the maul as a weapon seems to date from the 14th century, in 1382, rebellious citizens of Paris seized 3,000 mauls from the city armory, leading to the rebels being dubbed Maillotins. Later in the year, Froissart records French men-at-arms using mauls at the Battle of Roosebeke. A particular use of the maul was by archers in the 15th and 16th centuries, at the Battle of Agincourt, English longbowmen are recorded as using lead mauls, initially as a tool to drive in stakes but as an improvised weapon. Other references during the century suggest continued use and they are recorded as a weapon of Tudor archers as late as 1562.
Bec de corbin Horsemans pick Lucerne hammer Skull from Battle of Towton showing war hammer wound Spotlight, The Medieval Poleaxe, by Alexi Goranov
The pilum was a javelin commonly used by the Roman army in ancient times. It was generally about 2 metres long overall, consisting of an iron shank about 7 millimetres in diameter and 60 centimetres long with pyramidal head. The shank was joined to the shaft by either a socket or a flat tang. The purpose was so the enemy could not throw the pilum back at the Roman army. The total weight of a pilum was between 2 and 5 kilograms, with the versions produced during the earlier Republican era being slightly heavier than those produced in the Empire era, the iron shank was the key to the function of the pilum. The weapon had a hard pyramidal tip but the shank was made of softer iron and this softness would cause the shank to bend after impact, thus rendering the weapon useless to the enemy who might throw it back. Even if the shank did not bend, the pyramidal tip still made it difficult to pull out, although the bending of the pilums shank is commonly seen to be an integral part of the weapons design and as an intentional feature, there is little evidence to suggest this.
The combination of the weight and the aforementioned pyramidal tip. That the pilum needed to pierce layers of armour necessitated a lengthy shank, the momentum of the pilum caused the shank to bend upon impact, although unintended, proved to be a useful characteristic of the weapon. Most other javelins of the time were unable to penetrate a shield, the length of the shank and its depth of penetration made it hard to pull out of a shield even if it failed to bend. If the bearer of the shield was charging and a Pilum penetrated the shield, on some pila there was a spike on the end of the shaft which made it easier to dig into the ground. Pila were divided into two models and light, pictorial evidence suggests that some versions of the weapon were weighted by a lead ball to increase penetrative power but archeological specimens of this design variant are not so far known. Recent experiments have shown pila to have a range of approximately 33 metres, the origin of the pilums design is a matter of contention.
Considering that there are two versions of the pilum, it may be possible that the Roman pilum had as ancestors two different weapons, perhaps from different cultural groups respectively. The two weapon designs may have coalesced into the form of the typical Roman pilum, as is known today, legionaries of the Late Republic and Early Empire often carried two pila, with one sometimes being lighter than the other. The effect of the throw was to disrupt the enemy formation by attrition. Pila could be used in combat, one documented instance of this occurred at the Siege of Alesia. Additionally, pila could be employed as a thrusting implement and a barrier against cavalry charges, some pila had small hand-guards, to protect the wielder if he intended to use it as a melee weapon, but it does not appear that this was common. When once fixed in the shield it was impossible to them out
Thus flanged wheels are wheels with a flange on one side to keep the wheels from running off the rails. The term flange is used for a kind of tool used to form flanges. Pipes with flanges can be assembled and disassembled easily, a flange can be a plate or ring to form a rim at the end of a pipe when fastened to the pipe. A blind flange is a plate for covering or closing the end of a pipe, a flange joint is a connection of pipes, where the connecting pieces have flanges by which the parts are bolted together. Surrey and York flanges fit to the top of the hot water tank allowing all the water to be taken without disturbance to the tank and they are often used to ensure an even flow of water to showers. An Essex flange requires a hole to be drilled in the side of the tank, there is a Warix flange which is the same as a York flange but the shower output is on the top of the flange and the vent on the side. The York and Warix flange have female adapters so that they fit onto a male tank, a closet flange provides the mount for a toilet.
There are many different flange standards to be found worldwide, to allow easy functionality and inter-changeability, these are designed to have standardised dimensions. Common world standards include ASA/ANSI/ASME, PN/DIN, BS10, and JIS/KS, in most cases these are interchangeable as most local standards have been aligned to ISO standards, however some local standards still differ. Further, many of the flanges in each standard are divided into pressure classes, again these are not generally interchangeable. These pressure classes have differing pressure and temperature ratings for different materials, the ANSI/ASME pressure classes for Flat-Face flanges are 125# and 250#. The classes for Ring-Joint, Tongue & Groove, and Raised-Face flanges are 150#, 300#, 600#, 900#, 1500#, and 2500#. The flange faces are made to standardized dimensions and are typically flat face, raised face and groove, or ring joint styles. Flange designs are available as weld neck, slip-on, lap joint, socket weld, Pipe flanges that are made to standards called out by ASME B16.5 or ASME B16.47 are typically made from forged materials and have machined surfaces.
B16.5 refers to nominal pipe sizes from ½ to 24, B16.47 covers NPSs from 26 to 60. However these classes do not correspond to maximum pressures in psi, the maximum pressure depends on the material of the flange and the temperature. For example, the pressure for a Class 150 flange is 285 psi. The gasket type and bolt type are generally specified by the standard, sometimes the standards refer to the ASME Boiler and these flanges are recognized by ASME Pipe Codes such as ASME B31.1 Power Piping, and ASME B31.3 Process Piping
Knowth is a Neolithic passage grave and an ancient monument of the World Heritage Site of Brú na Bóinne located 8.4 km west of Drogheda in Irelands valley of the River Boyne. It is the largest passage grave of the Brú na Bóinne complex, the mound is about 12 metres high and 67 metres in diameter, covering roughly a hectare. It contains two passages placed along an east-west line and is encircled by 127 kerbstones, of three are missing, and four badly damaged. The large mound has been estimated to date from between 2500 and 2000 BC, the passages are independent of each other, leading to separate burial chambers. The eastern passage arrives at a chamber, not unlike that found at Newgrange. The right-hand recess is larger and more decorated with megalithic art than the others. The western passage ends in a chamber, which is separated from the passage by a sill stone. The chamber seems to have contained a basin stone which was removed and is now located about two-thirds down the passageway. Knowth contains more than a third of the number of examples of megalithic art in all of Western Europe.
Much of the artwork is found on the kerbstones, particularly approaching the entrances to the passages, many of the motifs are typical, spirals and serpentiform. However, the art at Knowth contains a wide variety of images. Interestingly, much of this artwork was carved on the backs of the stones and this suggests all manner of theories as regards the function of megalithic art within the Neolithic community who built the monuments in the Boyne valley. It is possible that they intended the art to be hidden and it is possible that they simply recycled the stones and reused the other side. There is some evidence for late Neolithic and Bronze Age activity on the site, most of this stems from the existence of a grooved ware timber circle located near the entrance to the eastern passage. Archeological evidence suggests that this was used as a ritual or sacred area after the mound at Knowth had already fallen into disuse. Evidence for ritual consists of a number of votive offerings found in. The hill at Knowth fell into disrepair, and the mound or cairn slipped, the site remained practically unused for a period of two thousand years.
The site was used as a burial site, some 35 cist graves were found on the site during excavations
The Moche civilization flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Peru from about 100 to 800 during the Regional Development Epoch. While this issue is the subject of debate, many scholars contend that the Moche were not politically organized as a monolithic empire or state. Rather, they were likely a group of autonomous polities that shared a common culture, as seen in the rich iconography. Moche society was based, with a significant level of investment in the construction of a network of irrigation canals for the diversion of river water to supply their crops. Their culture was sophisticated, and their artifacts express their lives, with detailed scenes of hunting, fighting, sexual encounters, the Moche are particularly noted for their elaborately painted ceramics, gold work, monumental constructions and irrigation systems. The Salinar culture reigned on the north coast of Peru in 200 BC-200 AD, according to some scholars this was a short transition period between the Cupisnique and the Moche cultures.
Theres considerable parallelism between Moche and Cupisnique iconography and ceramic designs, including the iconography of the Spider god, the nearby Huaca de la Luna is better preserved. Its interior walls contains many colorful murals with complex iconography, the site has been under professional archaeological excavation since the early 1990s. Other major Moche sites include Sipan, Loma Negra, Dos Cabezas, the El Brujo complex, Cerro Mayal, Galindo and their adobe huacas have been mostly destroyed by looters and natural forces over the last 1300 years. The surviving ones show that the coloring of their murals was very vibrant, two distinct regions of the Moche civilization have been identified and Northern Moche, with each area probably corresponding to a different political entity. The Southern Moche region, believed to be the heartland of the culture, originally comprised the Chicama and Moche valleys, the Huaca del Sol-Huaca de la Luna site was probably the capital of this region. It appears that there was a lot of independent development among these various Moche centres and they all likely had ruling dynasties of their own, related to each other.
Centralized control of the whole Moche area may have taken place from time to time, pampa Grande, in the Lambayeque Valley, on the shore of the Chancay River, became one of the largest Moche sites anywhere, and occupied the area of more than 400 ha. It was prominent in the Moche V period, and features an abundance of Moche V ceramics, the site was laid out and built in a short period of time, and has an enormous ceremonial complex. It includes Huaca Fortaleza, which is the tallest ceremonial platform in Peru, San Jose de Moro is another northern site in the Jequetepeque valley. It was prominent in the Middle and Late Moche Periods, numerous Moche tombs have been excavated here, including several burials containing high status female individuals. These women were depicted in Moche iconography as the Priestess, Moche pottery is some of the most varied in the world. The use of technology is evident
Cavalry or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the most mobile of the combat arms, an individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, dragoon or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used animals, such as camels. Cavalry had the advantage of improved mobility, and a man fighting from horseback had the advantages of greater height, another element of horse mounted warfare is the psychological impact a mounted soldier can inflict on an opponent. In Europe cavalry became increasingly armoured, and eventually became known for the mounted knights, in the period between the World Wars, many cavalry units were converted into motorized infantry and mechanized infantry units, or reformed as tank troops. Most cavalry units that are horse-mounted in modern armies serve in purely ceremonial roles, modern usage of the term generally refers to specialist units equipped with tanks or aircraft.
The shock role, traditionally filled by heavy cavalry, is filled by units with the armored designation. Before the Iron Age, the role of cavalry on the battlefield was largely performed by light chariots, the chariot originated with the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in Central Asia and spread by nomadic or semi-nomadic Indo-Iranians. The power of mobility given by mounted units was recognized early on, Cavalry techniques were an innovation of equestrian nomads of the Central Asian and Iranian steppe and pastoralist tribes such as the Persian Parthians and Sarmatians. The photograph above left shows Assyrian cavalry from reliefs of 865–860 BC, at this time, the men had no spurs, saddle cloths, or stirrups. Fighting from the back of a horse was more difficult than mere riding. The cavalry acted in pairs, the reins of the archer were controlled by his neighbours hand. Even at this time, cavalry used swords, shields. The sculpture implies two types of cavalry, but this might be a simplification by the artist, Later images of Assyrian cavalry show saddle cloths as primitive saddles, allowing each archer to control his own horse.
As early as 490 BC a breed of horses was bred in the Nisaean plain in Media to carry men with increasing amounts of armour. However, chariots remained in use for purposes such as carrying the victorious general in a Roman triumph. The southern Britons met Julius Caesar with chariots in 55 and 54 BC, the last mention of chariot use in battle was by the Caledonians at the Mons Graupius, in 84 AD. During the classical Greek period cavalry were usually limited to citizens who could afford expensive war-horses