Macedonia (region)

Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Its boundaries have changed over time. Today the region is considered to include parts of six Balkan countries: Greece, North Macedonia, Albania and Kosovo, it covers 67,000 square kilometres and has a population of 4.76 million. Its oldest known settlements date back to 7,000 BC. From the middle of the 4th century BC, the Kingdom of Macedon became the dominant power on the Balkan Peninsula. Both proper nouns Makedṓn and Makednós are morphologically derived from the Ancient Greek adjective makednós meaning "tall, slim", are related to the term Macedonia; the definition of Macedonia has changed several times throughout history. Prior to its expansion under Alexander the Great, the ancient kingdom of Macedonia, to which the modern region owes its name, lay within the central and western parts of the current Greek province of Macedonia and was consisted of 17 provinces/districts or eparchies. Expansion of Kingdom of Macedon: Kingdom of Perdiccas I: Macedonian Kingdom of Emathia consisting of six provinces Emathia, Bottiaea, Mygdonia and Almopia.

Kingdom of Alexander I: All the above provinces plus the eastern annexations Crestonia and the western annexations Elimiotis and Lynkestis. Kingdom of Philip II: All the above provinces plus the appendages of Pelagonia and Macedonian Paeonia to the north, Sintike and Edonis to the east and the Chalkidike to the south. In the 2nd century, Macedonia covered the area where it is considered to be today, but the northern regions of today Republic of North Macedonia were not identified as Macedonian lands. For reasons that are still unclear, over the next eleven centuries Macedonia's location was changed significantly; the Roman province of Macedonia consisted of what is today Northern and Central Greece, much of the geographical area of the Republic of North Macedonia and southeast Albania. Put, the Romans created a much larger administrative area under that name than the original ancient Macedon. In late Roman times, the provincial boundaries were reorganized to form the Diocese of Macedonia, consisting of most of modern mainland Greece right across the Aegean to include Crete, southern Albania, parts of south-west Bulgaria and most of Republic of North Macedonia.

In the Byzantine Empire, a province under the name of Macedonia was carved out of the original Theme of Thrace, well east of the Struma River. This thema variously gave its name to the Macedonian dynasty. Hence, Byzantine documents of this era that mention Macedonia are most referring to the Macedonian thema; the region of Macedonia, on the other hand, ruled by the First Bulgarian Empire throughout the 9th and the 10th century, was incorporated into the Byzantine Empire in 1018 as the Themе of Bulgaria. With the gradual conquest of southeastern Europe by the Ottomans in the late 14th century, the name of Macedonia disappeared as an administrative designation for several centuries and was displayed on maps; the name was again revived to mean a distinct geographical region in the 19th century, defining the region bounded by Mount Olympus, the Pindus range, mounts Shar and Osogovo, the western Rhodopes, the lower course of the river Mesta and the Aegean Sea, developing the same borders that it has today.

During medieval and modern times, Macedonia has been known as a Balkan region inhabited by many ethnic groups. Today, as a frontier region where several different cultures meet, Macedonia has an diverse demographic profile; the current demographics of Macedonia include: Macedonian Greeks self-identify culturally and regionally as "Macedonians". They form the majority of the region's population, they number 2,500,000 and, they live entirely in Greek Macedonia. The Greek Macedonian population is mixed, with other indigenous groups and with a large influx of Greek refugees descending from Asia Minor, Pontic Greeks, East Thracian Greeks in the early 20th century; this is due to the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, during which over 1.2 million Orthodox Christian refugees from Turkey were settled in Greece, 638,000 of whom were settled in the Greek province of Macedonia. Smaller Greek minorities exist in Bulgaria and the Republic of North Macedonia, although their numbers are difficult to ascertain.

In official census results, only 86 persons declared themselves Greeks in Bulgarian Macedonia in 2011, out of a total of 1,379 in all Bulgaria. Ethnic Macedonians self-identify as "Macedonians" in an ethnic sense as well as in the regional sense, they are the second largest ethnic group in the region. Being a South Slavic ethnic group they are known as "Macedonian Slavs" and "Slav Macedonians" in Greece, though this term can be viewed as derogatory by ethnic Macedonians, including those in Greek Macedonia, they form the majority of the population in the Republic of North Macedonia where according to the 2002 census 1,300,000 people declared themselves as Macedonians. In 1999, the Greek Helsinki Monitor estimated a significant minority of ethnic Macedonians ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 that exist among the Slavic-speakers of Greek Macedonia. There has not been a census in Greece on

Delirium tremens

Delirium tremens is a rapid onset of confusion caused by withdrawal from alcohol. When it occurs, it is three days into the withdrawal symptoms and lasts for two to three days. Physical effects may include shaking, irregular heart rate, sweating. People may see or hear things other people do not. A high body temperature or seizures may result in death. Alcohol is one of the most dangerous drugs from. Delirium tremens only occurs in people with a high intake of alcohol for more than a month. A similar syndrome may occur with barbiturate withdrawal. Withdrawal from stimulants such as cocaine does not have major medical complications. In a person with delirium tremens it is important to rule out other associated problems such as electrolyte abnormalities and alcoholic hepatitis. Prevention is by treating withdrawal symptoms. If delirium tremens occurs, aggressive treatment improves outcomes. Treatment in a quiet intensive care unit with sufficient light is recommended. Benzodiazepines are the medication of choice with diazepam, lorazepam and oxazepam all used.

They should be given until a person is sleeping. The antipsychotic haloperidol may be used; the vitamin thiamine is recommended. Mortality without treatment is between 15% and 40%. Death occurs in about 1% to 4% of cases. About half of people with alcoholism will develop withdrawal symptoms upon reducing their use. Of these, three to five percent have seizures; the name delirium tremens was first used in 1813. The word "delirium" is Latin for "going off the furrow," a plowing metaphor, it is called shaking frenzy and Saunders-Sutton syndrome. Nicknames include the shakes, barrel-fever, blue horrors, bats, drunken horrors, gallon distemper, quart mania, pink spiders, among others; the main symptoms of delirium tremens are nightmares, global confusion, disorientation and auditory hallucinations, tactile hallucinations, high blood pressure, heavy sweating, other signs of autonomic hyperactivity. These symptoms may appear but develop two to three days after the stopping of heavy drinking, being worst on the fourth or fifth day.

These "symptoms are characteristically worse at night". In general, DT is considered the most severe manifestation of alcohol withdrawal and occurs 3–10 days following the last drink. Other common symptoms include intense perceptual disturbance such as visions of insects, snakes, or rats; these may be hallucinations or illusions related to the environment, e.g. patterns on the wallpaper or in the peripheral vision that the patient falsely perceives as a resemblance to the morphology of an insect, are associated with tactile hallucinations such as sensations of something crawling on the subject—a phenomenon known as formication. Delirium tremens includes intense feelings of "impending doom". Severe anxiety and feelings of imminent death are common DT symptoms. DT can sometimes be associated with severe, uncontrollable tremors of the extremities and secondary symptoms such as anxiety, panic attacks and paranoia. Confusion is noticeable to onlookers as those with DT will have trouble forming simple sentences or making basic logical calculations.

DT should be distinguished from alcoholic hallucinosis, the latter of which occurs in 20% of hospitalized alcoholics and does not carry a significant mortality. In contrast, DT occurs in 5–10% of alcoholics and carries up to 15% mortality with treatment and up to 35% mortality without treatment. DT is characterized by the presence of altered sensorium. DT has extreme autonomic hyperactivity, 35-60% of patients have a fever; some patients experience seizures. Delirium tremens is caused by a long period of drinking being stopped abruptly. Withdrawal leads to a biochemical regulation cascade, it may be triggered by head injury, infection, or illness in people with a history of heavy use of alcohol. Another cause of delirium tremens is abrupt stopping of tranquilizer drugs of the barbiturate or benzodiazepine classes in a person with a strong addiction to them; because these tranquilizers' primary pharmacological and physiological effects stem from their manipulation of the GABA chemical and transmitter somatic system, the same neurotransmitter system affected by alcohol, delirium tremens can occur upon abrupt decrease of dosage in those who are dependent.

These DTs are much the same as those caused by alcohol and so is the attendant withdrawal syndrome of which they are a manifestation. That is the primary reason benzodiazepines are such an effective treatment for DTs, despite being the cause of them in many cases; because ethanol and tranquilizers such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines function as positive allosteric modulators at GABAA receptors, the brain, in its desire to equalize an unbalanced chemical system, triggers the abrupt stopping of the production of endogenous GABA. This decrease becomes more and more marked as the addiction becomes stronger and as higher doses are needed to cause intoxication. In addition to having sedative properties, GABA is an immensely important regulatory neurotransmitter that controls the heart rate, blood pressure, seizure threshold among myriad other important autonomic nervous subsystems. Delirium tremens is most common in people who have a history of alcohol withdrawal in those who drink the equivalent of 7 to 8 US pints

Frances Harrison

Frances Harrison is a British journalist who worked with the BBC. She read English literature at Trinity Hall and did an MA in South Asian Area Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies at London University and an MBA at Imperial College London, she has been BBC Correspondent in the following countries: 2011 to 2011 Head of News, Amnesty International, London 2008 to 2009 Scholarship to Imperial College Business School, MBA 2007 to 2008 London Religious Reporter 2004 to 2007 Iran 2000 to 2004 Sri Lanka 1998 to 2000 Malaysia 1996 to 1998 Bangladesh 1993 to 1994 PakistanJournalist & Author of a book on Sri Lanka called Still Counting the Dead published by Portobello Books in the UK on October 2012 and in Canada by House of Anansi i & in India by Penguin. She has been a visiting research fellow at Oxford University and at the Institute of Commonwealth Studies where she wrote a handbook on Bangladesh. Http:// Website: Reviews of Still Counting the Dead: Financial Times, Victory at all Costs."Ultimately, it is hard to read this book and not agree with the need for a fuller reckoning".

The Observer, Survivors of the bloody last months of Sri Lanka's civil war tell a story of injustice and horror that we cannot continue to ignore. "Anybody who has worked on Sri Lanka knows. With luck, this book can help change that". Feature in the National Post: "It’s essential that the rest of the world open its eyes to the country’s bloody deeds." Review in Monsoon Journal: "An extraordinary book brilliantly crafted on stories from the survivors of the horrible war in Sri Lanka." The Hindu: Untold Stories, Unseen War ‘.. it seems ironic that journalists put between the covers of a book information that by definition ought to have made it to news columns or channels’. The Financial Express, An Account of Victory from the Perspective of the Defeated; the Hindu Chennai, Killings at End Stage of Lanka Civil War Unprecedented. She is married to Kasra Naji, an Iranian journalist working for the BBC and they have one son. Http://