Machynlleth, sometimes referred to colloquially as Mach, is a market town and electoral ward in Powys and within the historic boundaries of Montgomeryshire. It is in the Dyfi Valley at the intersection of the A489 roads. At the 2001 Census it had a population of 2,147, rising to 2,235 in 2011. Machynlleth was the seat of Owain Glyndŵr's Welsh Parliament in 1404, as such claims to be the "ancient capital of Wales". However, it has never held any official recognition as a capital, it was unsuccessful. It is twinned with Michigan. Machynlleth hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1937 and 1981. There is a long history of human activity in the Machynlleth area. In the late-1990s, radiocarbon dating showed that copper mining was taking place in the Early Bronze Age, within a mile of the town centre. There are legends of a once fertile plain, the Cantre'r Gwaelod, now lost beneath the waves of Cardigan Bay; the Romans settled in the area. One of the earliest written references to Machynlleth is the Royal charter granted in 1291 by Edward I to Owen de la Pole, Lord of Powys.
This gave him the right to hold "a market at Machynlleth every Wednesday for and two fairs every year". The Wednesday market is still a popular day in Machynlleth 700 years later; the Royal House, which stands on the corner of the Garsiwn, is another of the mediaeval houses that can still be seen today. According to local tradition, Dafydd Gam, a Welsh ally of the English kings, was imprisoned here from 1404 to 1412 for attempting to assassinate Owain Glyndŵr. After his release by Glyndŵr, ransomed Gam fought alongside Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt and is named amongst the dead in Shakespeare's Henry V; the name Royal House undoubtedly refers to the tradition that Charles I stayed at the house in 1643. The weekly market and biannual fair thrived, in 1613 drew complaints from other towns whose trading in cloth was being affected. A document dated 1632 shows that animals for sale came from all over Merionethshire, Cardiganshire and Denbighshire, prospective buyers came from Flintshire, Brecknockshire and Shropshire, in addition to the above.
The Dyfi Bridge was first mentioned in 1533, by Geoffrey Hughes, "Citizen and Merchant taylour of London" who left £6 13/4 "towards making of a bridge at the toune of Mathanlleth". By 1601 "Dyfi bridge in the Hundred of Mochunleth" was reported to be insufficient, the current one was built in 1805 for £250. Fenton describes it in 1809 as "A noble erection of five large arches; the piers are narrow and over each cut-water is a pilaster, a common feature of the 18th century". Rowland Pugh was the Lord of Meirionedd, lived at Mathafarn about two miles east of Machynlleth. Pugh supported the Royalist side in the English Civil War. On 2 November 1644, Sir Thomas Myddleton of Chirk Castle was marching on Machynlleth with a force of the Parliamentarian army, when he was ambushed by a force organised by Pugh. In retaliation for the attack, Myddleton burned down Mathafarn on 29 November 1644, along with a number of houses in Machynlleth; the disappearance of April Jones in October 2012 received a large amount of coverage in the UK media.
Mary Cornelia, the daughter of local landowner Sir John Edwards married Viscount Seaham, the second son of the third Marquess of Londonderry, in 1846 and they set up home in Plas Machynlleth. He became Earl Vane on the death of his father and the fifth Marquess on the death of his half-brother. To celebrate the 21st birthday of their eldest son, Viscount Castlereagh, the townspeople subscribed to the erection of the clock tower, which has become known as the symbol of Machynlleth; the tower, which stands on the site of the old town hall, is the first thing many visitors will notice. The foundation stone was laid on 15 July 1874 amid great festivities. Another son, Lord Herbert Vane-Tempest, was the last member of the family to live at the Plas and was killed in the Abermule train collision on the Cambrian Railways, of which he was a director; the house was given to the townspeople in December 1948 under the stewardship of the Machynlleth Urban District Council. Various local government re-organisations saw responsibility for the Plas pass first to Montgomeryshire District Council, who in 1995 converted it into the Celtica Visitor Centre.
Celtica interpreted the history and culture of the Celts with a walk-through audio-visual exhibition housed in a purpose-built addition to the house. The £3 million attraction was part-funded by the European Union; the centre had a high-profile in the Welsh media, with opera singer Bryn Terfel opening the attraction in October 1995. Powys Council took over Celtica and the house when it was formed as a unitary authority in 1997; the centre was successful in attracting tourist, school groups and conferences for a number of years, however initial visitor number predictions proved to be too ambitious and Powys Council were unwilling to prolong its subsidy and with little scope for alternative investment Celtica closed in March 2006, the house stood empty while Powys Council sought to relinquish responsibility for it in line with their policy of selling many of their publicly owned buildings. At this point, Machynlleth Town Council, realising that the town was in danger of losing the Plas house and grounds, which they saw as belonging to the community in the spirit of the 1948 bequest, began discussions with Powys Council with a vi
The Gillette Mach3 is a line of razors produced by Gillette. Prior to the announcement, Gillette built plywood walls around the production lines in its factory in Boston, in order to keep it a secret from many of its own employees. Gillette said. In production, Mach3 mold tools used the first touch screen temperature controllers and manufactured by PMS Developments, an English electronics company based in Hereford purchased by Mold Masters of Georgetown Canada who themselves now form part of the Milacron Group of companies. Steven Davis, a process controls engineer working for Gillette's subcontractor that designed the Mach3, stole information about the Mach3 and faxed them to Gillette's competitors, Warner-Lambert and American Safety Razor. Davis pleaded guilty to five counts of stealing Gillette's trade secrets in January 1998. Davis was sentenced to twenty seven months in prison. Davis said. Gillette announced the Mach3 razor on April 14, 1998, following more than $750 million in research and development costs.
Gillette budgeted $300 million for a two year advertising campaign for the Mach3 razor. Gillette marketed the three blade design as allowing for a shave with less pressure to the skin and with fewer strokes, thereby reducing skin irritation; the Mach3 razor was released in North America during the last week of June 1998. It was first sold in Europe in September 1998. Profit margins on Gillette razor blades are high. In June 2009, Gillette manufactured and packaged razor blades for about US$0.10 each, customers paid 48 times that amount in stores. Other razors in the Mach3 series are the Mach3Turbo, the Mach3 Power Nitro, the Mach3 Start and Mach3 Sensitive. There are disposable Mach3 razors, available in blue or black. Mach3 Sensitive has a green grip and is available as a black disposable razor. Mach3 Start has a blue handle. Mach3 Power Nitro is a battery powered vibrating razor; the Mach3Turbo adds a diamond-like carbon coating for added wear resistance to maintain a sharp blade edge. All Mach3 series razor blades are interchangeable.
Mach3 disposable razors lack a "blade remove" button, but it is still possible to remove and change blades on the disposable razor without breaking them. The Mach 3 system is used in razors offered by other producers like Truefitt & Hill, DR Harris, Muhle. Official website
Mach (Rainbow song)
"Mach" is a song by South Korean girl group Rainbow. The song was released on October 20, 2010, was included on their second mini album So Girls; the song is the group's second Japanese single. It was released on December 7, 2011 in 4 different versions: 3 limited editions and a regular edition. A teaser photo with the concept of the song was released in October 18; the song was released to follow up the promotions of the song "A". This version doesn't have a music video. All music composed by Kim Seung Soo; the song was produced by Sweetune and written by Song Soo Yun, who produced their previous single "A". The song debuted at number 38 in the first week and climbed to the number 19 on the following week, the highest peak of the song; the song ranked at number 193 on Gaon's Yearly chart with 216,200,537 points and with 925,573 digital copies sold. The Japanese version follows the same concept of the Korean version. A teaser of the music video was released on November 15, 2011 on Universal Music Japan's YouTube account.
The full music video premiered on November 21 on the TV station Space Shower TV. The Japanese version of the song was written by Natsumi Watanabe, Yu Shimoji and NICE73; the B-side is a Japanese version of the song "Not Your Girl" released in Korean, on their debut EP Gossip Girl. The physical single debuted at the number 9 on Oricon's weekly chart with 15,506 copies sold in the first week. "Mach" Music Video teaser on YouTube
In fluid dynamics, a Mach wave is a pressure wave traveling with the speed of sound caused by a slight change of pressure added to a compressible flow. These weak waves can combine in supersonic flow to become a shock wave if sufficient Mach waves are present at any location; such a shock wave is called a Mach stem or Mach front. Thus, it is possible to have shockless compression or expansion in a supersonic flow by having the production of Mach waves sufficiently spaced. A Mach wave is the weak limit of an oblique shock wave. A Mach wave propagates across the flow at the Mach angle μ, the angle formed between the Mach wave wavefront and a vector that points opposite to the vector of motion, it is given by μ = arcsin , where M is the Mach number. Mach waves can be used in schlieren or shadowgraph observations to determine the local Mach number of the flow. Early observations by Ernst Mach used grooves in the wall of a duct to produce Mach waves in a duct, which were photographed by the schlieren method, to obtain data about the flow in nozzles and ducts.
Mach angles may occasionally be visualized out of their condensation in air, for example vapor cones around aircraft during transonic flight. Gas dynamics Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan Shadowgraph technique Schlieren photography Shock wave Supersonic wind tunnel test demonstration with flat plate and wedge creating an oblique shock along with numerous Mach waves
Mach is a large lunar impact crater of the class known as a walled plain. It can not be viewed directly from the Earth. Nearby craters of note include Joule to the northeast, Mitra attached to the western outer rim, Henyey to the southwest; this is a eroded formation with multiple craters along the rim and interior. The crater Harvey breaks across the eastern rim, its outer rampart spills across the interior floor of Mach; the overall shape of Mach resembles a pear, with a prominent outward bulge to the northeast. Such a bulge can be caused by a merged crater; the northern edge is the most worn and overlain by impacts. The interior of Mach is marked by several small craters in the northeastern bulge. Several craters lie along the edges to the west and northwest; the remainder of the interior floor is level, when compared to the terrain that surrounds Mach. There is a formation of central ridges near the midpoint of the crater. Mach lies to the northeast of the Dirichlet–Jackson Basin. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Mach
The ATi Mach line was a series of 2D graphics accelerators for personal computers developed by ATI Technologies. It became an extension to the ATI Wonder series of cards; the first chip in the series was the ATi Mach8. It was a clone of the IBM 8514/A with a few notable extensions such as Crystal fonts. Being one of the first graphics accelerator chips on the market, the Mach8 did not have an integrated VGA core. In order to use the first Mach8 coprocessor cards, a separate VGA card was required; this increased the cost of ownership as one had to purchase two rather than one expansion card for graphics. A temporary solution was presented with the ATi Graphics Ultra/Vantage cards, which combined an ATi 8514 Ultra and VGA Wonder+ into a single card; the Mach32 chip was the follow-up to the Mach8, which featured an integrated VGA core, true colour support and a 64-bit datapath to internal memory. Released: 1990 IBM 8514/A clone Support for up to 8-bit color modes Optional VGAWonder 2 graphics core 512 KB or 1 MB available with either DRAM or VRAM Port: ISA, MCA The Mach 8 chip was used on the following ATI products: 8514 Ultra 8514 Vantage Graphics Vantage Graphics Ultra VGAWonder GT Released: 1992 32-bit GUI accelerator with basic DOS support Limited VESA VBE support Support for 15 bbp, 16 bbp and 24 bbp colour modes added Video memory: 1 or 2 MB DRAM or VRAM Memory interface: 64-bit Port: ISA, EISA, VLB, PCI, MCA Integrated VGA core 100% compatible with IBM 8514/AThe Mach 32 chip was used on the following ATI products: Graphics Wonder Graphics Ultra + Graphics Ultra CLX Graphics Ultra Pro Graphics Ultra XLR Released: 1994 64-bit GUI accelerator with basic DOS support Limited VESA VBE support Video memory: 1, 2, 4 or 8 MB DRAM, VRAM, or SGRAM Memory interface: 64-bit Port: ISA, VLB, PCI Variants: "Mach64 CX/210888" - Original chipset, uncommon "Mach64 GX/210888GX" - Enhanced video playback capabilities "Mach64 ET/210888ET" - Embedded???
"Mach64 CT/264CT - Cost-reduced Mach64 with integrated RAMDAC and clock chip "Mach64 VT/264VT - AMC connector "Mach64 GT/264GT 3D Rage" - 3D capabilities "Mach64 GT-B/264GT-B 3D Rage II - SDRAM & SGRAM support "Mach64 LT/264LT" - Low-power mobile version of Mach64 GTThe Mach 64 chip was used on the following ATI products: Mach64 GX Family: Graphics Xpression Graphics Pro Turbo WinTurbo Graphics Pro Turbo 1600 XCLAIM GA Mach64 CT Family: WinBoost WinCharger Mach64 VT Family: Video Charger Video Xpression Video Xpression+ Mach64 GT Family: 3D Xpression )Mach64 GT-B Family: 3D Charger 3D XPRESSION+ 3D XPRESSION+ PC2TV 3D Pro Turbo 3D Pro Turbo+ PC2TV Xclaim VR - early versions Xclaim 3D - early versions All-In-Wonder Important Note: The 3D Rage and 3D Rage II chips were known as Mach64 GT and Mach64 GT-B respectively. The Mach64 moniker was eliminated with introduction of the 3D Rage Pro. COMPUTERCRAFT: PC Video Chipset Information Information about ATI Video Cards Mirror of ATI Drive Page techPowerUp!
Computer-aided manufacturing is the use of software to control machine tools and related ones in the manufacturing of workpieces. This is not the only definition for CAM, its primary purpose is to create a faster production process and components and tooling with more precise dimensions and material consistency, which in some cases, uses only the required amount of raw material, while reducing energy consumption. CAM is now a system used in lower educational purposes. CAM is a subsequent computer-aided process after computer-aided design and sometimes computer-aided engineering, as the model generated in CAD and verified in CAE can be input into CAM software, which controls the machine tool. CAM is used in many schools alongside Computer-Aided Design to create objects. Traditionally, CAM has been considered as a numerical control programming tool, where in two-dimensional or three-dimensional models of components generated in CAD; as with other “Computer-Aided” technologies, CAM does not eliminate the need for skilled professionals such as manufacturing engineers, NC programmers, or machinists.
CAM, in fact, leverages both the value of the most skilled manufacturing professionals through advanced productivity tools, while building the skills of new professionals through visualization and optimization tools. Early commercial applications of CAM was in large companies in the automotive and aerospace industries, for example Pierre Béziers work developing the CAD/CAM application UNISURF in the 1960s for car body design and tooling at Renault. CAM software was seen to have several shortcomings that necessitated an overly high level of involvement by skilled CNC machinists. Fallows created the first CAD software but this had severe shortcomings and was promptly taken back into the developing stage. CAM software would output code for the least capable machine, as each machine tool control added on to the standard G-code set for increased flexibility. In some cases, such as improperly set up CAM software or specific tools, the CNC machine required manual editing before the program will run properly.
None of these issues were so insurmountable that a thoughtful engineer or skilled machine operator could not overcome for prototyping or small production runs. In high production or high precision shops, a different set of problems were encountered where an experienced CNC machinist must both hand-code programs and run CAM software. Integration of CAD with other components of CAD/CAM/CAE Product lifecycle management environment requires an effective CAD data exchange, it had been necessary to force the CAD operator to export the data in one of the common data formats, such as IGES or STL or Parasolid formats that are supported by a wide variety of software. The output from the CAM software is a simple text file of G-code/M-codes, sometimes many thousands of commands long, transferred to a machine tool using a direct numerical control program or in modern Controllers using a common USB Storage Device. CAM packages could not, still cannot, reason as a machinist can, they could not optimize toolpaths to the extent required of mass production.
Users would select the type of machining process and paths to be used. While an engineer may have a working knowledge of G-code programming, small optimization and wear issues compound over time. Mass-produced items that require machining are initially created through casting or some other non-machine method; this enables hand-written and optimized G-code that could not be produced in a CAM package. At least in the United States, there is a shortage of young, skilled machinists entering the workforce able to perform at the extremes of manufacturing; as CAM software and machines become more complicated, the skills required of a machinist or machine operator advance to approach that of a computer programmer and engineer rather than eliminating the CNC machinist from the workforce. Typical areas of concern: High Speed Machining, including streamlining of tool paths Multi-function Machining 5 Axis Machining Feature recognition and machining Automation of Machining processes Ease of Use Over time, the historical shortcomings of CAM are being attenuated, both by providers of niche solutions and by providers of high-end solutions.
This is occurring in three arenas: Ease of usage Manufacturing complexity Integration with PLM and the extended enterpriseEase in useFor the user, just getting started as a CAM user, out-of-the-box capabilities providing Process Wizards, libraries, machine tool kits, automated feature based machining and job function specific tailorable user interfaces build user confidence and speed the learning curve. User confidence is further built on 3D visualization through a closer integration with the 3D CAD environment, including error-avoiding simulations and optimizations. Manufacturing complexity The manufacturing environment is complex; the need for CAM and PLM tools by the manufacturing engineer, NC programmer or machinist is similar to the need for computer assistance by the pilot of modern aircraft systems. The modern machinery cannot be properly used without this assistance. Today's CAM systems support the full range of machine tools including: turning, 5 axis machining, laser / plasma cutting, wire EDM.
Today’s CAM user can generate streamlined tool paths, optimized tool axis tilt for higher feed rates, better tool life and surface finish, an