United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureaus primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, in addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, and the Current Population Survey, furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government typically contain data produced by the Census Bureau. The Bureaus various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and help states, local communities, the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census Bureau now conducts a population count every 10 years in years ending with a 0. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population estimates and projections, the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations, the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, and economy.
The Census Bureaus legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code, the Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, and housing. Within the bureau, these are known as surveys and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts. The Census Bureau conducts surveys of manufacturing, service. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts, the Census Act of 1840 established a central office which became known as the Census Office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses, typically at the 10-year intervals, in 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, and in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor. The department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their role in the department.
An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every 2 years, in 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code, by law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year, the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are widely used. for data collection, the Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information, all Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment. The Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government, only after 72 years does the information collected become available to other agencies or the general public
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Romania, China, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function. In the United States, counties are the subdivisions of a state. Depending on the state, counties may provide services to the public, impose taxes. Some types of subdivisions, such as townships, may be incorporated or unincorporated. The city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county, a county seat is usually, but not always, an incorporated municipality. The exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, likewise, some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, in some of the colonial states, county seats include or formerly included Court House as part of their name.
Most counties have only one county seat, an example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats. The practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days when travel was difficult, there have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states, Coffee County, for example, the official county seat is Greensboro, but an additional courthouse has been located in nearby High Point since 1938. For example, Clearwater is the county seat of Pinellas County, Florida, in New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government. Historically, counties in this region have served mainly as dividing lines for the judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of government and thus no county seats, in Vermont and Maine the county seats are legally designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the shire town.
Bennington County has two towns, but the Sheriff is located in Bennington. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town governments. As such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county
Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants.
Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has said to mean tribe of superior men.
The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume, it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and most of the time to humans and it is a key geographical term. Population density is population divided by land area or water volume. Low densities may cause a vortex and lead to further reduced fertility. This is called the Allee effect after the scientist who identified it, commonly this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory, or the entire world. The worlds population is around 7,000,000,000, the worldwide human population density is around 7,000,000,000 ÷510,000,000 =13.7 per km2. If only the Earths land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account and this includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded, population density rises to over 50 people per km2, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states, cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources.
Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo, for instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, and the surrounding suburbs excluded. Arithmetic density, The total number of people / area of land, physiological density, The total population / area of arable land. Agricultural density, The total rural population / area of arable land, residential density, The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land. Urban density, The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land, ecological optimum, The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources. S. States by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density
Rockford metropolitan area, Illinois
The Rockford Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of four counties in north-central Illinois, anchored by the city of Rockford. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 349,431, the Rockford MSA is adjacent to the Janesville-Beloit MSA and the Chicago MSA. It forms the part of the larger Rockford–Freeport–Rochelle Combined Statistical Area. The racial makeup of the MSA was 83. 46% White,9. 27% African American,0. 29% Native American,1. 56% Asian,0. 03% Pacific Islander,3. 57% from other races, and 1. 82% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7. 63% of the population, the median income for a household in the MSA was $48,142, and the median income for a family was $55,881. Males had an income of $41,141 versus $25,819 for females. The per capita income for the MSA was $21,392, the Rockford–Freeport–Rochelle Combined Statistical Area is made up of four counties in north-central Illinois. The statistical area includes one area and two micropolitan areas.
As of the 2000 Census, the CSA had a population of 420,215, Metropolitan Statistical Areas Rockford Micropolitan Statistical Areas Freeport Rochelle Illinois census statistical areas
A civil township is a widely used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county. The term town is used in New England, New York, specific responsibilities and the degree of autonomy vary based on each state. Civil townships are distinct from survey townships, but in states that have both, the boundaries often coincide and may completely geographically subdivide a county, the U. S. Census Bureau classifies civil townships as minor civil divisions. Currently, there are 20 states with civil townships, Township functions are generally overseen by a governing board and a clerk or trustee. Township officers frequently include justice of the peace, road commissioner, constable, in the 20th century many townships added a township administrator or supervisor to the officers as an executive for the board. In some cases townships run local libraries, senior services, youth services, disabled citizen services, emergency assistance. Depending on the state, the government has varying degrees of authority.
In the Upper Midwestern states near the Great Lakes, civil townships, are often, the degree to which these townships are functioning governmental entities varies from state to state and in some cases even within a state. Most townships in Illinois provide such as snow removal, senior transportation. The townships in Illinois each have a board, whose board members were formerly called township trustees. In contrast, civil townships in Indiana are operated in a consistent manner statewide and tend to be well organized, with each served by a single township trustee. Civil townships in these states are not incorporated, and nearby cities may annex land in adjoining townships with relative ease. In Wisconsin, civil townships are known as towns rather than townships, in Minnesota, state statute refers to such entities as towns yet requires them to have a name in the form Name Township. In both documents and conversation and township are used interchangeably, Minnesota townships can be either Non-Urban or Urban, but this is not reflected in the townships name.
In Ohio, a city or village is overlaid onto a township unless it withdraws by establishing a paper township, where the paper township does not extend to the city limits, property owners pay taxes for both the township and municipality. Ten other states allow townships and municipalities to overlap, in Kansas some civil townships provide services such as road maintenance and fire protection services not provided by the county. In New England, the states are subdivided into towns, which are fully functioning municipal corporations that provide most local services, while counties exist in New England, for the most part they serve as dividing lines for state judicial systems. With the exception of a few areas of New Hampshire and Maine
The poverty threshold, poverty limit or poverty line is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country. In practice, like the definition of poverty, the official or common understanding of the poverty line is higher in developed countries than in developing countries. In 2008, the World Bank came out with a figure of $1.25 at 2005 purchasing-power parity, the new IPL replaces the $1.25 per day figure, which used 2005 data. Most scholars agree that it better reflects todays reality, particularly new price levels in developing countries, the common international poverty line has in the past been roughly $1 a day. At present the percentage of the population living under extreme poverty is likely to fall below 10% according to the World Bank projections released in 2015. Determining the poverty line is usually done by finding the total cost of all the resources that an average human adult consumes in one year. Individual factors are used to account for various circumstances, such as whether one is a parent, elderly.
The poverty threshold may be adjusted annually, charles Booth, a pioneering investigator of poverty in London at the turn of the 20th century, popularised the idea of a poverty line, a concept originally conceived by the London School Board. Booth set the line at 10 to 20 shillings per week, to secure the necessaries of a healthy life, which included fuel and light, food and household and personal items. Based on data from leading nutritionists of the period, he calculated the cheapest price for the minimum calorific intake and nutritional balance necessary and he considered this amount to set his poverty line and concluded that 27. 84% of the total population of York lived below this poverty line. Rowntree distinguished between primary poverty, those lacking in income and secondary poverty, those who had enough income, Absolute poverty is the level of poverty as defined in terms of the minimal requirements necessary to afford minimal standards of food, health care and shelter. For the measure to be absolute, the line must be the same in different countries, such an absolute measure should look only at the individuals power to consume and it should be independent of any changes in income distribution.
Notice that if real income in an economy increases. Measuring poverty by a threshold has the advantage of applying the same standard across different locations and time periods. For example, a living in far northern Scandinavia requires a source of heat during colder months. The term absolute poverty is sometimes used as a synonym for extreme poverty. Absolute poverty is the absence of resources to secure basic life necessities. It depends not only on income but on access to services, safe drinking water, Water must not come solely from rivers and ponds, and must be available nearby
Pecatonica is a village in Winnebago County, United States. It is part of the Rockford, Illinois Metropolitan Statistical Area, the population was 2,195 at the 2010 census, up from 1,997 in 2000. Civil War records from the state of Illinois include soldiers from Lysander, the word Pecatonica is an anglicization of two Algonquian language words, which means slow and niba, which means water, forming the conjunction Bekaaniba or Slow Water. The village was named after the Pecatonica River, which forms its northern border, the Chicago & North Western Railroad came through in 1853 from Chicago and continued to Freeport, Illinois. That sparked the town to be the center of commerce for western Winnebago County, the Village of Pecatonica was incorporated in 1869, built on territory rightfully owned by Indians and previously deeded to the Reed family by US President James K. Polk. In February 1945, six Japanese men were arrested and sent to internment camps for sending coded messages to the Imperial Japanese Army, after the messages were intercepted, Pecatonica police searched their apartment and found large quantities of ingredients that could potentially create explosives.
As of 2015, the motive of the Japanese men has not been declassified, in Pecatonica, a small depot building remains standing near Skinners Auto Body and Forget-Me-Not Floral, just off the 300 block of Main Street. For the portion of the line between Pecatonica and Winnebago, the line often parallels the Pecatonica River. C. W. Knowlton opened his first bank here in 1882 and built a Queen Anne Victorian house on Main Street and it was restored by the Ed Smith Family from 1983 until the family moved out of the home. Prior to rail traffic, this region of Northern Illinois received stagecoach traffic. S, Route 20, a major east-west route through Northern Illinois. Further west, Route 20 parallels more roads which bear the phrase Stagecoach Trail. Another intriguing element of the past was found connecting a house on 11th St. to utilities in the late 1980s. A wooden casket was found, buried very deep and it was believed that the person buried died of some disease presumed contagious, and thus the body was taken about a mile north from the current Route 20.
Pecatonica is located at 42°18′36″N 89°21′31″W, according to the 2010 census, Pecatonica has a total area of 1.295 square miles, of which 1.28 square miles is land and 0.015 square miles is water. Education in Pecatonica is provided by the Pecatonica Community Unit School District #321, the school district operates three school buildings. The Elementary School, which was constructed in 1938 and was used as a high school for many years. The two additions to that structure were built in 1962 and 1970 respectively, the Middle School, a former high school building, was built in 1958 and accommodated two additions to the original structure in 1967 and 1970. The current high school building opened in 2003 and this state of the art facility has an approximate square footage of 107,000
New Milford, Illinois
New Milford is a village in Winnebago County, United States. It is part of the Rockford, Illinois Metropolitan Statistical Area, the population was 697 at the 2010 census, up from 541 in 2000. New Milford is located at 42°11′0″N 89°4′16″W, according to the 2010 census, New Milford has a total area of 1.478 square miles, of which 1.45 square miles is land and 0.028 square miles is water. New Milford is located on the edge of the Rockford metro area. It is situated immediately east of the Chicago Rockford International Airport, the Village is currently attempting to expand to reach the Interstate 39/Baxter Road interchange. This move will provide the Village with future commercial growth opportunities, as of the census of 2000, there were 541 people,239 households, and 152 families residing in the village. The population density was 496.6 people per square mile, there were 244 housing units at an average density of 224.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 93. 90% White,1. 85% African American,1.
48% Asian,1. 11% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 3. 14% of the population. 30. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.80. In the village, the population was out with 20. 9% under the age of 18,7. 4% from 18 to 24,33. 6% from 25 to 44,29. 0% from 45 to 64. The median age was 38 years, for every 100 females there were 114.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.8 males, the median income for a household in the blue moon village was $39,531, and the median income for a family was $52,500. Males had an income of $37,955 versus $30,000 for females. The per capita income for the village was $22,937, about 6. 8% of families and 9. 9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16. 3% of those under age 18 and 2. 9% of those age 65 or over
Winnebago County, Illinois
Winnebago County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 295,266, making it the seventh most populous county in Illinois behind Cook County, Winnebago County is the central county of the Rockford Metropolitan Statistical Area. Winnebago County was formed on January 16,1836 out of Jo Daviess and it was named for the Winnebago Tribe of American Indians. At the time the county was founded its inhabitants consisted almost entirely of New Englanders and these were Yankee settlers, meaning they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England during the early 1600s. They made up all of Winnebego Countys inhabitants during the first several decades of its history. In this regard the county was similar to most of the portion of the state of Illinois. After the conclusion of the Black Hawk War there was a surge of immigration from New England. As a result of this heritage the inhabitants of Winnebego County considered themselves, and functioned as, in the Presidential election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln won 3,985 votes in Winnebago County, whereas Steven Douglas only won 817 votes.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 519 square miles. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.34 inches in February to 4.80 inches in June, the population density was 575.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 125,965 housing units at a density of 245.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 77. 4% white,12. 2% black or African American,2. 3% Asian,0. 3% American Indian,4. 9% from other races, and 2. 8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 10. 9% of the population. In terms of ancestry,25. 6% were German,13. 5% were Irish,9. 4% were American,8. 7% were Swedish,8. 3% were English, and 7. 4% were Italian. The average household size was 2.52 and the family size was 3.07. The median age was 38.3 years, the median income for a household in the county was $47,198 and the median income for a family was $59,814. Males had an income of $48,358 versus $32,103 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,008
Winnebago is a village in Winnebago County, Illinois. It is part of the Rockford-Winnebago Metropolitan Statistical Area, the population was 3,101 at the 2010 census, up from 2,958 in 2000. Much of the history of Winnebago revolved around the arrival of the railroad, the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, encouraged by Chicago merchants in all the urban communities, arrived in Rockford on the east side of the Rock River in August 1852. In 1853, the Galena and Chicago Union extended to the west from Rockford to Freeport and this track forged through both Elida, and Pecatonica, igniting local growth. In October 1854 the villages train station was out. The depot attracted commercial development and stockyards emerged near the tracks, in January 1855, Joseph D. Warner, who was the first railroad station agent, finished his house on South Elida Street. Then from 1903 through 1930, the village was served by the Rockford and Interurban Railway and this line brought electrical power into Winnebago. At this time laborers started commuting to work at an ever-growing Rockford, rides from Winnebago to Rockford were $.25.
The community was first settled in 1835, the first settlement was actually at Westfield corners because that was where the stagecoach route passed through. The first settler in the Winnebago Township was David Adams Holt in 1835, the first school in Winnebago Township was established at Westfield in 1839. Elijah Holt built a house in 1840 that is standing in Winnebago Township on Montague Rd. which is now part of the Severson Dells Forest Preserve. Most of the first land claims for that area was $1.25 an acre in the end of the township. In July 1841, the first two purchasers of land in Winnebago Township where Henry Schoonmaker and Joseph Folsom, Mr. Folsom was a veteran of the 1812 war. Both men purchased land from the Galena Land Office. Most of the farmers were Irish immigrants from New England and New York, with some coming from New Jersey, Pennsylvania. Roads of the time were dirt tracks, with the ‘State Road’ from Rockford to Freeport passing through the northern tier of sections of Winnebago Township, the school house at Westfield Corners was razed in 1844.
In July 1846, the organization of the First Congregational Church of Winnebago met at Westfield, the organization of the Methodist church was at Westfield Corners. In 1849, the community adopted the name Elida, but renamed itself Winnebago after a Native American tribe that had lived in the area, in 1850, there were 499 residents, most being farmers
Cherry Valley, Illinois
The village of Cherry Valley is a community of 8.72 square miles located in the Kishwaukee River valley, which lies primarily in Winnebago County. Approximately ten percent of the village is located within Boone County, the village is within the Rockford, Illinois Metropolitan Statistical Area, and borders the southeast side of Rockford. The population is 3,162 as of the 2010 census, official documents from the Winnebago County Clerks office and the Village of Cherry Valley state Cherry Valley was settled in 1835. The first settler was Joseph Griggs, Cherry Valley was incorporated as a village on January 31,1857. Early landmark events for Cherry Valley was the establishment of a mill on the Kishwaukee River, early on Cherry Valley was called by various names, such as Griggs Ford and Graball, and other names, before the present name was adopted. After deciding to change the name, the people put their suggestions into a hat, a Mrs. Butler, from Cherry Valley, New York placed the name of Cherry Valley in the hat and that name was selected.
The core of the village, centered on its main businesses in small brick buildings, is surrounded by several blocks of houses built in the 19th century. This late 19th century appearance is accentuated by turn of the 20th century-style lamp lights as well as the original brick paving along the eastern end of main street. Although located close to Rockford, Cherry Valley was far away to be considered, for most of its history. However, with the advent of modern transportation in the 20th century, Cherry Valley became in essence a suburb of Rockford, as the city of Rockford grew and expanded its boundaries it came in direct contact with Cherry Valley. Since that time there have been land control related issues between the two municipalities, for the most part these issues have been resolved with a boundary agreement between the two communities. Cherry Valley was the first community in the area to implement a comprehensive, most of Cherry Valley is within the Rockford School District, with a small portion in the Belvidere School District.
The core of the village is located a little north of the confluence of the north and south branches of the Kishwaukee river, there is a slight depression as one moves towards the center of the village, which is a formation of the Kishwaukee river valley. According to the 2010 census, Cherry Valley has an area of 8.697 square miles. The north branch of the Kishwaukee River travels through Cherry Valleys central business district, the largest body of water in the village is Cherry Valley Lake which is situated just east of the Kishwaukee River in Baumann Park. The village is served by Interstate 90, Interstate 39, U. S. Route 20, as of the census of 2000, there were 2,191 people,857 households, and 623 families residing in the village. The population density was 583.3 people per square mile, there were 887 housing units at an average density of 236.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 93. 98% White,1. 69% African American,0. 18% Native American,2. 56% Asian,0. 05% Pacific Islander,0. 87% from other races, and 0. 68% from two or more races