Metadata is "data that provides information about other data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, among these descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata, reference metadata and statistical metadata. Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as identification, it can include elements such as title, abstract and keywords. Structural metadata is metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters, it describes the types, versions and other characteristics of digital materials. Administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical information, who can access it. Reference metadata describes the contents and quality of statistical data Statistical metadata may describe processes that collect, process, or produce statistical data. Metadata was traditionally used in the card catalogs of libraries until the 1980s, when libraries converted their catalog data to digital databases.
In the 2000s, as digital formats were becoming the prevalent way of storing data and information, metadata was used to describe digital data using metadata standards. The first description of "meta data" for computer systems is purportedly noted by MIT's Center for International Studies experts David Griffel and Stuart McIntosh in 1967: "In summary we have statements in an object language about subject descriptions of data and token codes for the data. We have statements in a meta language describing the data relationships and transformations, ought/is relations between norm and data."There are different metadata standards for each different discipline. Describing the contents and context of data or data files increases its usefulness. For example, a web page may include metadata specifying what software language the page is written in, what tools were used to create it, what subjects the page is about, where to find more information about the subject; this metadata can automatically improve the reader's experience and make it easier for users to find the web page online.
A CD may include metadata providing information about the musicians and songwriters whose work appears on the disc. A principal purpose of metadata is to help users discover resources. Metadata helps to organize electronic resources, provide digital identification, support the archiving and preservation of resources. Metadata assists users in resource discovery by "allowing resources to be found by relevant criteria, identifying resources, bringing similar resources together, distinguishing dissimilar resources, giving location information." Metadata of telecommunication activities including Internet traffic is widely collected by various national governmental organizations. This data can be used for mass surveillance. In many countries, the metadata relating to emails, telephone calls, web pages, video traffic, IP connections and cell phone locations are stored by government organizations. Metadata means "data about data". Although the "meta" prefix means "after" or "beyond", it is used to mean "about" in epistemology.
Metadata is defined as the data providing information about one or more aspects of the data. Some examples include:Means of creation of the data Purpose of the data Time and date of creation Creator or author of the data Location on a computer network where the data was created Standards used File size Data quality Source of the data Process used to create the dataFor example, a digital image may include metadata that describes how large the picture is, the color depth, the image resolution, when the image was created, the shutter speed, other data. A text document's metadata may contain information about how long the document is, who the author is, when the document was written, a short summary of the document. Metadata within web pages can contain descriptions of page content, as well as key words linked to the content; these links are called "Metatags", which were used as the primary factor in determining order for a web search until the late 1990s. The reliance of metatags in web searches was decreased in the late 1990s because of "keyword stuffing".
Metatags were being misused to trick search engines into thinking some websites had more relevance in the search than they did. Metadata can be stored and managed in a database called a metadata registry or metadata repository. However, without context and a point of reference, it might be impossible to identify metadata just by looking at it. For example: by itself, a database containing several numbers, all 13 digits long could be the results of calculations or a list of numbers to plug into an equation - without any other context, the numbers themselves can be perceived as the data, but if given the context that this database is a log of a book collection, those 13-digit numbers may now be identified as ISBNs - information that refers to the book, but is not itself the information within the book. The term "metadata" was coined in 1968 by Philip Bagley, in his book "Extension of Programming Language Concepts" where it is clear that he uses the term in the ISO 11179 "traditional" sense, "structural metadata" i.e. "data about the containers of data".
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of called programs; these programs enable computers to perform an wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware, the operating system, peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system; this term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices; this includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. The Internet is run on computers and it connects hundreds of millions of other computers and their users.
Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century; the first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed and versatility of computers have been increasing ever since then. Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element a central processing unit, some form of memory; the processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices, output devices, input/output devices that perform both functions. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of the word "computer" was in 1613 in a book called The Yong Mans Gleanings by English writer Richard Braithwait: "I haue read the truest computer of Times, the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, he reduceth thy dayes into a short number." This usage of the term referred to a human computer, a person who carried out calculations or computations. The word continued with the same meaning until the middle of the 20th century. During the latter part of this period women were hired as computers because they could be paid less than their male counterparts. By 1943, most human computers were women. From the end of the 19th century the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, a machine that carries out computations; the Online Etymology Dictionary gives the first attested use of "computer" in the 1640s, meaning "one who calculates". The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the use of the term to mean "'calculating machine' is from 1897."
The Online Etymology Dictionary indicates that the "modern use" of the term, to mean "programmable digital electronic computer" dates from "1945 under this name. Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years using one-to-one correspondence with fingers; the earliest counting device was a form of tally stick. Record keeping aids throughout the Fertile Crescent included calculi which represented counts of items livestock or grains, sealed in hollow unbaked clay containers; the use of counting rods is one example. The abacus was used for arithmetic tasks; the Roman abacus was developed from devices used in Babylonia as early as 2400 BC. Since many other forms of reckoning boards or tables have been invented. In a medieval European counting house, a checkered cloth would be placed on a table, markers moved around on it according to certain rules, as an aid to calculating sums of money; the Antikythera mechanism is believed to be the earliest mechanical analog "computer", according to Derek J. de Solla Price.
It was designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was discovered in 1901 in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, has been dated to c. 100 BC. Devices of a level of complexity comparable to that of the Antikythera mechanism would not reappear until a thousand years later. Many mechanical aids to calculation and measurement were constructed for astronomical and navigation use; the planisphere was a star chart invented by Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī in the early 11th century. The astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic world in either the 1st or 2nd centuries BC and is attributed to Hipparchus. A combination of the planisphere and dioptra, the astrolabe was an analog computer capable of working out several different kinds of problems in spherical astronomy. An astrolabe incorporating a mechanical calendar computer and gear-wheels was invented by Abi Bakr of Isfahan, Persia in 1235. Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī invented the first mechanical geared lunisolar calendar astrolabe, an early fixed-wired knowledge processing machine with a gear train and gear-wheels, c. 1000 AD.
The sector, a calculating instrument used for solving problems in proportion, trigonometry and division, for various functions, such as squares and cube roots, was developed in
It describes 18 elements comprising the initial simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house Standard Generalized Markup Language -based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4. HTML is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of CSS. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 Techniques for using SGML, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the RUNOFF command developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements rather than print effects, with the separation of structure and markup.
Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification, the "Hypertext Markup Language" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document type definition to define the grammar; the draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms. After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.
Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium. However, in 2000, HTML became an international standard. HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004, development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008, completed and standardized on 28 October 2014. November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 was published as RFC 1866. Supplemental RFCs added capabilities: November 25, 1995: RFC 1867 May 1996: RFC 1942 August 1996: RFC 1980 January 1997: RFC 2070 January 14, 1997 HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group on September 12, 1996. Code-named "Wilbur", HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of Netscape's visual markup tags.
Netscape's blink element and Microsoft's marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. A markup for mathematical formu
Open data is the idea that some data should be available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. The goals of the open-source data movement are similar to those of other "open" movements such as open-source software, open content, open education, open educational resources, open government, open knowledge, open access, open science, the open web. Paradoxically, the growth of the open data movement is paralleled by a rise in intellectual property rights; the philosophy behind open data has been long established, but the term "open data" itself is recent, gaining popularity with the rise of the Internet and World Wide Web and with the launch of open-data government initiatives such as Data.gov, Data.gov.uk and Data.gov.in. Open data, can be linked data. One of the most important forms of open data is open government data, a form of open data created by ruling government institutions. Open government data's importance is borne from it being a part of citizens' everyday lives, down to the most routine/mundane tasks that are far removed from government.
The concept of open data is not new. One definition is the Open Definition which can be summarized in the statement that "A piece of data is open if anyone is free to use and redistribute it – subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike." Other definitions, including the Open Data Institute's "Open data is data that anyone can access, use or share", have an accessible short version of the definition but refer to the formal definition. Open data may include non-textual material such as maps, connectomes, chemical compounds and scientific formulae, medical data and practice and biodiversity. Problems arise because these are commercially valuable or can be aggregated into works of value. Access to, or re-use of, the data is controlled by organisations, both private. Control may be through access restrictions, copyright and charges for access or re-use. Advocates of open data argue that these restrictions are against the common good and that these data should be made available without restriction or fee.
In addition, it is important that the data are re-usable without requiring further permission, though the types of re-use may be controlled by a license. A typical depiction of the need for open data: Numerous scientists have pointed out the irony that right at the historical moment when we have the technologies to permit worldwide availability and distributed process of scientific data, broadening collaboration and accelerating the pace and depth of discovery... we are busy locking up that data and preventing the use of correspondingly advanced technologies on knowledge. Creators of data do not consider the need to state the conditions of ownership, licensing and re-use. For example, many scientists do not regard the published data arising from their work to be theirs to control and consider the act of publication in a journal to be an implicit release of data into the commons. However, the lack of a license makes it difficult to determine the status of a data set and may restrict the use of data offered in an "Open" spirit.
Because of this uncertainty it is possible for public or private organizations to aggregate said data, protect it with copyright and resell it. The issue of indigenous knowledge poses a great challenge in terms of capturing and distribution. Many societies in third-world countries lack the technicality processes of managing the IK. At his presentation at the XML 2005 conference, Connolly displayed these two quotations regarding open data: "I want my data back." "I've long believed that customers of any application own the data they enter into it." Open data can come from any source. This section lists some of the fields; the concept of open access to scientific data was institutionally established with the formation of the World Data Center system, in preparation for the International Geophysical Year of 1957–1958. The International Council of Scientific Unions oversees several World Data Centres with the mandate to minimize the risk of data loss and to maximize data accessibility. While the open-science-data movement long predates the Internet, the availability of fast, ubiquitous networking has changed the context of Open science data, since publishing or obtaining data has become much less expensive and time-consuming.
The Human Genome Project was a major initiative. It was built upon the so-called Bermuda Principles, stipulating that: "All human genomic sequence information should be available and in the public domain in order to encourage research and development and to maximise its benefit to society'. More recent initiatives such as the Structural Genomics Consortium have illustrated that the open data approach can be used productively within the context of industrial R&D. In 2004, the Science Ministers of all nations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, which includes most developed countries of the world, signed a declaration which states that all publicly funded archive data should be made publicly available. Following a request and an intense discussion with data-pr
Office of Management and Budget
The Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. OMB's most prominent function is to produce the President's Budget, but OMB measures the quality of agency programs and procedures to see if they comply with the president's policies and coordinates inter-agency policy initiatives. While the current OMB Director is Mick Mulvaney, he is also the acting White House Chief of Staff. Many of his duties and responsibilities have been assigned to Deputy Director Russell Vought; the OMB Director reports to Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff. The Bureau of the Budget, OMB's predecessor, was established in 1921 as a part of the Department of the Treasury by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, signed into law by president Warren G. Harding; the Bureau of the Budget was moved to the Executive Office of the President in 1939 and was run by Harold D. Smith during the government's rapid expansion of spending during the Second World War.
James L. Sundquist, a staffer at the Bureau of the Budget described the relationship between the President and the Bureau as close and of subsequent Bureau Directors as politicians and not public administrators; the Bureau was reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget in 1970 during the Nixon administration. The first OMB included two dozen others. In the 1990s, OMB was reorganized to remove the distinction between management staff and budgetary staff by combining the dual roles into each given program examiner within the Resource Management Offices. OMB prepares the President's budget proposal to Congress and supervises the administration of the executive branch agencies. OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that agency reports, rules and proposed legislation are consistent with the president's budget and with administration policies. OMB oversees and coordinates the administration's procurement, financial management and regulatory policies.
In each of these areas, OMB's role is to help improve administrative management, to develop better performance measures and coordinating mechanisms, to reduce any unnecessary burdens on the public. OMB's critical missions are: Budget development and execution is a prominent government-wide process managed from the Executive Office of the President and a device by which a president implements his policies and actions in everything from the Department of Defense to NASA. OMB manages other agencies' financials, IT; the Office is made up of career appointed staff who provide continuity across changes of party and persons in the White House. Six positions within OMB – the Director, the Deputy Director, the Deputy Director for Management, the administrators of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management are presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed positions; the largest component of the Office of Management and Budget are the five Resource Management Offices which are organized along functional lines mirroring the U.
S. federal government, each led by an OMB associate director. Half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, the majority of whom are designated as program examiners. Program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be deployed by a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U. S. Navy warships; these staff have dual responsibility for both management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the president's budget, they perform in-depth program evaluations using the Program Assessment Rating Tool, review proposed regulations, agency testimony, analyze pending legislation, oversee the aspects of the president's management agenda including agency management scorecards. They are called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member, they provide important information to those assigned to the statutory offices within OMB, which are Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management, the Office of E-Government & Information Technology whose job it is to specialize in issues such as federal regulations or procurement policy and law.
Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division, the Legislative Reference Division. The BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the president's budget each February. With respect to the estimation of spending for the executive branch, the BRD serves a purpose parallel to that of the Congressional Budget Office for the estimation of spending for Congress, the Department of the Treasury for the estimation of revenues for the executive branch, the Joint Committee on Taxation for the estimation of revenues for Congress; the Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the central clearing house across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and distils the comments into a consensus opinion of the
Douglas Crockford first popularized the JSON format. The acronym originated at State Software, a company co-founded by Crockford and others in March 2001; the co-founders agreed to build a system that used standard browser capabilities and provided an abstraction layer for Web developers to create stateful Web applications that had a persistent duplex connection to a Web server by holding two HTTP connections open and recycling them before standard browser time-outs if no further data were exchanged. The co-founders had a round-table discussion and voted whether to call the data format JSML or JSON, as well as under what license type to make it available. Crockford, being inspired by the words of President Bush, should be credited with coming up with the "evil-doers" JSON license in order to open-source the JSON libraries, but force corporate lawyers, or those who are overly pedantic, to seek to pay for a license from State. Chip Morningstar developed the idea for the State Application Framework at State Software.
String: a sequence of zero or more Unicode characters. Strings support a backslash escaping syntax. Boolean: either of the values true or false Array: an ordered list of zero or more values, each of which may be of any type. Arrays use square bracket elements are comma-separated. Object: an unordered collection of name–value pairs where the names are strings. Since objects are intended to represent associative arrays, it is recommended, though not required, that each key is unique within an object. Objects are delimited with curly brackets and use commas to separate each pair, while within each pair the colon':' character separates the key or name from its value. Null: An empty value, using the word nullLimited whitespace is allowed and ignored around or between syntactic elements. Only four specific characters are considered whitespace for this purpose: space, horizontal tab, line feed, carriage return. In particular, the byte orde
Table of contents
A table of contents headed Contents and abbreviated informally as TOC, is a list found on a page before the start of a written work, of its chapter or section titles or brief descriptions with their commencing page numbers. Pliny the Elder credits Quintus Valerius Soranus as the first author to provide a table of contents to help readers navigate a lengthy work. Pliny's own table of contents for his encyclopedic Historia naturalis may be viewed online in Latin and in English. A table of contents includes the titles or descriptions of first-level headings, includes second-level headings within the chapters as well, even includes third-level headings within the sections as well; the depth of detail in tables of contents depends on the length of the work, with longer works having less. Formal reports have a table of contents. Within an English-language book, the table of contents appears after the title page, copyright notices, and, in technical journals, the abstract. Printed tables of contents indicate page numbers where each part starts, while digital ones offer links to go to each part.
The format and location of the page numbers is a matter of style for the publisher. If the page numbers appear after the heading text, they might be preceded by characters called leaders dots or periods, that run from the chapter or section titles on the opposite side of the page, or the page numbers might remain closer to the titles. In some cases, the page number appears before the text. If a book or document contains chapters, articles, or stories by different authors, their names appear in the table of contents. Matter preceding the table of contents is not listed there. However, all pages except the outside cover are counted, the table of contents is numbered with a lowercase Roman numeral page number. Many popular word processors, such as Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, StarWriter are capable of automatically generating a table of contents if the author of the text uses specific styles for chapters, subsections, etc. Example with leaders: Chapter 1: Getting Started............. 1 Introduction..................
2 Next Steps................... 3 Example without leaders: Chapter 1: Getting Started 1 Introduction 2 Next Steps 3 Example with authors: 1. Introduction to Biology Arthur C. Smith 1 2. Microbiology Susan Jones 10 3. Advances in Biotechnology T. C. Chang 24 Example with descriptive text: Chapter 1 3 In which we first meet our hero and heroine, attend a gala feast, begin an unexpected journey. Chapter 2 12 The journey takes an unusual turn, new villains are discovered