A machine is a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action. Machines are usually powered by chemical, thermal, or electrical means, historically, a power tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine. However, the advent of electronics has led to the development of power tools without moving parts that are considered machines, a simple machine is a device that simply transforms the direction or magnitude of a force, but a large number of more complex machines exist. Examples include vehicles, electronic systems, molecular machines, computers, television, the word machine derives from the Latin word machina, which in turn derives from the Greek. The word mechanical comes from the same Greek roots, however, the Ancient Greeks probably have borrowed the word mekhane from the ancient Hebrews. The ancient Greeks were familiar with the Hebrew Scriptures and language, a wider meaning of fabric, structure is found in classical Latin, but not in Greek usage. This meaning is found in late medieval French, and is adopted from the French into English in the mid-16th century, in the 17th century, the word could also mean a scheme or plot, a meaning now expressed by the derived machination. The modern meaning develops out of specialized application of the term to stage engines used in theater and to siege engines. Simple Machines are commonly reckoned to be Six in Number, viz. the Ballance, Leaver, Pulley, Wheel, Wedge, compound Machines, or Engines, are innumerable. The word engine used as a synonym both by Harris and in later language derives ultimately from Latin ingenium ingenuity, an invention, perhaps the first example of a human made device designed to manage power is the hand axe, made by chipping flint to form a wedge. A wedge is a machine that transforms lateral force and movement of the tool into a transverse splitting force. The idea of a simple machine originated with the Greek philosopher Archimedes around the 3rd century BC, who studied the Archimedean simple machines, lever, pulley and he discovered the principle of mechanical advantage in the lever. Later Greek philosophers defined the five simple machines and were able to roughly calculate their mechanical advantage. Heron of Alexandria in his work Mechanics lists five mechanisms that can set a load in motion, lever, windlass, pulley, wedge, and screw, however the Greeks understanding was limited to statics and did not include dynamics or the concept of work. In 1586 Flemish engineer Simon Stevin derived the mechanical advantage of the inclined plane, the complete dynamic theory of simple machines was worked out by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in 1600 in Le Meccaniche. He was the first to understand that simple machines do not create energy, the classic rules of sliding friction in machines were discovered by Leonardo da Vinci, but remained unpublished in his notebooks. They were rediscovered by Guillaume Amontons and were developed by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb. The word mechanical refers to the work that has produced by machines or the machinery
James Albert Bonsack's cigarette rolling machine, invented in 1880 and patented in 1881
A water-powered mine hoist used for raising ore. This woodblock is from De re metallica by Georg Bauer (Latinized name Georgius Agricola, ca. 1555), an early mining textbook that contains numerous drawings and descriptions of mining equipment.