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Maciej Płażyński

Maciej Płażyński was a Polish liberal-conservative politician. Płażyński was born in Młynary, he began his political career in 1980 / 1981 as one of the leaders of the Students' Solidarity. To date he is longest serving Marshal of the Sejm of the Third Republic of Poland In January 2001, he founded the Civic Platform political party with Donald Tusk and Andrzej Olechowski, he left Civic Platform for personal reasons and at the time of his death was an independent MP. He was member of Kashubian-Pomeranian Association, he was chosen as a chairman of the Association "Polish Community". Maciej Płażyński was married to Elżbieta Płażyńska and together they had three children: Jakub and Kacper, he was listed on the flight manifest of the Tupolev Tu-154 of the 36th Special Aviation Regiment carrying the President of Poland Lech Kaczyński which crashed while landing at Smolensk-North airport near Pechersk near Smolensk, Russia, on 10 April 2010, killing all aboard. In 2000, Płażyński was awarded the Order of Merit of First Class.

He received the titles of honorary citizen of Młynary, Puck and Lidzbark Warmiński. On 16 April 2010 he was posthumously awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta, he was awarded a Gold Medal of Gloria Artis. Solidarity Official site


Open-Xchange is a web-based communication and office productivity software suite, which enables full integration of email, documents and social media. Founded in 2005 by Rafael Laguna and Frank Hoberg, the software started as a Linux-based email and groupware solution, positioned as open-source alternative to Microsoft Exchange; the software includes a set of applications for email, calendars and documents. It integrates message streams from Google Mail, Facebook and LinkedIn, can be used as an alternative with integrated functionality similar to Microsoft Exchange Server and Office 365. In February 2014, file syncing and collaboration features have been added to the OX App Suite family. In September 2014, the company introduced a tool called OX Guard to their existing open source email server. Individuals and businesses can use the software to operate their own email services. In July 2015 PGP support has been announced for OX Guard. Open-Xchange is being offered in 5 different versions, two hosting solutions and three software packages.

Out of these 5 versions only OX Community Edition can be used permanently without paid subscription. OX Community Edition Backend is released under the GNU General Public License, version 2, the Frontend is released under the Creative Commons Share Alike, Non Commercial, Attribution license

Sohawal State

Sohawal State was a princely state of the Bagelkhand Agency of the British Raj. It was a small Sanad state of about 552 km2 with a population of 32,216 inhabitants in 1901, its capital was at Sohawal, a small town — 2,108 inhabitants in 1901 — located in modern Satna district of Madhya Pradesh. The state was divided in two sections separated by territory belonging to Kothi State and in its northern side it formed little enclaves within neighbouring Panna State. Himanshu Soni Sohawal Sohawal State was founded in the mid sixteenth century by a ruler named Fateh Singh, it had been much larger, but lost much territory within the first centuries of its existence. Sohawal became a British protectorate subordinate to Panna State, but a separate sanad was granted to Rais Aman Singh in 1809. During the 1830 - 1833 period there was an interregnum in which Sohawal came under direct British administration; the last ruler of Sohawal signed the instrument of accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1950. The rulers used the title of Rais and after 1911 they adopted the title Raja.

1550 -.... Fateh Singh.... -............ - 1750 Prithipal Singh.... -........ bf.1809 - 18.. Lal Aman Singh 18.. - 1830 Raghunath Singh 1830 - 1833 Vacant 1833 - 1840 Lal Aman Singh 1840 - 1865 Sheo Singh 1 Nov 1865 - 1899 Sher Jang Bahadur Singh 23 Nov 1899 - 1911 Bhagwant Raj Bahadur Singh 1911 - 16 Feb 1930 Bhagwant Raj Bahadur Singh 1930 - 15 Aug 1947 Jagendra Bahadur Singh Political integration of India Vindhya Pradesh

Operation Zeppelin (espionage plan)

Operation Zeppelin was a German plan to recruit Soviet prisoners of war for espionage and sabotage operations behind the Russian front line during World War II. Active from mid-1942 to the end of the war, the operation intended to send masses of agents to Soviet Russia to collect military intelligence and to counterbalance sabotage activities carried out by the Soviet partisans. To that end, Germans trained them in special camps. However, this approach had to be abandoned in favor of more targeted operations due to lack of reliable Soviet recruits and dwindling resources, such as aircraft fuel. Operation Zeppelin was important for intelligence gathering in the Eastern Front, but its more ambitious missions yielded little results, it had some success in the Caucasus where the various peoples of the Caucasus aspired to become independent from the Soviet Union, but other missions, such as sabotage of power plants near Moscow or a plot to assassinate Joseph Stalin, were abandoned or failed. A particular failure was the desertion of the Brigade SS Druzhina in August 1943.

The operation could be traced to small mobile units of interrogators that worked on the numerous Soviet POWs captured during the Operation Barbarossa. Some prisoners those that had lost loved ones to Soviet repressions or were not ethnic Russians, were willing to cooperate with the Germans; the idea for a wider operation that would go beyond collection of military intelligence originated from "below" and was brought to the attention of Reinhard Heydrich and Heinrich Himmler. The operation crystallized in summer 1942 despite a March 1942 agreement that defined foreign espionage as an Abwehr function. Operation Zeppelin was supposed to address the lack of intelligence on the Soviet Union and to create a counterweight to the expanding Soviet partisan activities; the Germans had little trouble finding recruits as starving and desperate prisoners saw Operation Zeppelin as a chance at survival. However, Germans faced trouble finding qualified recruits, they wanted to recruit educated anti-communists but found that Soviet repressions left only illiterate anti-communists.

Selected prisoners were sent to special training camps to learn about sabotage, radio transmissions, etc. Their ideological training focused on exploiting hatred for Judeo-Bolshevism. Germans fanned independence aspirations of the peoples from Caucasus and Central Asia. Prisoners of conflicting political beliefs, for example Ukrainian nationalists and Russian nationalists of the Russian Liberation Army, were kept separate; the recruits wore German uniforms and their living conditions were comparable to those of German soldiers. However, recruits that were deemed unfit were sent to extermination camps. Other Zeppelin agents were executed upon their return after the completion of their missions. For his role in these executions, Walter Schellenberg, chief of the foreign intelligence, was sentenced to six years in prison in the post-war Ministries Trial. Before 1944, the education lasted from three weeks to three months. There was little consistency between the camps. Due to aircraft shortage, there were significant delays in deployment.

Idle agents drank alcohol, contracted venereal diseases, rethought their allegiance. Zeppelin recruits, who witnessed German atrocities and heard the Untermenschen propaganda, lacked positive inspiration and that led to high rate of failed missions and frequent defections. In numerous cases, Zeppelin agents would cooperate in fighting the Germans. Soviet sources claim that they were able to turn more than 80, or nearly 13%, of captured radio agents. Further, POW enthusiasm for cooperation dwindled after the German failure in the Battle of Stalingrad; as a result, the Germans had to abandon the "quantity over quality" approach and become more selective. They chose those Russian prisoners that had committed an unforgivable offense, such as desertion or atrocity against Soviet civilians, that would prevent them from surrendering to the Soviet authorities. In January 1944, at a conference in Wrocław, Schellenberg ordered that German agents needed to be attached to Russian groups for proper control and supervision.

At the end of 1944 and beginning of 1945, Operation Zeppelin faced such difficulties in finding reliable Russian agents that it was decided to use Russian-speaking Volksdeutsche. From mid-1943, Operation Zeppelin supported and maintained contact with pro-German groups that were left behind the Russian line by the advancing Red Army. For example, in summer 1944, Zeppelin made contact with troops of the S. S. Sturmbrigade R. O. N. A. Near Bryansk. Operation Zeppelin was part of the Section C at the Amt VI of the Reich Main Security Office. Under the leadership of Heinz Gräfe, the operation became an independent office of Section C in mid-1943. In its intelligence gathering functions, Operation Zeppelin duplicated the activities of Abwehr, the German military intelligence, of the Foreign Armies East, department of the Oberkommando des Heeres. While relations with FHO were normal, relations with Abwehr were adversarial, it was one of the manifestations of the continued rivalry between Abwehr. Inside RSHA, Operation Zeppelin suffered from a rivalry between Amt IV and Amt VI.

Towards the end of the war, there were attempts at creating a collaboration between Operation Zeppelin and the Russian Liberation Army. The small staff at the headquarters in Wannsee were academics from various Ostforschung (German for Research of th

Hughes Helicopters

Hughes Helicopters was a major manufacturer of military and civil helicopters from the 1950s to the 1980s. The company began in 1947, as a unit of Hughes Aircraft was part of the Hughes Tool Company after 1955, it became the Hughes Helicopter Division, Summa Corporation in 1972, was reformed as Hughes Helicopters, Inc. in 1981. However, throughout its history, the company was informally known as "Hughes Helicopters", it was sold to McDonnell Douglas in 1984 and made a subsidiary under the name McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems. See MD Helicopters for history of the company after this acquisition. In 1997 McDonnell Douglas merged with Boeing with Boeing as the surviving company. In 1947, Howard Hughes redirected the Hughes Aircraft Company's efforts from airplanes to helicopters; the effort began in earnest in 1948, when helicopter manufacturer Kellett Autogiro Corporation sold their latest design to Hughes for production. The XH-17 "Sky Crane" was commercially unsuccessful. In 1955 the company began building light helicopters when Howard Hughes split the helicopter production unit from the Hughes Aircraft Co. and reconstituted it with the Hughes Tool Co. as the Hughes Tool Co.

Aircraft Division, with a focus on the production of light helicopters. The Hughes Model 269 was the company's first successful helicopter design. Built in 1956, entering production in 1957, it served to capture a large portion of the commercial market for Hughes, it would become part of the Army inventory as a primary trainer. In May 1965, the company won the contract for a new observation helicopter for the U. S. Army, produced the OH-6 Cayuse; the OH-6 was developed into the civilian Model 500, variants of which remain in production to this day. In 1972, Hughes sold the tool division of Hughes Tool Company, reconsolidated his remaining holdings as the Summa Corporation, which included Hughes' property and other businesses; the Aircraft Division became Summa Corp.. That same year, the US Army issued a request for proposals for an Advanced Attack Helicopter. From an initial list of 5 manufacturers Hughes Aircraft's Toolco Aircraft Division and Bell were selected as finalists. In 1975, Hughes' Model 77/YAH-64 was selected over Bell's YAH-63.

First flight of a development prototype occurred in 1977. In 1975, Hughes engineers at began concept development work of NOTAR. In 1981, Summa's Hughes Helicopter Division was reconstituted as Hughes Helicopters, Inc.. By December, six AH-64A prototypes had been built and the Army had awarded a purchase contract to the company. Production would reach more than 1,100 by 2005. In 1983, the first production model AH-64 rolled off the production line at the company's new Mesa, Arizona facility; that same year, the company was honored by the National Aeronautic Association with the prestigious Collier Trophy. The company licensed Schweizer Aircraft to produce the Model 300C. In January 1984, Hughes Helicopters, Inc. was sold to McDonnell Douglas by Summa Corporation, under the parent's efforts to streamline its focus and interest in real estate development. McDonnell Douglas made it a subsidiary. Hughes Helicopters was renamed McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems in August 1984. Although the direct link with Hughes was broken, the helicopter designs created by Hughes Helicopters would continue to be produced by Boeing Rotorcraft Systems, MD Helicopters, Schweizer RSG

European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education

The European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education is an independent organisation that acts as a platform for collaboration for its 31 member countries, working towards ensuring more inclusive education systems. The Agency's mission is to help member countries improve the quality and effectiveness of their inclusive provision for all learners; this short animation video explains. All European countries are committed to working towards ensuring more inclusive education systems, they do so depending on their past and current contexts and histories. Inclusive education systems are seen as a vital component within the wider aspiration of more inclusive societies that all countries align themselves with, both ethically and politically; the ultimate vision for inclusive education systems is to ensure that all learners of any age are provided with meaningful, high-quality educational opportunities in their local community, alongside their friends and peers. This vision is depicted in the following animation video.

The Agency has a mandate from its member countries to facilitate collaboration regarding country priorities that are in line with the European Council priorities as identified in the ET 2020 strategy and in accordance with international agreements, such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Agency was established in 1996 as an initiative of the Danish Government; the Agency Secretariat is based in Odense and the Agency has an office in Brussels, Belgium. Through its activities the Agency facilitates the collection and transfer of European level and country specific information in the area of inclusive education, it provides opportunities for sharing different types of knowledge and experiences. At present the Agency has 31 member countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy Latvia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom.

Agency activities work towards the ET 2020 strategic objective ‘promoting equity, social cohesion and active citizenship’. In line with this objective, the main focus of the Agency's work is upon inclusive education and the characteristics of provision for all learners, in particular those who are vulnerable to marginalisation and exclusion, such as students with disabilities and/or special educational needs. By analysing and identifying key factors that hinder or support positive developments, the Agency provides member countries with recommendations and guidelines for policy and practice and shares information about the reality of inclusive education across Europe. In its activities, the Agency focuses on priorities established by member countries within the framework of its annual and multi-annual work programmes. Annual reports presenting an overview of annual activities are available online. Country Policy Review and Analysis The goal of this ongoing activity is to aid country reflection regarding the development of policy for inclusive education.

It has been developed to provide a new form of individualised country information. European Agency Statistics on Inclusive Education This is an ongoing data collection activity presenting quantitative and qualitative country information; the Agency acts as a technical body for countries who want to improve their inclusive education systems. In the framework of the European Commission's Structural Reform and Support Programme, as of 2018, the Agency has been assisting two member countries with the preparation and implementation of reforms to improve their inclusive education systems. All thematic projects focus upon issues of common concern for policy makers for special needs and inclusive education; the topics to be examined within thematic projects are identified via a systemic collection of information on the priorities countries have. Priority topics include early childhood intervention, assessment in inclusive settings, teacher education for inclusion, vocational education and training, ICT for inclusion, information accessibility and data collection in the field on SNE.

This is a list of Agency projects categorised under thematic sub-groups: Inclusive Early Childhood Education Early Childhood Intervention and Early Intervention in Europe Teachers Professional Learning for Inclusion Raising the Achievement of all Learners in Inclusive Education Raising Achievement for All Learners – Quality in Inclusive Education Organisation of Provision to Support Inclusive Education Teacher Education for Inclusion Mapping the Implementation of Policy for Inclusive education Inclusive Education in Classroom Practice Indicators – Follow up project Indicators for Inclusive Education Assessment in Inclusive settings and Multicultural Diversity and Special Needs Education Inclusive Education and Classroom Practice in Secondary Education Inclusive Education and Classroom Practice in Primary Education Teacher Support Vocational Education and Training Higher Education Accessibility Guide and Individual Transition Plans Transition from School to Employment Preventing School Failure: Examining the Potential of Inclusive Education Policies in Relation to the System and Individuals Supporti