The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in 1993. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks took market share from Apple, by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer.
After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mac Pro.
Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system, rebranded to OS X in 2012, macOS in 2016; the current version is macOS Mojave, released on September 24, 2018. Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.
Since Apple's transition to Intel processors, there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes". The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc. the audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name. In 1978, Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC.
He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action. The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. In
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
Macintosh Quadra 660AV
The Macintosh Quadra 660AV is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer Inc. from July 1993 to September 1994. It was introduced alongside the Quadra 840AV; the 660AV was discontinued a few months after the introduction of the Power Macintosh 6100/60AV. Apple sold a Power Macintosh Upgrade Card that upgraded the 660AV to match the 6100/60AV's specifications for $1,399 USD. For users who were not ready to move to PowerPC, the Quadra 630 was a suitable replacement; the 660AV uses the "pizza box" case of the earlier Centris 610. The 660AV has a full Motorola 68040 instead of the 610's FPU-less 68LC040. Like the 840AV, the 660AV features video input/output capability and an onboard AT&T 3210 digital signal processor to make the video handling less of a burden on the CPU; the 660AV is the first Macintosh to include GeoPort. Some of the earliest Centris 660AVs have the older'auto-inject' floppy drive opening similar to the 610, but most of the Centris models and all of the Quadra models have a drive similar to the Power Macintosh 6100, lacking the ‘auto-inject’ feature.
These models have a deep round indent at the center of the floppy drive slot to make it possible to insert the disk all the way. The Quadra AV Macs introduced a new universal ROM that would be used in all PowerPC systems, it includes SCSI Manager 4.3 and Sound Manager 3.0. It is "vectorized" making it easier to patch. Introduced July 29, 1993: Macintosh Centris 660AVIntroduced October 1, 1993: Macintosh Quadra 660AV Centris 660av at Low End Mac Centris 660AV and Quadra 660AV at EveryMac.com
The Macintosh 512K is a personal computer, designed and sold by Apple Computer, inc. from September 1984 to April 1986. It is the first update to the original Macintosh 128K, it was identical to the previous Macintosh, differing in the amount of built-in random-access memory. The increased memory turned the Macintosh into a more business-capable computer and gained the ability to run more software; the Mac 512K shipped with Macintosh System 1.1 but was able to run all versions of Mac OS up to System 4.1. It was replaced by the Macintosh Plus. All support for the Mac 512K was discontinued on September 1, 1998. Like the Macintosh 128K before it, the 512K contained a Motorola 68000 connected to a 512 kB DRAM by a 16-bit data bus. Though the memory had been quadrupled, it could not be upgraded; the large increase earned it the nickname Fat Mac. A 64 kB ROM chip boosts the effective memory to 576 kB, but this is offset by the display's 22 kB framebuffer, shared with the DMA video controller; this shared arrangement reduces CPU performance by up to 35%.
It shared a revised logic board with the re-badged Macintosh 128K. The resolution of the display was the same, at 512x342. Apple sold a memory upgrade for the Macintosh 128K for $995 and reduced the price when 256K DRAM prices fell months later; the applications MacPaint and MacWrite were still bundled with the Mac. Soon after this model was released, several other applications became available, including MacDraw, MacProject, Macintosh Pascal and others. In particular, Microsoft Excel, written for the Macintosh, required a minimum of 512 kB of RAM, but solidified the Macintosh as a serious business computer. Models with the enhanced ROM supported Apple's Switcher, allowing cooperative multitasking among applications; the LaserWriter printer became available shortly after the 512K's introduction, as well as the number pad, tablet, mouse, basic mouse, much more. It utilized Apple's built-in networking scheme LocalTalk which allows sharing of devices among several users; the 512K was the oldest Macintosh capable of supporting Apple's AppleShare built-in file sharing network, when introduced in 1987.
The expanded memory in the 512K allowed it to better handle large word-processing documents and make better use of the graphical user interface and increased speed over the 128K model. The original 512K could accept Macintosh system software up to version 4.1. An updated version replaced the Macintosh 512K and debuted as the Macintosh 512K enhanced in April 1986, it differed from the original 512K in that it had an 800 kB floppy disk drive and the same improved ROM as the Macintosh Plus. With the exception of the new model number, they were otherwise cosmetically identical; the stock 512K could use an 800 kB floppy disk drive as well as the Hard Disk 20, the first hard disk manufactured by Apple for use with the 512K, but required a special system file that loaded the improved ROM code into RAM, thus reducing the available RAM for other uses. Apple offered an upgrade kit which replaced the floppy disk drive and ROMs turning it into a 512Ke. One further OEM upgrade replaced the logicboard and the rear case with that of the Macintosh Plus.
As with the original Macintosh, the 512K was designed with no slots for upgrade boards and had no hard-disk controller, so the few internal upgrades that were available for the 512K, such as General Computer's US$2,795 Hyperdrive hard drive, had to plug directly into the 68000 processor socket. Other such upgrades included "snap-on" SCSI cards and RAM upgrades of 2 MB or more. Macintosh 128K/512K technical details Macintosh 512K technical specifications at apple.com Inside the Macintosh 512K
A computer case known as a computer chassis, system unit, CPU, or cabinet, is the enclosure that contains most of the components of a personal computer. Cases are constructed from steel or aluminium. Plastic is sometimes used, other materials such as glass and Lego bricks have appeared in home-built cases. Cases can come in many different sizes; the size and shape of a computer case is determined by the form factor of the motherboard, since it is the largest component of most computers. Personal computer form factors specify only the internal dimensions and layout of the case. Form factors for rack-mounted and blade servers may include precise external dimensions as well, since these cases must themselves fit in specific enclosures. For example, a case designed for an ATX motherboard and power supply may take on several external forms such as a vertical tower, a flat desktop or pizza box. Full-size tower cases are larger in volume than desktop cases, with more room for drive bays, expansion slots, custom or all-in-one water cooling solutions.
Desktop cases—and mini-tower cases under about 46 cm high—are popular in business environments where space is at a premium. The most popular form factor for desktop computers is ATX, although microATX and small form factors have become popular for a variety of uses. In the high-end segment the unofficial and loosely defined XL-ATX specification appeared around 2009, it extends the length of the mainboard to accommodate four graphics cards with dual-slot coolers. Some XL-ATX mainboards increase the mainboard's width as well, to allow more space for the CPU, Memory PWM, in some cases, a second CPU socket. While the market share of these exotic high-end mainboards is low all high-end cases and many mainstream cases support XL-ATX; as of 2018, no major motherboard manufacturer has made an XL-ATX board for several years. Companies like In Win Development, Shuttle Inc. and AOpen popularized small cases, for which FlexATX was the most common motherboard size. As of 2010 Mini ITX has replaced FlexATX as the most common small form factor mainboard standard.
The latest mini ITX mainboards from Asus, Gigabyte, MSI, ASRock and Foxconn offer the same feature set as full size mainboards. High-end mini ITX mainboards support standard desktop CPUs, use standard memory DIMM sockets, feature a full size PCI-E 16× slot with support for the fastest graphics cards, although some instead use a PCI, or PCIe slot of less than 16 lanes; this allows customers to build a fledged high-end computer in a smaller case. Apple Inc. has produced the Mac Mini computer, similar in size to a standard CD-ROM drive, many manufacturers offer mini-ITX cases of similar size for low-wattage CPUs with integrated graphics. Tower cases are categorized as mini-tower, midi-tower, mid-tower or full-tower; the terms are subjective and inconsistently defined by different manufacturers. Full tower cases are 56 cm or more in height and intended to stand on the floor, they can have anywhere from six to ten externally accessible drive bays, although in recent years, this has shifted to offering better airflow in the front by moving the drive bays elsewhere in the case.
The ratio of external to internal bays is shifting, however, as computing technology moves from floppy disks and CD-ROMs to large capacity hard drives, USB flash drives, network-based solutions. The full tower case was developed to house file servers which would be tasked with serving data from expensive CD-ROM databases which held more data than the hard drives available, but are moving now towards being showpiece display cases with custom water cooling and tempered glass. Hence many full tower cases include locking doors and other physical security features to prevent theft of the discs; this is a high-end case doesn't include security features. Mid-tower cases are smaller, about 46 cm high with two to four external bays. A mini-tower case will have only one or two external bays; the marketing term midi-tower has come into use referring to cases smaller than mid-tower but larger than mini-tower with two to three external bays. Outside of the United States the term is used interchangeably with mid-tower.
The computer case is sometimes erroneously referred to as the "CPU" or "hard drive". Computer cases include sheet metal enclosures for a power supply unit and drive bays, as well as a rear panel that can accommodate peripheral connectors protruding from the motherboard and expansion slots. Most cases have a power button or switch, a reset button, LEDs to indicate power, hard drive activity, network activity in some models; some cases include built-in I/O ports on the front of the case. Such a case will include the wires needed to connect these ports and indicators to the motherboard; the motherboard is screwed to the case along its largest face, which could be the bottom or the side of the case depending on the form factor and orientation. Form factors such as ATX provide a back panel with cut-out holes to expose I/O ports provided by integrated peripherals, as well as expansion
Macintosh II family
The Macintosh II is a family of personal computers, designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1987 to 1993. The Macintosh II was the initial model, representing the high-end of the Macintosh line for the time. Over the course of the next six years, seven more models were produced, culminating with the short-lived Macintosh IIvi and Macintosh IIvx models. Apple retired the Macintosh II name. Unlike prior Macintosh models, which are "all-in-one" designs, the Macintosh II models are "modular" systems which do not include built-in monitors and are expandable. Beginning with the Macintosh II and culminating in the Macintosh IIfx, the Macintosh II family was Apple's high-end line from 1987 until the introduction of the Motorola 68040-based Macintosh Quadra computers in 1991. Expansion was provided by way of NuBus, which become the standard expansion bus for the entire Macintosh line for a decade; the Macintosh II was the first to support color displays and the first to support a screen resolution larger than 512x384.
The Macintosh II is the first to use a Motorola 68000 series processor other than the Motorola 68000. Except for the original Macintosh II which launched the line with a Motorola 68020 clocked at 16 MHz, they used the Motorola 68030 microprocessor after the Motorola 68040 was introduced. Apple would adopt the'040 with the introduction of the Quadra 700 and 900, positioning these models as high-end workstation-class machines for graphics and scientific computing, while positioning the Macintosh II family as a mainstream desktop computer. During the Macintosh II series' lifespan, they rose to become among the most powerful personal computers available. While the Macintosh II series itself was replaced by the Macintosh Centris and Quadra, the Macintosh LC and Performa families continued to use the II's 68030 technology long after the 68040 was introduced and the PowerBook continued to use the'030 into the Power Macintosh era. List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU type List of Macintosh models by case type Mac II Series Index, Low End Mac
The Macintosh 128K released as the Apple Macintosh, is the original Apple Macintosh personal computer. Its beige case came with a keyboard and mouse. A handle built into the top of the case made it easier for the computer to be carried, it had an initial selling price of $2,495. The Macintosh was introduced by the now-famous $370,000 television commercial by Ridley Scott, "1984", that most notably aired on CBS during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984. Sales of the Macintosh were strong from its initial release on January 24, 1984, reached 70,000 units on May 3, 1984. Upon the release of its successor, the Macintosh 512K, it was rebranded as the Macintosh 128K; this computer did not have a model number. The centerpiece of the machine was a Motorola 68000 microprocessor running at 7.8336 MHz, connected to 128 KB RAM shared by the processor and the display controller. The boot procedure and some operating system routines were contained in an additional 64 KB ROM chip. Apple did not offer RAM upgrades.
Unlike the Apple II, no source code listings of the Macintosh system ROMs were offered. The RAM in the Macintosh consisted of sixteen 4164 64k×1 DRAMs; the 68000 and video controller took turns accessing DRAM every four CPU cycles during display of the frame buffer, while the 68000 had unrestricted access to DRAM during vertical and horizontal blanking intervals. Such an arrangement reduced the overall performance of the CPU as much as 35% for most code as the display logic blocked the CPU's access to RAM; this made the machine run more than several of its competitors, despite the nominally high clock rate. Mac 128s and 512s were equipped with Micron-branded 4164 RAM chips for cost reasons, however Micron's quality control was poor and the chips were a common failure point; the built-in display was a one-bit black-and-white, 9 in CRT with a fixed resolution of 512×342 pixels, establishing the desktop publishing standard of 72 PPI. Expansion and networking were achieved using two non-standard RS-422 DE-9 serial ports named "printer" and "modem".
An external floppy disk drive could be added using a proprietary connector. The keyboard and mouse used simple proprietary protocols; the original keyboard had numeric keypad or function keys. This was an intentional decision by Apple, as these keys were common on older platforms and it was thought that the addition of these keys would encourage software developers to port their existing applications to the Mac, rather than design new ones around the GUI paradigm. Apple would make a numeric keypad available for the Macintosh 128K; the keyboard sold with the newer Macintosh Plus model would include the numeric keypad and arrow keys, but still no function keys. As with the Apple Lisa before it, the mouse had a single button. Standard headphones could be connected to a monaural jack. Apple offered their 300 and 1200 bit/s modems released for the Apple II line; the only printer available was the Apple ImageWriter, a dot matrix printer, designed to produce 144 dpi WYSIWYG output from the Mac's 72 dpi screen.
The LaserWriter and other printers were capable of being connected using AppleTalk, Apple's built-in networking system. The Macintosh contained a single 400 KB, single-sided 3 1⁄2-inch floppy disk drive, dedicating no space to other internal mechanical storage; the Mac OS was disk-based from the beginning, as RAM had to be conserved, but this "Startup Disk" could still be temporarily ejected. One floppy disk was sufficient to store the System Software, an application and the data files created with the application. Indeed, the 400 KB drive capacity was larger than the PC XT's 360 KB 5.25-inch drive. However, more sophisticated work environments of the time required separate disks for documents and the system installation. Due to the memory constraints of the original Macintosh, the fact that the floppies could hold 400 KB, users had to swap disks in and out of the floppy drive. For this reason, external floppy drives were used; the Macintosh External Disk Drive was a popular add-on at US $495.
Third-party hard drives were more expensive and connected to the slower serial port, though a few manufacturers chose to use the faster nonstandard floppy port. The 128K can only use the original Macintosh File System for storage; the unit did not include a fan, relying instead on convection cooling, which made it quiet while in operation. Steve Jobs insisted that the Macintosh ship without a fan, which persisted until the introduction of the Macintosh SE in 1987; this was a source of many common, costly component failures in the first four Macintosh models. This was enough of a problem to prompt the introduction of a external cooling fan; this fan unit fitted inside the Macintosh's carrying-handle slot and produced a forced draft through the computer's existing ventilation holes. The Macintosh shipped with the first System and Finder application, known to the public as "System 1.0". The original Macintosh saw three upgrades to both. Apple recommends Finder 5.3 as the maximum. System 4.0 dropped support for the Macintosh 128K because it was distributed on 800 KB floppy disks, which could not