Barthélemy Boganda was the leading nationalist politician of what is now the Central African Republic. Boganda was active prior to his country's independence, during the period when the area, part of French Equatorial Africa, was administered by France under the name of Oubangui-Chari, he served as the first Prime Minister of the Central African Republic autonomous territory. Boganda was born into a family of subsistence farmers, was adopted and educated by Roman Catholic Church missionaries. In 1938, he was ordained as the first Roman Catholic priest from Oubangui-Chari. During World War II, Boganda served in a number of missions and after was persuaded by the Bishop of Bangui to enter politics. In 1946, he became the first Oubanguian elected to the French National Assembly, where he maintained a political platform against racism and the colonial regime, he returned to Oubangui-Chari to form a grassroots movement in opposition of French colonialism. The movement led to the 1949 foundation of the Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa, which became popular among villagers and the working class.
Boganda's reputation was damaged when he was laicized from the priesthood after marrying Michelle Jourdain, a parliamentary secretary. Nonetheless, he continued to advocate for equal treatment and civil rights for blacks in the territory well into the 1950s. In 1958, after the French Fourth Republic began to consider granting independence to most of its African colonies, Boganda met with Prime Minister Charles de Gaulle to discuss terms for the independence of Oubangui-Chari. De Gaulle accepted Boganda's terms, on 1 December, Boganda declared the establishment of the Central African Republic, he became the autonomous territory's first Prime Minister and intended to serve as the first President of the independent CAR. He was killed in a mysterious plane crash on 29 March 1959 to Bangui. Experts found a trace of explosives in the plane's wreckage, but revelation of this detail was withheld. Although those responsible for the crash were never identified, people have suspected the French secret service, Boganda's wife, of being involved.
More than one year Boganda's dream was realized, when the Central African Republic attained formal independence from France. Boganda was born to a family of subsistence farmers in Bobangui, a large M'Baka village in the Lobaye basin located at the edge of the equatorial forest some 80 kilometres southwest of Bangui. French commercial exploitation of Central Africa had reached an apogee around the time of Boganda's birth, although interrupted by World War I, activity resumed in the 1920s; the French consortia used what was a form of slavery—the corvée—and one of the most notorious was the Compagnie forestière de la Sangha-Oubangui, involved in rubber gathering in the Lobaye district. In the late 1920s, Boganda's mother was beaten to death by the company's officials while collecting rubber in the forest, his uncle, whose son Jean-Bédel Bokassa would crown himself as the Emperor of the Central African Empire, was beaten to death at the colonial police station as a result of his alleged resistance to work.
Boganda's father was a witch doctor. During his early years, Boganda was adopted by Catholic missionaries; as a boy he attended the school opened at Mbaiki by Lieutenant Mayer. From December 1921 to December 1922, he spent two hours a day with Monsignor Jean-Réné Calloch learning how to read, while spending the rest of his time performing manual labour. On 24 December, he was received into the church under the name Barthélemy, in honour of one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, believed to have worked as Christian missionary in Africa. Father Gabriel Herrau sent Boganda to the Catholic School of Betou and to the school of the Saint Paul Mission at Bangui, where he completed his primary studies under Mgr Calloch, whom he would consider his spiritual father; the missionaries there, encouraged by his intellectual promise and pious demeanour, helped him continue secondary studies at small seminaries in Brazzaville and Kisantu before he moved on to the great seminary at Yaoundé. On 17 March 1938, fulfilling an ambition he had had since age twelve, he was ordained and became the first Roman Catholic priest native to Oubangui-Chari, as the colony was called.
He ministered at Bangui and Bangassou, in 1939, his bishop denied his request to join the French Army. He was needed at home, as many Frenchmen involved with the church had been recalled to the metropole to fight in World War II, during which he served in a number of missions. After World War II, Boganda was urged by the Bishop of Bangui, Mgr Grandin, to complement his humanitarian and social works through political action. Boganda decided to run for election to the National Assembly of France. On 10 November 1946, he became the first Oubanguian elected to the assembly after winning half of the total votes cast and defeating three other candidates, including the outgoing incumbent, François Joseph Reste, who had served as the Governor-General of French Equatorial Africa. Boganda arrived in Paris attired in his clerical garb and introduced himself to his fellow legislators as the son of a polygamous cannibal. From 1947 on, Boganda conducted a lively campaign against the colonial regime. Soon realizing the limits of his influence in France, he returned to Oubangui-Chari to organise a grassroots movement of teachers, truck drivers and small producers to oppose French colonialism, although his previous at
The Viola is a steam trawler built in 1906 at Hull. She is the oldest surviving steam trawler in the world. During her long career, she was known as HMT Viola and Dias, she is beached at Grytviken in South Georgia, though there are plans afoot to return her to Hull. Cook, Welton & Gemmell of Beverley built Viola for the Hellyer Steam Fishing Company in 1906. After launching, she was floated down the River Hull to Hull where the engineering firm of Amos & Smith fitted her with steam engines, she burnt coal until 1956. She was part of the Hellyer Steam Fishing Company's North Sea fleet, like much of Hellyer's fleet was named after a Shakespearean character. Hellyer trawlers stayed out at sea for weeks at a time, transferring their catch to a fleet of five fast steam cutters that commuted between the fishing grounds and the fish markets of eastern England. Viola was at sea for more than 310 days a year. In September 1914, Viola was requisitioned by the Admiralty armed with a 3 pounder gun and moved to Shetland, patrolling the waters out as far as Fair Isle looking for U-boats and escorting other vessels.
In the war, Viola was armed with a 12-pounder gun, transferred to the Tyne for minesweeping duty. She was one of the first vessels to use depth charges, she was fitted with hydrophones. Along with other armed trawlers she was involved in actions resulting in the sinking of at least two U-boats: the UB-30 off Whitby on 13 August 1918, the UB-115 off the Northumberland coast on 29 September. Many vessels from Hellyer's North Sea fleet were lost during the war. After the war Hellyer decided to concentrate on the distant fishing grounds off the coast of Iceland and the Barents Sea. In 1918 they sold-off the remaining North Sea trawlers, including sold Viola, which they sold to Massey & Sons. In the following year Massey sold her to L. Thorsen of Norway; the whaling firm of Nils Torvald Nielsen Alonso acquired Thorsen and converted Kapduen for whaling, fitting her with a new bridge forward of the funnel. She was renamed Dias over the next few years whaled off the coast of Africa. By 1927 she was laid up at Sandefjord.
Dias was sold to Compañía Argentina de Pesca, who moved to Grytviken in South Georgia for sealing. She served as a support vessel for expeditions in the South Atlantic, supporting the Argentine weather station at Laurie Island, the Kohl-Larsen Expedition of 1928/9, the British South Georgia Expedition of 1954/55, the topographical surveys carried out by Duncan Carse between 1951 and 1957, the Bird Island Expedition of 1958. In 1964 the whaling station at Grytviken closed, Dias, along with another sealer, was laid up. A caretaker was responsible for maintenance and running the engines, but he left in 1971. Over the next few years snow and ice built up on the superstructure and Dias foundered at her mooring in the winter of 1974. Albatros sank the following year. In 2004, as part of a project to restore and conserve Grytviken and Albatros were refloated and cleared of all remaining oil. Both ships have now been beached. An organisation, the "Friends of Viola/Dias", seeks to preserve the ship, either in situ or by bringing her back to Hull.
The "Friends of Viola/Dias" estimate the cost of repatriating Viola at £1 million, restoration costs at £5 million. In 2006 Viola's original bell was discovered on a farm at Sandefjord. Hull Maritime Museum in 2008 returned the bell to the ship. In 2016 the Viola was surveyed to determine its condition and whether or not it could be refloated and restored. Arctic Corsair - Hull's preserved deep water trawler, though of a much more modern breed to that represented through the remarkable survival of the ST Viola Ross Tiger - Grimsby's preserved middle water sidewinder — the last of the fleet which once made Grimsby the largest fishing port in the world. SM U-96 Headland, Robert; the Island of South Georgia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25274-1. Robinson, Robb. Viola, The Life and Times of a Hull Steam Trawler. Lodestar Books. ISBN 978-1907206276. Viola Trawler website Viola: the trawler that fought World War One - Daily Telegraph
NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 known as cryopyrin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NLRP3 gene located on the long arm of chromosome 1. NALP3 is expressed predominantly in macrophages and as a component of the inflammasome, detects products of damaged cells such as extracellular ATP and crystalline uric acid. Activated NALP3 in turn triggers an immune response. Mutations in the NLRP3 gene are associated with a number of organ specific autoimmune diseases. NACHT, LRR, PYD are acronyms for: NACHT – NAIP, C2TA [class 2 transcription activator, of the MHC, HET-E and TP1 LRR – "leucine-rich repeat" and is synonymous with NLR, for or nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat" PYD – "PYRIN domain," after the pyrin proteins The NLRP3 gene name abbreviates "NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3," where NLR refers to "nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat."The NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 is called: cold induced autoinflammatory syndrome 1, caterpiller-like receptor 1.1, PYRIN-containing APAF1-like protein 1.
This gene encodes a pyrin-like protein which contains a pyrin domain, a nucleotide-binding site domain, a leucine-rich repeat motif. This protein interacts with pyrin domain of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD. Proteins which contain the caspase recruitment domain, CARD, have been shown to be involved in inflammation and immune response. NALP3 is a component of the innate immune system that functions as a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns. NALP3 belongs to the NOD-like receptor subfamily of PRRs and NALP3 together with the adaptor ASC protein PYCARD forms a caspase-1 activating complex known as the NALP3 inflammasome. NALP3 in the absence of activating signal is kept in an inactive state complexed with HSP90 and SGT1 in the cytoplasm. NALP3 inflammasome detects danger signals such as crystalline uric acid and extracellular ATP released by damaged cells; these signals release HSP90 and SGT1 from and recruit ASC protein and caspase-1 to the inflammasome complex.
Caspase-1 within the activated NALP3 inflammasome complex in turn activates the inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. The NALP3 inflammasome appears to be activated by changes in intracellular potassium caused by potassium efflux from mechanosensitive ion channels located in the cell membrane, it appears that NALP3 is regulated by reactive oxygen species, though the precise mechanisms of such regulation has not been determined. It is suggested that NALF3 provides protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections by activating STAT6 and SPDEF. Mutations in the NLRP3 gene have been associated with a spectrum of dominantly inherited autoinflammatory diseases called cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome; this includes familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, Muckle–Wells syndrome, chronic infantile neurological cutaneous and articular syndrome, neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease, keratoendotheliitis fugax hereditaria. Defects in this gene have been linked to familial Mediterranean fever.
In addition, the NALP3 inflammasome has a role in the pathogenesis of gout and neuroinflammation occurring in protein-misfolding diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, prion diseases. Amelioration of mouse models of many diseases has been shown to occur by deletion of the NLRP3 inflammasome, including gout, type 2 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis; the compound β-Hydroxybutyrate has been shown to block NLRP3 activation, thus may be of benefit for many of these diseases. Deregulation of NALP3 has been connected with carcinogenesis. For example, all the components of the NALP3 inflammasome are downregulated or lost in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q96P20 at the PDBe-KB
Garibaldi, the English title of the film released as Viva l'Italia!, is a 1961 Italian drama film directed by Roberto Rossellini. The film shows how Italy's historic national hero Giuseppe Garibaldi leads a military campaign known as the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860 and conquers Sicily and Naples; when the Bourbon monarchy has left Southern Italy, he supports Victor Emmanuel II of Italy who achieves a lasting unification under the aegis of the House of Savoy. Roberto Rossellini stated he was more proud of this film than of any other film he made. Garibaldi on IMDb Viva L'italia! at AllMovie
Events from the year 1704 in Ireland. Registration Act, an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of Ireland, one of a series of Penal Laws, requires all existing Roman Catholic priests to register in their local magistrates' court by July 20, to pay two £50 surety bonds for good behavior, to stay in the county where they registered, with a financial inducement to convert to the Church of Ireland. A House of Industry opens in Dublin to accommodate the destitute. October 26 – Richard Levinge, member of the Irish House of Commons, is created 1st Levinge Baronet, of High Park in the County of Westmeath. Thomas Taylor, member of the Irish House of Commons, is created 1st Taylor Baronet, of Kells in the County of Meath. George Farquhar co-writes the play The Stage-Coach. Jonathan Swift publishes his first major satires, A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books, in London. William Handcock, politician January 1 – Dominic Burke Roman Catholic Bishop of Elphin. February 20 – Thomas FitzWilliam, 4th Viscount FitzWilliam, statesman c.