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Macon's Bill Number 2

Macon's Bill Number 2, which became law in the United States on May 14, 1810, was intended to motivate Great Britain and France to stop seizing American vessels during the Napoleonic Wars. This was a revision of the original bill by Representative Nathaniel Macon, known as Macon's Bill Number 1. Macon neither approved it; the law lifted all embargoes with France. It stated that if either one of the two countries ceased attacks upon American shipping, the United States would end trade with the other, unless that other country agreed to recognize the rights of the neutral American ships as well. Napoleon saw a chance to exploit the bill in order to further his Continental Plan, a form of economic warfare he believed would destroy Britain's economy. A message was sent to the United States, stating the rights of the American merchant ships as neutral carriers would be recognized. President James Madison, a staunch opponent of the bill, grudgingly accepted Napoleon's offer. However, Napoleon had no intention of following through on his promise, Madison soon realized this as well, ignoring the French promise.

The British were still offended by the agreement and threatened force, thus motivating Napoleon to withdraw altogether. Still, the damage had been done and soon the U. S. and Britain were entangled in the War of 1812 due to the continued harassment of American ships and escalated tensions between the United States and the nations of Europe. A general consensus among historians is that this bill was useless, as it was seen that the European economies played upon the weaknesses that the bill created; as a result, the bill's parameters were never enforced because of Madison's correct interpretation of France's deviation. Macon's Bill Number 2 responded to the ineffectiveness of the Non-Intercourse Act and the Embargo Act before it


Khertvisi fortress is one of the oldest fortresses in Georgia and was functional throughout the Georgian feudal period. It is situated in Meskheti region; the fortress was first built in the 2nd century BC. The church was built in 985, the present walls were built in 1354; as the legend says, Khertvisi was destroyed by Alexander the Great. In the 10th-11th centuries it was the center of Meskheti region. During the 12th century it became a town. In the 13th century Mongols destroyed it and until the 15th century it lost its power. In the 15th century it was owned by Meskheti landlords from Jakeli family. In the 16th century the southern region of Georgia was invaded by Turks. During next 300 years they have owned Khertvisi too. At the end of the 19th century Georgian and Russian army returned the lost territories and Khertvisi became the military base for Russian and Georgian troops. Khertvisi fortress is situated on the high rocky hill in the narrow canyon at the confluence of the Mtkvari and Paravani Rivers. International Association of Tourists and Travelers

Torbern Bergman

Torbern Olaf Bergman was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist noted for his 1775 Dissertation on Elective Attractions, containing the largest chemical affinity tables published. Bergman was the first chemist to use the B, C, etc. system of notation for chemical species. Torbern was born on 20 March 1735, the son of Sara Hägg, he enrolled at the University of Uppsala at age 17. His father wished him to read either law or divinity, while he himself was anxious to study mathematics and natural science. During a period of enforced abstinence from study, he amused himself with field botany and entomology, he was able to send Linnaeus specimens of several new kinds of insects, in 1756 he succeeded in proving that, contrary to the opinion of that naturalist, the so-called Coccus aquaticus was the ovum of a kind of leech. He returned to the university in 1758, received his PhD in that year. Bergman lectured at the University of Uppsala on mathematics. Upon the resignation of the celebrated Wallerius, Bergman was a candidate for the professorship of chemistry and mineralogy.

His competitors charged him with ignorance of the subject. To refute them, he shut himself up for some time in a laboratory, prepared a treatise on the manufacture of alum, which became a standard work, he was appointed a professor of chemistry, remained at this position for the rest of his life. Bergman contributed to the advancement of quantitative analysis, he developed a mineral classification scheme based on chemical characteristics and appearance, he is noted for his research on the chemistry of metals bismuth and nickel. In 1764, Bergman was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In April 1765 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. In March 1782, he was elected Foreign Associate of the French Academy of Sciences. In 1771, six years after he first discovered carbonated water and four years after Joseph Priestley first created artificially carbonated water, Bergman perfected a process to make carbonated water from chalk by the action of sulphuric acid.

He is noted for his sponsorship of Carl Wilhelm Scheele, whom some deem to be Bergman's "greatest discovery". The translation into English of his book Physical and Chemical Essays was read and regarded as the first systematic method of chemical analysis. In 1771, Bergman married Margareta Catharina Trast. In Bergman's honour, the uranium mineral Torbernite and the lunar crater Bergman both bear his name. A Dissertation on Elective Attractions. 1775. Essays and Chemical. 1779–1781. Physick Beskrifning Ofver Jordklotet. 1766. Tekniska Museet Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Bergman, Torbern Olof". Encyclopedia Americana; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Bergman, Torbern Olof". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Mostrom, Birgitta.. Torbern Bergman: a bibliography of his works. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. Includes over 300 items, including translations printed up to 1956. Schufle, J. A.. Torbern Bergman: a man before his time. Lawrence, Kan.: Coronado Press.

Smeaton, W. A.. "Bergman, Torbern Olaf". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-10114-9. Johannes Uray, Chemische Theorie und mineralogische Klassifikationssysteme von der chemischen Revolution bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts. In: Berhard Hubmann, Elmar Schübl, Johannes Seidl, Die Anfänge geologischer Forschung in Österreich. Beiträge zur Tagung „10 Jahre Arbeitsgruppe Geschichte der Erdwissenschaften Österreichs“ von 24. Bis 26. April 2009 in Graz. Graz 2010, S 107–125. Torbern Bergman Biography – by James S. Aber Bergman, Torbern. Opuscula Physica et Chemica. 6 vols. Uppsala, 1780. Bergman's chemical genealogy Physisk Beskrifning öfver Jord-Klotet – full digital facsimile from Linda Hall Library

North–South Centre

The North–South Centre the European Centre for Global Interdependence and Solidarity, is a Partial Agreement — of the Council of Europe, the oldest political organisation of European states. It was the outcome of a process started in 1984, when the Portuguese Parliament hosted a conference held by the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly on "North–South: Europe's role"; the Lisbon Declaration, adopted at the end of the conference, broached the idea of a European public campaign on North–South interdependence and solidarity. The campaign was launched in 1988 with the support of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and the European Parliament, it ended with a European conference of parliamentarians and non-governmental organisations, which launched the Madrid Appeal. The Madrid Appeal laid the foundations for a dynamic dialogue between North and South in a spirit of respect for democracy and human dignity in order to allow all the world's inhabitants to enjoy fair and sustainable development.

The Portuguese government proposed setting up a European Centre for Global Interdependence and Solidarity, a proposal supported by the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly in a recommendation adopted in January 1989. The North–South Centre, was established in Lisbon in May 1990 with the purpose of promoting dialogue between North and South, fostering solidarity and raising awareness of global interdependence; the Centre fulfils a dual political role of representing "the voice of the South" within the Council of Europe and of promoting and transmitting the values of democracy and human rights that are central to the Council of Europe's mission in neighbouring regions. The Centre strives to promote gender empowerment, youth participation and democratic consolidation through intercultural dialogue in cooperation with civil society, local authorities and parliaments. - 29 May 2013: Adoption of the Report on the new Mission of the Centre in the framework of the Council of Europe neighbourhood policy - 5 May 2011: Adoption of a new Statutory Resolution for the NSC which entered into force on 1 June 2011 - 2010: Accession of Azerbaijan and Cape Verde, the second non-European country to become a member.

It ended with a European conference of parliamentarians and non-governmental organisations, which issued the Madrid Appeal - 1984: Conference organised in Lisbon held by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe on the theme, “North-South: Europe’s role” and adoption of the “Lisbon Declaration” On 5 May 2011, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe adopted a new statutory resolution for the North–South Centre. This crucial step positively concluded a process launched in November 2009 by the Parliamentary Assembly, in connection with the 20th Anniversary of the Centre. Through this decision, the member States - and indeed all the stakeholders of the North–South Centre - have confirmed its relevance and importance, at a time when the Arab countries - our neighbours - are facing historical changes; the main lines of the Centre's new statute, which entered into force on 1 June 2011, are the following: - the Centre has kept its present legal nature, continues to function as an enlarged partial agreement of the Council of Europe.

Building on the experience and network of contacts established over the years, the Centre is an important asset of the Coun

Liberal Club of the Civic Forum

Liberal Club of the Civic Forum, or Liberal Club was a faction in the Civic Forum. In October 1990, Liberals within the Civic Forum formed the Interparliamentary Civic Association. Association opposed right wing views within the Civic Forum called Interparliamentary Club of the Democratic Right. In October 1990, Association supported Martin Palouš of the Civic Forum during the leadership election. Palouš was defeated by Václav Klaus. Association was replaced by the Liberal Club in December 1990, it was supported by 90 members of the Federal assembly. The club's goal was to prevent the Civic Forum from becoming a right-wing party, it wanted it to remain a revolutionary big tent movement. Conflicts within the Civic Forum led to its dissolution in February 1991. Liberal Club became Civic Movement

USA (King Crimson album)

USA is a live album by the English band King Crimson, released in 1975. It was recorded at the Casino, Asbury Park, New Jersey, on 28 June 1974; the exceptions are track 7, recorded at the Palace Theatre, Rhode Island, United States, on 30 June 1974, Eddie Jobson's overdubs on tracks 2, 3 and 7, which were recorded in a studio. Live recording was performed by George Chkiantz and David Hewitt on the Record Plant NY Remote Truck. Tracks 5 and 6 were edited to about half their lengths for the original 1975 release; the uncut versions were released digitally on in 2005, along with the rest of the show. Track 1 is a brief performance of "The Heavenly Music Corporation" from, an album frontman Robert Fripp recorded with musician and producer Brian Eno. While it was not listed as a separate track on the original album, it is present on all releases. On the original UK vinyl release, the audience noise after the end of the last track was embedded in a locked groove, leaving the applause to go on so long as the phonograph needle remained on the disc.

There have been four releases of the album: Original vinyl release in 1975. Includes tracks Eddie Jobson's overdubs. 30th Anniversary Remaster released 2002. Added tracks 8 & 9 to original release, credited track 1. 2005 mix of original multi-track tapes by Ronan Chris Murphy at DGM. Released as download from in 2005 and on The Collectable King Crimson Vol. 1 in 2006. Includes all tracks, with the uncut versions of "Asbury Park" and "Easy Money". Does not include Eddie Jobson's overdubs. 2013 mix by original multi-track tapes by Robert Fripp, Tony Arnold and David Singleton at the Courthouse, Dorset. Same track order and versions as release #3. Splits improv at end of track 6 into its own track. King CrimsonRobert Fripp – guitar, Mellotron John Wettonbass guitar, vocals David Crossviolin, Mellotron, electric piano except on Bill Bruforddrums, percussionAdditional musicianEddie Jobson – violin, electric piano