Unadilla is a city in Dooly County, United States. The population was 3,796 at the 2010 census, up from 2,772 in 2000; the name is a native term for "gathering place". Dooly State Prison is located in the northeast corner of the city; the community was incorporated in 1891. Unadilla is located in northern Dooly County at 32°15′35″N 83°44′12″W. U. S. Route 41 passes through the center of town as Pine Street, leading north 16 miles to Perry and south 13 miles to Vienna, the Dooly County seat. Interstate 75 passes through the west side of Unadilla, with access from Exits 121 and 122. I-75 leads north 43 miles to Macon and south 61 miles to Tifton. Georgia State Route 230 passes through Unadilla as Second Street and Borum Street, leading southwest 11 miles to Byromville and east 18 miles to Hawkinsville; as of 2000, there were 2,772 people, 655 households, 434 families residing in the city. The population density was 532.9 people per square mile. There were 739 housing units at an average density of 142.1 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 34.52% White, 62.12% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 1.66% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.99% of the population. There were 655 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.0% were married couples living together, 27.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.07. In the city, the population was spread out with 17.6% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 41.4% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 202.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 239.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,250, the median income for a family was $24,779.
Males had a median income of $24,076 versus $17,614 for females. The per capita income for the city was $8,897. About 25.4% of families and 30.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.9% of those under age 18 and 30.4% of those age 65 or over. David Ragan, Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series driver of the No. 38 Ford Fusion Ken Ragan, former NASCAR and ARCA driver. Myron Mixon, four-time barbecue World Champion and current mayor of Unadilla Unadilla at Georgia.gov
Georgia State Route 90
State Route 90 is a 155-mile-long state highway that runs southeast-to-northwest through portions of Atkinson, Irwin, Ben Hill, Wilcox, Dooly, Macon and Talbot counties in the south-central and west-central parts of the U. S. state of Georgia. The route connects Talbotton, via Fitzgerald and Ocilla. SR 90 begins at an intersection with US 82/SR 520 within Atkinson County, it curves to the northwest. Just outside the town's limits, it meets the southern terminus of SR 149, it crosses into Coffee County. The highway doesn't intersect with any major highways in Coffee County, except for SR 158 on the Coffee–Irwin county line. In Irwin County, the highway passes through rural areas of the county and enters the southern part of Ocilla. There, it intersects US 129/SR 11; the three routes head concurrent to the north, past Cumbee Park to an intersection with US 319/SR 32/SR 35. At this intersection, US 319 joins the concurrency, they pass Ocilla Country Club. They enters Ben Hill County just before passing Lake Beatrice.
In the southern part of Fitzgerald, they meet SR 107. At Central Avenue, US 319 departs to the east, concurrent with SR 107. At Sultana Drive, SR 90 splits off to the west. At Dewey McGlamry Road, it turns to the north; the highway heads to the north-northwest and meets the southern terminus of SR 215, which takes on the "Dewey McGlamry Road" name, while SR 90 heads west on Salem Church Road. The route intersects the southern terminus of SR 233 and curves to the southwest and crosses into Turner County before entering Rebecca. In town, it meets SR 112, they run concurrent through town until SR 112 departs to the north on Sylvester Road, while SR 90 heads to the northwest on North Railroad Street. West-northwest of town is a concurrency with SR 159; this concurrency ends at the Turner–Wilcox county line. SR 90 heads west along the county line and enters Wilcox County proper. After that, it enters Crisp County. On the southeastern edge of Cordele, it intersects the eastern terminus of SR 33 Connector.
1 mile is the northern terminus of SR 300. Another mile is US 280/SR 30; the three highways head concurrent to the west, into the main part of town. Is an interchange with Interstate 75. In downtown is an intersection with US 41/SR 7. Here, SR 90 turns north; the three routes enter Dooly County before entering Vienna. In town, it intersects SR 27; the two highways head concurrent to the split apart just before leaving town. SR 90 passes through Lilly before entering Byromville. In town, it meets SR 230; the two routes run concurrent through town. Farther to the northwest, the road crosses into Macon County; the road intersects SR 26/SR 224. The two routes have a rief concurrency, until the Flint River Community Hospital, where SR 90 curves to the north-northeast, to an intersection with SR 49. SR 49/SR 90 run concurrent over the Flint River, into Oglethorpe, they intersect SR 128. At this intersection, SR 49/SR 128 head south on Chatham Street, while SR 90/SR 128 head north on Sumter Street. Just before leaving town is the northern terminus of SR 128 Bypass.
A little ways north of town, SR 90 departs to the northwest to the town of Ideal. Northwest of town, it enters Taylor County, it meets SR 127 just before entering Rupert. There, it begins a brief concurrency with US 19/SR 3. Less than 1 mile SR 127 joins the concurrency; the four routes run concurrent for just over 1 mile. SR 90/SR 127 split off to the west-northwest, they have a concurrency with SR 137. In the town of Mauk, SR 127 splits off to the south. To the north-northwest, the road crosses into Talbot County. In Junction City, it meets SR 96/SR 540, they travel concurrently to a point just west of town. Northwest of town, in Talbotton, it meets SR 208; the two roads begin a concurrency to the west. They pass the Oak Hill Cemetery, before they meet an intersection with US 80/SR 22/SR 41. At this intersection, SR 90 meets its western terminus, SR 208 begins a concurrency with US 80/SR 22/SR 41 to the north. Georgia portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to Georgia State Route 90 at Wikimedia Commons Georgia Roads
Andersonville National Historic Site
The Andersonville National Historic Site, located near Andersonville, preserves the former Camp Sumter, a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp during the final twelve months of the American Civil War. Most of the site lies in southwestern Macon County, adjacent to the east side of the town of Andersonville; as well as the former prison, the site contains the Andersonville National Cemetery and the National Prisoner of War Museum. The prison was made in February 1864 and served to April 1865; the site was commanded by Captain Henry Wirz, tried and executed after the war for war crimes. It was overcrowded to four times its capacity, with an inadequate water supply, inadequate food rations, unsanitary conditions. Of the 45,000 Union prisoners held at Camp Sumter during the war, nearly 13,000 died; the chief causes of death were scurvy and dysentery. The prison, which opened in February 1864 covered about 16.5 acres of land enclosed by a 15-foot high stockade. In June 1864, it was enlarged to 26.5 acres.
The stockade was rectangular, of dimensions 1,620 feet by 779 feet. There were two entrances on the west side of the stockade, known as "north entrance" and "south entrance". Robert H. Kellogg, sergeant major in the 16th Regiment Connecticut Volunteers, described his entry as a prisoner into the prison camp, May 2, 1864: As we entered the place, a spectacle met our eyes that froze our blood with horror, made our hearts fail within us. Before us were forms that had once been erect. Many of our men, in the heat and intensity of their feeling, exclaimed with earnestness. "Can this be hell?" "God protect us!" and all thought that he alone could bring them out alive from so terrible a place. In the center of the whole was a swamp, occupying about three or four acres of the narrowed limits, a part of this marshy place had been used by the prisoners as a sink, excrement covered the ground, the scent arising from, suffocating; the ground allotted to our ninety was near the edge of this plague-spot, how we were to live through the warm summer weather in the midst of such fearful surroundings, was more than we cared to think of just then.
Further descriptions of the camp can be found in the diary of Ransom Chadwick, a member of the 85th New York Infantry Regiment. Chadwick and his regimental mates were taken to the Andersonville Prison, arriving on April 30, 1864. An extensive and detailed diary was kept by John L. Ransom of his time as a prisoner at Andersonville. Father Peter Whelan arrived on 16 June 1864 to muster the resources of the Catholic church and help provide relief to the prisoners. At Andersonville, a light fence known as "the dead line" was erected 19 feet inside the stockade wall, it demarcated a no-man's land that kept prisoners away from the stockade wall, made of rough-hewn logs about 16 feet high and stakes driven into the ground. Anyone crossing or touching this "dead line" was shot without warning by sentries in the pigeon roosts. At this stage of the war, Andersonville Prison was undersupplied with food. By 1864, not only civilians living within the Confederacy but the soldiers of the Confederate Army itself were struggling to obtain sufficient quantities of food.
The shortage of fare was suffered by prisoners and Confederate personnel alike within the fort, but the prisoners received less than the guards, who unlike their captives did not become emaciated or suffer from scurvy. The latter was a major cause of the camp's high mortality rate, as well as dysentery and typhoid fever, which were the result of filthy living conditions and poor sanitation; when sufficient quantities of supplies were available, they were of poor quality and inadequately prepared. There were no new outfits given to prisoners, whose own clothing was falling to pieces. In some cases, garments were taken from the dead. John McElroy, a prisoner at Andersonville, recalled "Before one was cold his clothes would be appropriated and divided, I have seen many sharp fights between contesting claimants."Although the prison was surrounded by forest little wood was allowed to the prisoners for warmth or cooking. This, along with the lack of utensils, made it impossible for the prisoners to cook the meagre food rations they received, which consisted of poorly milled cornflour.
During the summer of 1864, Union prisoners suffered from hunger and disease. Within seven months, about a third had died from scurvy. In 1864, the Confederate Surgeon General asked Joseph Jones, an expert on infectious disease, to investigate the high mortality rate at the camp, he concluded that it was due to "scorbutic dysentery". In 2010, the historian Drisdelle said that hookworm disease, a condition not recognized or known during the Civil War, was the major cause of much of the fatalities amongst the prisoners; the water supply from Stockade Creek became polluted when too many Union prisoners were housed by the Confederate authorities within the prison walls. Part of the creek was used as a sink, the men were forced to wash themselves in the creek. At the time of the Civil War, the concept of a prisoner of
Georgia's 2nd congressional district
Georgia's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. The district is represented by Democrat Sanford D. Bishop, Jr. though the district's boundaries have been redrawn following the 2010 census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia. The first election using the new district boundaries were the 2012 congressional elections. One of the largest districts by size, it comprises much of the southwestern portion of the state of Georgia. Much of the district is rural, although the district has a number of small cities and medium-sized towns, such as Albany, Americus and portions of Columbus and Macon; the district is the historic and current home of President Jimmy Carter. The district is one of the most Democratic in the country, as Democrats have held the seat since 1875; as of May 2017, there is one former member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 2nd congressional district, living at this time. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 2nd district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 2nd district at GovTrack.us
Oglethorpe is a city in Macon County, United States. The population was 1,200 at the 2000 census; the city is the county seat of Macon County. It was named for James Oglethorpe. Oglethorpe was founded in 1838, it was located in the Black Belt of Georgia, where slaves outnumbered whites and did the work to support cultivation of cotton as a commodity crop. Oglethorpe was incorporated as a town in 1849 and as a city in 1852. In 1857, the seat of Macon County was transferred to Oglethorpe from Lanier. Oglethorpe was once one of the largest cities in southwestern Georgia. Epidemics of malaria and smallpox caused high fatalities in the early 1860s. Oglethorpe is located at 32 ° 17 ′ 36 ″ N; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,200 people, 481 households, 320 families residing in the city. The population density was 590.3 people per square mile. There were 566 housing units at an average density of 278.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 27.67% White, 70.25% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.75% Asian, 0.75% from other races, 0.33% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.83% of the population. There were 481 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.0% were married couples living together, 29.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.8% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,875, the median income for a family was $28,971. Males had a median income of $27,250 versus $18,571 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,673. About 19.1% of families and 23.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.5% of those under age 18 and 20.3% of those age 65 or over.
The Macon County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of one elementary school, a middle school, a high school. The district has 129 full-time teachers and over 2,200 students. Macon County Elementary School Macon County Middle School Macon County High School
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a