Small businesses are owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation. Businesses are defined as "small" in terms of being able to apply for government support and qualify for preferential tax policy varies depending on the country and industry. Small businesses range from fifteen employees under the Australian Fair Work Act 2009, fifty employees according to the definition used by the European Union, fewer than five hundred employees to qualify for many U. S. Small Business Administration programs. While small businesses can be classified according to other methods, such as annual revenues, sales, assets, or by annual gross or net revenue or net profits, the number of employees is one of the most used measures. Small businesses in many countries include service or retail operations such as convenience stores, small grocery stores, bakeries or delicatessens, hairdressers or tradespeople, guest houses, photographers small-scale manufacturing, Internet-related businesses such as web design and computer programming.
Some professionals operate as small businesses, such as lawyers, accountants and medical doctors. Small businesses vary a great deal in terms of size and regulatory authorization, both within a country and from country to country; some small businesses, such as a home accounting business, may only require a business license. On the other hand, other small businesses, such as day cares, retirement homes and restaurants serving liquor are more regulated, may require inspection and certification from various government authorities. Researchers and analysts of small or owner-managed businesses behave as if nominal organizational forms, the consequent legal and accounting boundaries of owner-managed firms are meaningful. However, owner-managers do not delineate their behavior to accord with the implied separation between their personal and business interests. Lenders often contract around organizational boundaries by seeking personal guarantees or accepting held assets as collateral; because of this behavior and analysts may wish to be cautious in the way they assess the organizational types and implied boundaries in contexts relating to owner-managed firms.
These include analyses that use traditional accounting disclosures, studies that view the firm as defined by some formal organizational structure. The concepts of small business, self-employment and startup overlap to certain degree but carry important distinctions; these four concepts conflated with each other. Below are the key differences of these concepts in summary: self-employment: an organization created with the intention to give a job to the founders, i.e. sole proprietor operations. Entrepreneurship: all new organizations. Startup: a temporary new organization created with the intention to be bigger. Small business: an organization, small and may or may not have the intention to be bigger. From the summaries, we can see that many small businesses are sole proprietor operations consisting of the owner, but small businesses can have a small number of employees; when big firms start out, they are known as startups, but not all small businesses are startups that aim to become bigger. Many of these small businesses offer an existing product, process or service, they do not aim at growth.
In contrast, startups aim for growth and offer an innovative product, process or service, the entrepreneurs of startups aim to scale up the company by adding employees, seeking international sales, so on, a process, financed by venture capital and angel investments. Successful entrepreneurs have the ability to lead a business in a positive direction by proper planning, to adapt to changing environments and understand their own strengths and weakness. Spectacular success stories stem from startups. Examples would be Microsoft and Federal Express which all embody the sense of new venture creation on small business. Self-employment provides works for the founders. Entrepreneurship refers all new businesses, including self-employment and businesses that never intend to grow big or become registered, but startups refer to new businesses that intend to grow beyond the founders, to have employees, grow large; the legal definition of "small business" varies by industry. In addition to number of employees, methods used to classify small companies include annual sales, value of assets and net profit, alone or as a combination of factors.
In the United States, the Small Business Administration establishes small business size standards on an industry-by-industry basis, but specifies a small business as having fewer than 500 employees for manufacturing businesses and less than $7.5 million in annual receipts for most non-manufacturing businesses. The definition can vary by circumstance—for example, a small business having fewer than 25 full-time equivalent employees with average annual wages below $50,000 qualifies for a tax credit under the health care reform bill Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. By comparison, a medium-sized business or mid-sized business has fewer than 500 employees; the European Union defines a small business as one that has fewer than fifty employees and either turnover or balance sheet less than €10 m. but the European Commission is undertaking a rev
A corporation is an organization a group of people or a company, authorized to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they are formed to make a profit or not. Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation corporation sole; the subject of this article is a corporation aggregate. A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single natural person. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders".
Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for-profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for-profit corporation is always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever "Stockholder" or "shareholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. Registered corporations have legal personality and their shares are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not actively manage a corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may serve as a director or officer of a corporation.
In American English, the word corporation is most used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed. While not a corporation, this new type of entity became attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. In Germany, the organization was referred to as Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung or GmbH. In the last quarter of the 20th Century this new form of non-corporate organization became available in the United States and other countries, was known as the limited liability company or LLC.
Since the GmbH and LLC forms of organization are technically not corporations, they will not be discussed in this article. The word "corporation" derives from corpus, the Latin word for body, or a "body of people". By the time of Justinian, Roman law recognized a range of corporate entities under the names universitas, corpus or collegium; these included the state itself and such private associations as sponsors of a religious cult, burial clubs, political groups, guilds of craftsmen or traders. Such bodies had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated liberties by the emperor. Entities which carried on business and were the subjects of legal rights were found in ancient Rome, the Maurya Empire in ancient India. In medieval Europe, churches became incorporated, as did local governments, such as the Pope and the City of London Corporation.
The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. In medieval times, traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders. Dutch and English chartered companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were created to lead the colonial ventures of European nations in the 17th century. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, were able to trade their shares on the original Amsterdam
The soybean, or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses. Fat-free soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many packaged meals. For example, soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein, are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes; the beans contain significant amounts of dietary minerals and B vitamins. Soy vegetable oil, used in food and industrial applications, is another product of processing the soybean crop. Traditional unfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste and tempeh. "Soy" originated as a corruption of the Japanese names for soy sauce. The etymology of the genus, comes from Linnaeus; when naming the genus, Linnaeus observed that one of the species within the species had a sweet root. Based on the sweetness, the Greek word for sweet, glykós, was Latinized; the genus name is not related to the amino acid glycine.
The genus Glycine Willd. is divided into two subgenera and Soja. The subgenus Soja F. J. Herm. Includes the cultivated soybean, Glycine max Merr. and the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. Both species are annuals. Glycine soja is the wild ancestor of Glycine max, grows wild in China, Japan and Russia; the subgenus Glycine consists of at least 25 wild perennial species: for example, Glycine canescens F. J. Herm. and G. tomentella Hayata, both found in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Perennial soybean is now a widespread pasture crop in the tropics. Like some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the modern soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty, it is a cultural variety with a large number of cultivars. Like most plants, soybeans grow in distinct morphological stages as they develop from seeds into mature plants; the first stage of growth is germination, a method which first becomes apparent as a seed's radicle emerges. This is the first stage of root growth and occurs within the first 48 hours under ideal growing conditions.
The first photosynthetic structures, the cotyledons, develop from the hypocotyl, the first plant structure to emerge from the soil. These cotyledons both act as leaves and as a source of nutrients for the immature plant, providing the seedling nutrition for its first 7 to 10 days; the first true leaves develop as a pair of single blades. Subsequent to this first pair, mature nodes form compound leaves with three blades. Mature trifoliolate leaves, having three to four leaflets per leaf, are between 6–15 cm long and 2–7 cm broad. Under ideal conditions, stem growth continues. Before flowering, roots can grow 1.9 cm per day. If rhizobia are present, root nodulation begins by the time. Nodulation continues for 8 weeks before the symbiotic infection process stabilizes; the final characteristics of a soybean plant are variable, with factors such as genetics, soil quality, climate affecting its form. Flowering is triggered by day length beginning once days become shorter than 12.8 hours. This trait is variable however, with different varieties reacting differently to changing day length.
Soybeans form inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers which are borne in the axil of the leaf and are white, pink or purple. Depending of the soybean variety, node growth may cease. Strains that continue nodal development after flowering are termed "indeterminates" and are best suited to climates with longer growing seasons. Soybeans drop their leaves before the seeds are mature; the fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of three to five, each pod is 3–8 cm long and contains two to four seeds 5–11 mm in diameter. Soybean seeds come in a wide variety sizes and hull colors such as black, brown and green. Variegated and bicolored seed coats are common; the hull of the mature bean is hard, water-resistant, protects the cotyledon and hypocotyl from damage. If the seed coat is cracked, the seed will not germinate; the scar, visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in the seed coat which can allow the absorption of water for sprouting.
Some seeds such as soybeans containing high levels of protein can undergo desiccation, yet survive and revive after water absorption. A. Carl Leopold began studying this capability at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University in the mid-1980s, he found soybeans and corn to have a range of soluble carbohydrates protecting the seed's cell viability. Patents were awarded to him in the early 1990s on techniques for protecting biological membranes and proteins in the dry state. Like many legumes, soybeans can fix atmospheric nitrogen, thanks to symbiotic bacteria from the Rhizobia group. Together and soybean oil content account for 56% of dry soybeans by weight; the remainder consists of 9 % water and 5 % ash. Soybeans comprise 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ. 100 grams of raw soybeans supply 446 calories and are 9% water, 30% carbohydrates, 20% total fat and 36% p
Ethnic groups in Europe
The indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. According to German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil there are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities; the total number of national or linguistic minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans. There are no universally accepted and precise definitions of the terms "ethnic group" and "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people and ethno-linguistic group, are used as synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe. There are eight European ethno-linguistic groups with more than 30 million members residing in Europe.
These eight groups between themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of European population: Russians, French, Italians, Spaniards, Poles. Smaller ethno-linguistic groups with more than 10 million people residing in Europe include: Romanians, Turks, Swedes, Czechs, Serbs. About 20–25 million residents are members of diasporas of non-European origin; the population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population. Both Spain and the United Kingdom are special cases, in that the designation of nationality and British, may controversially take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups, see nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain and native populations of the United Kingdom. Switzerland is a similar case, but the linguistic subgroups of the Swiss are discussed in terms of both ethnicity and language affiliations. Of the total population of Europe of some 740 million, close to 90% fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages, these being.
Romance, including. Germanic, including. Afrikaans, a daughter language of Dutch, is spoken by some South African and Namibian migrant populations. Three stand-alone Indo-European languages do not fall within larger sub-groups and are not related to those larger language families. Besides the Indo-European languages, there are other language families on the European continent which are wholly unrelated to Indo-European: Uralic languages, including. Turkic languages, including. Semitic languages, including. Kartvelian languages, including Georgian, Zan and Laz. Northwest Caucasian languages. Northeast Caucasian languages. Language isolates. Mongolic languages exist in the form of Kalmyk spoken in the Caucasus region of Russia; the Basques have been found to descend from the population of the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age directly. The Indo-European groups of Europe are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of Bronze Age, proto-Indo-European groups with earlier Mesolithic and Neolithic populations, after migrating to most of Europe from the Pontic steppe.
The Finnic peoples are assumed to be descended from Proto-Uralic populations further to the east, nearer to the Ural Mountains, that had migrated to their historical homelands in Europe by about 3,000 years ago. Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europe include Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic, all of these Indo-European languages of the centum group, Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic, of the satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian and Camunic. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basqu
Metro East is a region in Illinois that comprises the eastern suburbs of St. Louis, United States, it encompasses five Southern Illinois counties in the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area; the region's most populated city is Belleville, with 45,000 residents. The Metro East is the second largest urban area in Illinois after the Chicago metropolitan area and, as of the 2000 census, the population of the Metro East statistical area is 599,845 residents, a figure that has risen above 700,000 in 2010; the significant growth in the Metro East is due to people in smaller outlying towns in Illinois moving to the area for better economic/job opportunities. The Metro East is a loose collection of small and mid-sized cities sitting along the American Bottom and the bluffs of the Mississippi River. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the five counties of the region have a total area of 6,974 km2. 6,787 km2 of it is land and 186 km2 of it is water. As of the 2010 census, the most populated cities in the region include As of the 2010 census, there had been a major shift in population from the older rust belt industrial cities in the Mississippi River bottom, such as East St. Louis and Alton, to the more suburban satellite cities, such as, Edwardsville, O'Fallon sitting on the bluffs.
This is due to continued white flight. As of the census of 2000, there were 599,845 people, 229,888 households, 160,260 families residing in the five Metro East counties; the most common language is English. German speakers exist in southeastern Madison, Clinton, southern and eastern St. Clair Counties. Spanish is spoken in the Fairmont City area, in parts of Clinton County; the largest concentration of African-Americans is in Madison, western Granite City, East St. Louis, Washington Park, Cahokia and Alton. Secondary languages tend to be cultural or reminiscent of ancestry, not related to the general business of the area. Bond Calhoun Clinton Jersey Macoupin Madison Monroe St. Clair Notes: ^ means part of city in another county/counties Bold indicates county seat Quincy, IL is technically not located within the Metro East, but can be regionally associated due to their proximity and accessibility to Greater St. Louis. Kaskaskia College Lewis and Clark Community College Lindenwood University-Belleville McKendree University The Principia Southern Illinois University Edwardsville Southwestern Illinois College U.
S. Route 40 U. S. Route 50 U. S. Route 51 Historic U. S. Route 66 U. S. Route 67 I-55 I-64 I-70 I-255 I-270 The Metro East is connected with Missouri by the Metro Link light rail train; the Metrolink includes 11 stations on the Illinois side of St Louis, from the East St. Louis Riverfront, through Belleville Illinois, ending at Scott Air Force Base, it links the Metro East to downtown St. Louis, area universities, downtown Clayton, the major commercial airport, Lambert St. Louis International. St. Clair County share public transit including bus and rail. Madison County has a public transit system that includes bus services and bikeways converted as part of a Rail to Trail conversion. Anheuser-Busch Boeing Charter Communications Illinois Department of Transportation Korte Construction Monsanto National Steel Norrenberns Trucking Olin Corporation Scott Air Force Base Southern Illinois University Edwardsville U. S. Steel Wood River Refinery National Shrine of Our Lady of the Snows, near Belleville.
Clair County line Confluence Crush Roller Derby, Belleville GCS Ballpark, Sauget Gateway International Raceway, Madison Eads Bridge, historic bridge, among East. Louis, on the East St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri border, over the Mississippi River Pere Marquette State Park, Grafton Raging Rivers Water Park, Grafton The Game, Glen Carbon St. Clair Square Mall, Fairview Heights Robert Wadlow Statue, Alton Horseshoe Lake, Pontoon Beach and Granite City Alton Square Mall, Alton Carlyle Lake, Carlyle Josephine Baker, East St. Louis and activist Jason Boyd, Edwardsville, AAA pitcher Ray Bradbury, science fiction author Jimmy Connors, East St. Louis and Belleville, tennis player Neal Cotts, former MLB pitcher Brian Daubach, former MLB 1B/DH/outfielder Miles Davis, East St. Louis and Alton, jazz artist Lea DeLaria, jazz singer and comedian Elizabeth Donald, horror novelist Dick Durbin, East St. Louis, U. S. senator Buddy Ebsen, television actor Jay Farrar, musician William Holden, O'Fallon, film actor Louis Jolliet, explorer of the Mississippi River Jackie Joyner-Kersee, East St. Louis, Olympic athlete Ken Kwapis, Belleville and television director and producer Père Jacques Marquette, French discoverer T. J. Mathews, former MLB pitcher Laurie Metcalf, Edwardsville and television actress Yadier Molina, Cardinals Baseball catcher Peter Sarsgaard, Belleville/Scott AFB, actor Michael Stipe, lead singer of the band REM Jeff Tweedy, lead singer of the band Wilco Uncle Tupelo, alternative country band Craig Virgin, distance runner Robert Pershing Wadlow, world's tallest man Scott
An urban park or metropolitan park known as a municipal park or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens, is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, visitors to, the municipality. The design and maintenance is done by government agencies on the local level, but may be contracted out to a park conservancy, friends of group, or private sector company. Common features of municipal parks include playgrounds, hiking and fitness trails or paths, bridle paths, sports fields and courts, public restrooms, boat ramps, and/or picnic facilities, depending on the budget and natural features available. Park advocates claim that having parks near urban residents, including within a 10-minute walk, provide multiple benefits. A park is an area of open space provided for recreational use owned and maintained by a local government. Grass is kept short to discourage insect pests and to allow for the enjoyment of picnics and sporting activities.
Trees are chosen for their beauty and to provide shade, with an increasing emphasis on reducing an urban heat island effect. Some early parks include the La Alameda de Hércules, in Seville, a promenaded public mall, urban garden and park built in 1574, within the historic center of Seville; the Városliget in the City of Pest, what is today Budapest, was a city property when afforestation started in the middle of the 18th century, from the 1790s with the clear aim to create a public park. Between 1799 and 1805 it was rented out to the Batthyány family to carry out such a project but the city had taken back control and in 1813 announced a design competition to finish the park. An early purpose-built public park, although financed was Princes Park in the Liverpool suburb of Toxteth; this was laid out to the designs of Joseph Paxton from 1842 and opened in 1843. The land on which the park was built was purchased by Richard Vaughan Yates, an iron merchant and philanthropist, in 1841 for £50,000; the creation of Princes Park showed great foresight and introduced a number of influential ideas.
First and foremost was the provision of open space for the benefit of townspeople and local residents within an area, being built up. Secondly it took the concept of the designed landscape as a setting for the suburban domicile and re-fashioned it for the provincial town in a most original way. Nash's remodelling of St James's Park from 1827 and the sequence of processional routes he created to link The Mall with Regent's Park transformed the appearance of London's West End. With the establishment of Princes Park in 1842, Joseph Paxton did something similar for the benefit of a provincial town, albeit one of international stature by virtue of its flourishing mercantile sector. Liverpool had a burgeoning presence in global maritime trade before 1800, during the Victorian era its wealth rivalled that of London itself; the form and layout of Paxton's ornamental grounds, structured about an informal lake within the confines of a serpentine carriageway, put in place the essential elements of his much-imitated design for Birkenhead Park in Birkenhead.
The latter commenced in 1843 with the help of public finance and deployed the ideas which Paxton had pioneered at Princes Park on a more expansive scale. Frederick Law Olmsted praised its qualities. Indeed, Paxton is credited as having been one of the principal influences on Olmsted and Calvert's design for New York's Central Park of 1857. Another early public park, the Peel Park, England, opened on 22 August 1846. In The Politics of Park Design: A History of Urban Parks in America, Professor Galen Cranz identifies four phases of park design in the U. S. In the late 19th century, city governments purchased large tracts of land on the outskirts of cities to form "pleasure grounds": semi-open, charmingly landscaped areas whose primary purpose was to allow city residents the workers, to relax in nature; as time passed and the urban area grew around the parks, land in these parks was used for other purposes, such as zoos, golf courses and museums. These parks continue to draw visitors from around the region and are considered regional parks, because they require a higher level of management than smaller local parks.
According to the Trust for Public Land, the three most visited municipal parks in the United States are Central Park in New York, Lincoln Park in Chicago, Mission Bay Park in San Diego. In the early 1900s, according to Cranz, U. S. cities built neighborhood parks with swimming pools and civic buildings, with the intention of Americanizing the immigrant residents. In the 1950s, when money became available after World War II, new parks continued to focus on both outdoor and indoor recreation with services, such as sports leagues using their ball fields and gymnasia; these smaller parks were built in residential neighborhoods, tried to serve all residents with programs for seniors, adults and children. Green space was of secondary importance; as urban land prices climbed, new urban parks in the 1960s and after have been pocket parks. One example of a pocket park is Chess Park in California; the American Society of Landscape Architects gave this park a General Design Award of Honor in 2006. These small parks provide greenery, a place to sit outdoors, a playground for children.
All four types of park continue to exist in urban areas. Because of the large amount of open space and natural habitat in the former pleasure grounds, the
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti