Macro-Pama–Nyungan languages

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northern Australia
Linguistic classification Proposed language family
Glottolog None
Pama–Nyungan (yellow), Garawa and Tangkic (green), and Macro-Gunwinyguan (orange)

Macro-Pama–Nyungan is an Australian language family proposed in 1997 that links the two largest language families in Australia, the Pama–Nyungan family, which covers seven-eighths of the continent, and Macro-Gunwinyguan, the principal family of Arnhem Land in northern Australia.

The traditionally accepted languages families included in this proposal are:

Macro-Gunwinyguan (rel. to Eastern Daly?)




Pama–Nyungan proper

In addition, it has been suggested that the Ngurmbur language isolate may belong to this group. In 2003, Nicholas Evans proposed that the Macro-Gunwinyguan languages are (also) related to the Eastern Daly languages.[1] However, none of these connections are accepted as established in Bowern 2011.[2]


  1. ^ Evans, Nicholas, 2003, The non-Pama-Nyungan languages of northern Australia
  2. ^ Bowern, Claire. 2011. "How Many Languages Were Spoken in Australia?", Anggarrgoon: Australian languages on the web, December 23, 2011 (corrected February 6, 2012)
  • McConvell, Patrick and Nicholas Evans. (eds.) 1997. Archaeology and Linguistics: Global Perspectives on Ancient Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press