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Macro (computer science)

A macro in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence should be mapped to a replacement output sequence according to a defined procedure. The mapping process that instantiates a macro use into a specific sequence is known as macro expansion. A facility for writing macros may be provided as part of a software application or as a part of a programming language. In the former case, macros are used to make tasks using the application less repetitive. In the latter case, they are a tool that allows a programmer to enable code reuse or to design domain-specific languages. Macros are used to make a sequence of computing instructions available to the programmer as a single program statement, making the programming task less tedious and less error-prone. Macros allow positional or keyword parameters that dictate what the conditional assembler program generates and have been used to create entire programs or program suites according to such variables as operating system, platform or other factors.

The term derives from "macro instruction", such expansions were used in generating assembly language code. Keyboard macros and mouse macros allow short sequences of keystrokes and mouse actions to transform into other more time-consuming, sequences of keystrokes and mouse actions. In this way used or repetitive sequences of keystrokes and mouse movements can be automated. Separate programs for creating these macros are called macro recorders. During the 1980s, macro programs – SmartKey SuperKey, KeyWorks, Prokey – were popular, first as a means to automatically format screenplays for a variety of user input tasks; these programs were based on the TSR mode of operation and applied to all keyboard input, no matter in which context it occurred. They have to some extent fallen into obsolescence following the advent of mouse-driven user interfaces and the availability of keyboard and mouse macros in applications such as word processors and spreadsheets, making it possible to create application-sensitive keyboard macros.

Keyboard macros have in more recent times come to life as a method of exploiting the economy of massively multiplayer online role-playing games. By tirelessly performing a boring, but low risk action, a player running a macro can earn a large amount of the game's currency or resources; this effect is larger when a macro-using player operates multiple accounts or operates the accounts for a large amount of time each day. As this money is generated without human intervention, it can upset the economy of the game. For this reason, use of macros is a violation of the TOS or EULA of most MMORPGs, administrators of MMORPGs fight a continual war to identify and punish macro users. Keyboard and mouse macros that are created using an application's built-in macro features are sometimes called application macros, they are created by letting the application record the actions. An underlying macro programming language, most a scripting language, with direct access to the features of the application may exist.

The programmers' text editor, follows this idea to a conclusion. In effect, most of the editor is made of macros. Emacs was devised as a set of macros in the editing language TECO. Another programmers' text editor, Vim has full implementation of macros, it can record into a register what a person types on the keyboard and it can be replayed or edited just like VBA macros for Microsoft Office. Vim has a scripting language called Vimscript to create macros. Visual Basic for Applications is a programming language included in Microsoft Office from Office 97 through Office 2019. However, its function has evolved from and replaced the macro languages that were included in some of these applications. VBA executes when documents are opened; this makes it easy to write computer viruses in VBA known as macro viruses. In the mid-to-late 1990s, this became one of the most common types of computer virus. However, during the late 1990s and to date, Microsoft has been updating their programs. In addition, current anti-virus programs counteract such attacks.

A parameterized macro is a macro, able to insert given objects into its expansion. This gives the macro some of the power of a function; as a simple example, in the C programming language, this is a typical macro, not a parameterized macro: #define PI 3.14159 This causes the string "PI" to be replaced with "3.14159" wherever it occurs. It will always be replaced by this string, the resulting string cannot be modified in any way. An example of a parameterized macro, on the other hand, is this: #define pred What this macro expands to depends on what argument x is passed to it. Here are some possible expansions: pred → pred → pred → Parameterized macros are a useful source-level mechanism for performing in-line expansion, but in languages such as C where they use simple textual substitution, they have a number of severe disadvantages over other mechanisms for performing in-line expansion, such as inline functions; the parameterized macros used in languages suc

Saint Anne Sandy Point Parish

Saint Anne Sandy Point is one of 14 administrative parishes that make up Saint Kitts and Nevis. It is the smallest parish on St. Kitts in terms of area, at just 5 square miles, it is located on the main island of Saint Kitts and the parish capital is Sandy Point Town. The parish itself is triangular in shape; the coastline of the parish is 4.06 miles in length, with black sandy beaches, such as Pump Bay and Belle Tête dominating the southern coast, with sheer cliffs to the north. The lower slopes of the parish are dominated by abandoned sugarcane fields, as well as numerous small holdings, cultivating provision crops and tropical fruits; the town of Sandy Point, the second largest town on the island, skirts the southern coast, whilst the village Fig Tree rests just North of it. Moving inwards, the terrain shifts from the sloping coastal plain to the steep mountains of the North West Range, above 1000 feet, above sea level, is draped in tropical forests. Cranston Ghaut marks the northern border of the parish, whilst Sandy Point Ghaut marks the southern.

The main settlement in the parish is Sandy Point Town, the federation's second largest settlement, with a population near 3,000. The town rests along the South coast of the parish; the other settlements of the parish act as suburbs to the town, are annexed in local reference to Sandy Point. These are Fig Tree, La Vallée, Sir Gillee's. Abandoned estate houses dot other areas further inland. Capital - Sandy Point Town Other Villages: Fig Tree La Vallée Sir Gillee's Estate The town of Sandy Point is home to a small factory, owned by Harowe Servo Controls, which manufactures electrical equipment. Despite its small size, it is the main employer in the parish, the largest industrial area outside of Saint George Basseterre Parish. Tourism is the other main employer for the parish; the Sandy Point Area's rich history has left it awash with many of the nation's premier historical sites, such as Fort Charles, many warehouse building ruins, remnants of when Dutch tobacco trade reigned in the town. Offshore, just West of Sandy Point Town, lies the Sandy Point National Marine Park noted as one of the premier dive sites in the Eastern Caribbean.

In the early 17th century, Sandy Point Town functioned as the main port for British Saint Christopher, grew wealthy from the tobacco trade. In 1640 when production was shifted to sugar, Sandy Point continued to be Saint Kitts' main port, until 1727, when Basseterre was made capital of the island and most business was shifted; the port of Sandy Point, with its deep water harbour continued to function however, became the main port on the island for mail and personal goods shipment. The port was destroyed and rebuilt many times in its history, ceased to exist in 1984, via Hurricane Klaus, its functions were replaced by Deep Water Harbour in Basseterre. The community festival for the parish of St. Anne Sandy Point is Black San' Bang-a-Lang, it is a two weeks long event during the Easter season, it features calypso shows, queen shows, street jam sessions and late night limes. Most activities are held on Pump Bay, Fig Tree; the northern coastal plains of St. Anne Sandy Point parish are being developed by the La Vallee Greens Corporation.

The finished product will include the La Vallée Golf Course, a marina and port facility for transport to the northern Leeward Islands,Villa developments, a state of the art sporting facility

Don't Wanna Cry

"Don't Wanna Cry" is Namie Amuro's third solo single on the Avex Trax label. It is her second consecutive million selling single as well as her second consecutive number one single. In December, the single took home the "Grand Prix Award" from the 38th Annual Japan Record Awards. 19 years old at the time, she is the youngest artist. "Don't wanna cry" was used in Daido Mistio commercials as its image song. Grand Prix Award Best 5 Single Award "Don't Wanna Cry" – 4:40 "Present" – 4:39 "Don't Wanna Cry" – 4:37 "Present" – 4:38 Namie Amurovocals, background vocals Producer – Tetsuya Komuro Arranger – Tetsuya Komuro, Cozy Kubo Mixing – Chris Lord-Alge Oricon Sales Chart Oricon Sales Chart December 31, 1996 – 38th Japan Record Awards December 31, 1996 &–.

Thomas Harrison House (Branford, Connecticut)

The Thomas Harrison House is a historic house at 23 North Harbor Street in Branford, Connecticut. Built before 1723, it is one of the town's small number of surviving 18th-century houses, further distinctive because of its gambrel roof; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1988. The Thomas Harrison House is located west in the Canoe Brook residential area, it is located at the northwestern corner of Bradley and North Harbor Streets, is angled to face the junction. It is a 1-1/2 story wood frame structure, with clapboarded exterior, its main facade is five bays wide, the front roof face is pierced by three gabled dormers. The house had a large central chimney, replaced by a modern metal stovepipe; the main facade is symmetrical, with sash windows arranged around the main entrance, framed. An ell extends to the west of the main block; the house was built sometime before 1723, when a built house frame is mentioned in a real estate transaction granting the property to Thomas Harrison from his father's estate.

It is one of a small number of 18th-century houses in Branford, is unusual for the gambrel-roofed center chimney form, where most other period houses in the town are two full stories and have end chimneys. The Harrisons were prominent local landowners. Swain-Harrison House, known as Harrison House and Museum, NRHP-listed in Branford National Register of Historic Places listings in New Haven County, Connecticut

Justin Walker (Brothers & Sisters)

Justin Walker is a fictional character on the ABC television series Brothers & Sisters. He is played by actor Dave Annable. In a 2010 episode, actor Dylan Larsen portrayed Justin as a young child in flashback sequences set in 1986. Justin is the youngest child of William Walker. Born in 1982, he was an unexpected pregnancy and is younger than the rest of the Walker family and feels over-protected by his parents and siblings as a result; when Justin was in his early teens, a family friend named. After September 11, when Kitty returned from New York to stay with her family, she confides to Justin her experiences and fears stemming from that catastrophic event, it was for these reasons. When he returned from Afghanistan, he suffered from posttraumatic stress disorder, leading to his drug addiction. Nora blamed Kitty for encouraging Justin to join the army. Justin spent much of his time getting high up north with his buddies and spending little time doing anything else in his youth; the closest thing in his life to a relationship was with a fellow aimless drug addict named Fawn.

One day at while visiting his father at Ojai Foods, Justin saw his father talking to a mysterious woman - Holly Harper - at the company. After his father's death, Justin saw her again making a brief appearance at the funeral, he asked her how she knew his father. To make matters worse, his father's will stipulated that Justin's inheritance would go in a conservatorship due to his worry that he would blow it all on drugs and alcohol, with Kitty as the conservator. Justin was humiliated, didn't show up for his job at a restaurant, wasn't heard from until the next day when Nora got a call that he'd been picked up by the police. Nora and Kitty got him out of jail, but he bristled at Nora telling him how disappointed William would be in him. Despite his problems, Justin has redeeming characteristics, but he had his own serious issues. He continued taking prescription painkillers, like Oxycodone and Vicodin, for his posttraumatic stress disorder, nearly costing him another job, his boss was a young woman named Tyler.

They began dating. When Justin's brother Tommy found out he was sterile and asked Kevin to be a sperm donor, for his wife Julia, Kevin refused, so Justin said he'd be a donor. Tommy said he used drugs. Justin was hurt but Tommy changed his mind. Both Kevin and Justin were donors, agreed they would never find out who the father was. At this point, things were looking up for Justin, he got orders to go to Iraq. He was so devastated by the news that he relapsed and overdosed, he ruined his relationship with Tyler, as she had seen him with Fawn on a drug high and told him she didn't want to deal with his behavior. With Kevin's help, Justin was given a reprieve for six months, his former boss and girlfriend, returned after Justin cleaned up his drug habit. He ran into her, he apologized to her for his past behavior, she decided to give their relationship another go. They were happy together but soon he decided that until he dealt with all his problems, he shouldn't put another person through what he was dealing with.

The time came for Justin to return to active duty. Justin wanted to ship out to Iraq without letting his family know, so he slipped away from his sister, Kitty's, engagement party informing only Rebecca. Rebecca told Kitty and Nora and they rushed to the airport for a tearful goodbye. Several months Justin returned from Iraq with a leg injury, he refused to take meds because of his history as an addict. After strong pressure, Nora convinced him to start taking pain medication, to which he became addicted once more. Justin found out that he had Rebecca Harper, the product of William and Holly. Most of the Walkers were hesitant about how to deal with this new relation, but Justin went to visit her as soon as he learned of her existence, she helped him steer clear of drugs and he ardently defended her when she said Sarah's husband made a pass at her. Justin had an inkling that Rebecca may not, in fact, be his sister, she told him that she was his sister, to his relief. This relief was short-lived however, as he began to develop what could only be called "inappropriate" feelings for her - of a romantic nature.

He told his brother Kevin about it and Kevin told him to stay away from her, which he did. But he told her his feelings and she "freaked out"; the day after, he apologized to her. She revealed to him that she was not his half-sister, but the daughter of David Caplan, he became angry at her about this and told his mother, as a result, the rest of the Walker family. In the season 2 season finale, they made amends and he asked if they could start over, they met at a hill and she told him she believed all the craziness was supposed to lead her to him and they shared their first kiss. In season 4 Justin misses their wedding rehearsal over the stress of med school and becoming a father, he comes to the boy's aid. He realizes how much he wants to be a husband and a father, he tells an upset Rebecca what happened and professes his love to her, she says the wedding is back on however it is interrupted when Kitty

Former Residence of Liu Shaoqi

The Former Residence of Liu Shaoqi or Liu Shaoqi's Former Residence was built in the late Qing Dynasty. It is located in Huaminglou Town of Ningxiang, China, it has an area of about 4,000,000-square-metre and a building area of about 20,000-square-metre, embodies buildings such as the old houses, the Liu Shaoqi Memorial Hall, the Bronze Statue of Liu Shaoqi, the Cultural relics Exhibition Hall. In 1796, in the first year of the age of the Jiaqing Emperor, it was built by Liu Shaoqi's forebear. In 1898, Liu Shaoqi was born there. On its opening late in 1959, it was listed as a "Historical and Cultural Sites Protected at the Provincial Level". In May 1961, Chinese President Liu Shaoqi and his wife, first lady Wang Guangmei returned to Hunan and they lived here. During the Great Leap Forward, Liu Shaoqi handed out their own daily necessities to farmers. In 1966, during the Cultural Revolution, the house was broken down by the Red Guards and the cultural relics were stolen. On October 1, 1966, the site was closed.

In February 1980, President Liu Shaoqi was rehabilitated. The People's Government of Hunan Province and the People's Government of Ningxiang rebuilt the house. On March 5, it was opened to the public again. In 1982, China's leader Deng Xiaoping wrote "Liu Shao-qi's Former Residence" on the horizontal tablet. In January 1988, it was listed as a "Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level" by the State Council of China