SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Macroscopic scale

The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments. It is the opposite of microscopic; when applied to physical phenomena and bodies, the macroscopic scale describes things as a person can directly perceive them, without the aid of magnifying devices. This is in contrast to observations or theories of objects of geometric lengths smaller than some hundreds of micrometers. A macroscopic view of a ball is just that: a ball. A microscopic view could reveal a thick round skin composed of puckered cracks and fissures or, further down in scale, a collection of molecules in a spherical shape. An example of a physical theory that takes a deliberately macroscopic viewpoint is thermodynamics. An example of a topic that extends from macroscopic to microscopic viewpoints is histology. Not quite by the distinction between macroscopic and microscopic and quantum mechanics are theories that are distinguished in a subtly different way.

At first glance one might think of them as differing in the size of objects that they describe, classical objects being considered far larger as to mass and geometrical size than quantal objects, for example a football versus a fine particle of dust. More refined consideration distinguishes classical and quantum mechanics on the basis that classical mechanics fails to recognize that matter and energy cannot be divided into infinitesimally small parcels, so that fine division reveals irreducibly granular features; the criterion of fineness is whether or not the interactions are described in terms of Planck's constant. Speaking, classical mechanics considers particles in mathematically idealized terms as fine as geometrical points with no magnitude, still having their finite masses. Classical mechanics considers mathematically idealized extended materials as geometrically continuously substantial; such idealizations are useful for most everyday calculations, but may fail for molecules, atoms and other elementary particles.

In many ways, classical mechanics can be considered a macroscopic theory. On the much smaller scale of atoms and molecules, classical mechanics may fail, the interactions of particles are described by quantum mechanics. Near the absolute minimum of temperature, the Bose–Einstein condensate exhibits effects on macroscopic scale that demand description by quantum mechanics. In the Quantum Measurement Problem the issue of what constitutes macroscopic and what constitutes the quantum world is unresolved and unsolvable; the related Correspondence Principle can be articulated thus: every macroscopic phenomena can be formulated as a problem in quantum theory. A violation of the Correspondence Principle would thus ensure an empirical distinction between the macroscopic and the quantum. In pathology, macroscopic diagnostics involves gross pathology, in contrast to microscopic histopathology; the term "megascopic" is a synonym. No word exists that refers to features portrayed at reduced scales for better understanding, such as geographic areas or astronomical objects.

"Macroscopic" may refer to a "larger view", namely a view available only from a large perspective. A macroscopic position could be considered the "big picture". Particle physics, dealing with the smallest physical systems, is known as high energy physics. Physics of larger length scales, including the macroscopic scale, is known as low energy physics. Intuitively, it might seem incorrect to associate "high energy" with the physics of small, low mass-energy systems, like subatomic particles. By comparison, one gram of hydrogen, a macroscopic system, has ~ 6×1023 times the mass-energy of a single proton, a central object of study in high energy physics. An entire beam of protons circulated in the Large Hadron Collider, a high energy physics experiment, contains ~ 3.23×1014 protons, each with 6.5×1012 eV of energy, for a total beam energy of ~ 2.1×1027 eV or ~ 336.4 MJ, still ~ 2.7×105 times lower than the mass-energy of a single gram of hydrogen. Yet, the macroscopic realm is "low energy physics", while that of quantum particles is "high energy physics".

The reason for this is. While macroscopic systems indeed have a larger total energy content than any of their constituent quantum particles, there can be no experiment or other observation of this total energy without extracting the respective amount of energy from each of the quantum particles –, the domain of high energy physics. Daily experiences of matter and the Universe are characterized by low energy. For example, the photon energy of visible light is about 1.8 to 3.2 eV. The bond-dissociation energy of a carbon-carbon bond is about 3.6 eV. This is the energy scale manifesting at the macroscopic level, such as in chemical reactions. Photons with far higher energy, gamma rays of the kind produced in radioactive decay, have photon energy, always between 105 eV and 107 eV – still two orders of magnitude lower than the mass-energy of a single proton. Radioactive decay gamma rays are considered as part of nuclear physics, rather than high energy physics; when reaching the quantum particle level, the high energy domain is revealed.

The proton has a mass-energy of ~ 9.4×108 eV. Quantum particles with lower mass-energies are part of high energy physics.

Gary Charles

Gary Andrew Charles is an English former footballer who played at right-back. During his career he is best known for his appearances with Nottingham Forest, Derby Country and Aston Villa and was capped twice for England. Charles was most the manager of Nuneaton Town. Born in Newham, Charles started his career at Clapton F. C. but first came into notability at Nottingham Forest, when he became a regular alongside Roy Keane, making his debut on 7 November 1987. Due to his colour and skills, he was dubbed the Brazilian, his manager at Nottingham, Brian Clough, commented on his dribbling abilities by saying: "When Charles plays a one-two, he goes like a gazelle. It's so effortless - at first it looks as if he's not moving, yet he's 40 yards up the field." In June 1991, he made his debut for England, playing two friendlies, against New Zealand on 8 June and Malaysia on 12 June. Only a few days earlier, Charles was famously fouled by Paul Gascoigne in the 1991 FA Cup Final; this was the challenge that caused Gascoigne's cruciate ligaments to tear, forcing him out of the game for several months.

On 29 March 1992, he made the squad. On 29 July 1993, he made a £750,000 move to Derby County, appearing 76 times for them during a two-year spell, which included honours for PFA Team of the Year in 1993–94. On 6 January 1995, he signed with Aston Villa for a fee close to £1.4m, assumed a regular starting role, although he was injured, being out for two seasons recovering from a serious ankle injury. He appeared in 80 league matches in three and half years with the Villans, winning one League Cup. On 14 January 1999, Charles moved abroad, for a fee of £ 1m, he was the back-up choice after the failed bid for Oleh Luzhny. However, in Portugal, his problem with injuries remained, he made his debut on a 3-0 home loss against Boavista on 14 March 1999, played in three more games, scoring one goal, before being sidelined again on late April, due to a pubalgia. Spending the entire summer recovering from injury, he was put on the transfer list by Jupp Heynckes, so he made a move to his boyhood team West Ham United on 5 October 1999 for £1.2m.

During the three seasons with the Hammers, he was out by injuries so he opted to end his professional career on 29 July 2002. In October 2011, Charles joined Lincoln City as Assistant Manager alongside manager David Holdsworth, but has since became the Director of Football at the University of Nottingham. On 29 March 2018 it was announced that he had accepted the manager's position at National League North side Nuneaton Town. In June 2018, he was replaced as manager at Nuneaton by Nicky Eaden. After the end of his playing career, Charles struggled with alcoholism, he however has attained his UEFA A Coaching licence. In 2018, Charles was reported as being a recovering alcoholic with a business providing care to people who are experiencing depression and alcohol and drug dependency. Nottingham Forest Full Members Cup: 1992Aston Villa Football League Cup: 1996 Gary Charles at Soccerbase

Brainiac: History Abuse

Brainiac: History Abuse is a British entertainment documentary show that aired on Sky1 from 1 June to 20 July 2005. It is a spin-off of the show Brainiac: Science Abuse concentrating on historical subjects; the show is presented by Charlotte Hudson with additional input from Stephen Wisdom as "Ernest Clough, History Buff", Regina Cotter as Shell in the Kitchen cooking traditional medieval delicacies. The series wasn't as popular as its scientific counterpart, was axed after one series. However, it is repeated on Sky3. Regular features include: "Men In Steel" and "Knight Fever" - highlighting modern-day activities you can do while wearing a suit of armour. Shell's Kitchen - medieval recipes, presented in a parody of the style of Nigella Lawson. Ancient Hist-O-Wee - historical uses for urine Historical medicinal remedies Ancient Vege-Battles: historical battles illustrated using fruit and vegetables The Brainiac Battering Ram Squad "fixing" an everyday problem with unnecessary force, such as opening a vending machine or a locked car Like Brainiac: Science Abuse before it, the show always ends with an item in which a caravan gets blown up.

In deference to the theme, they use a "historical" explosive for an everyday task. Torture instruments were shown and demonstrated with fruit Australian Release Certain pieces of music are used during the series, including: "Toxic" and "... Baby One More Time" by Britney Spears "Doctor Doctor" by the Thompson Twins "Stayin' Alive" by the Bee Gees "Everybody Hurts" by R. E. M. "Unbelievable" by EMF "Babies" by Pulp Theme from Get Carter by Roy Budd "Hysteria" by Muse Brainiac: History Abuse on IMDb