World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Ganesha, known as Ganapati and Vinayaka, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon. His image is found throughout India, Sri Lanka, Hindu sects worship him regardless of affiliations. Devotion to Ganesha is widely diffused and extends to Jains and Buddhists, although he is known by many attributes, Ganeshas elephant head makes him easy to identify. Ganesha is widely revered as the remover of obstacles, the patron of arts and sciences, as the god of beginnings, he is honoured at the start of rituals and ceremonies. Ganesha is invoked as patron of letters and learning during writing sessions, several texts relate mythological anecdotes associated with his birth and exploits and explain his distinct iconography. Ganesha emerged as a deity in the 4th and 5th centuries AD, during the Gupta period. He was formally included among the five deities of Smartism in the 9th century. A sect of devotees called the Ganapatya arose, who identified Ganesha as the supreme deity, the principal scriptures dedicated to Ganesha are the Ganesha Purana, the Mudgala Purana, and the Ganapati Atharvashirsa.
Brahma Purana and Brahmanda Purana are other two Puranic genre encyclopedic texts that deal with Ganesha, Ganesha has been ascribed many other titles and epithets, including Ganapati and Vighneshvara. The Hindu title of respect Shri is often added before his name, the name Ganesha is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words gana, meaning a group, multitude, or categorical system and isha, meaning lord or master. The word gaņa when associated with Ganesha is often taken to refer to the gaņas, the term more generally means a category, community, association, or corporation. Some commentators interpret the name Lord of the Gaņas to mean Lord of Hosts or Lord of created categories, Ganapati, a synonym for Ganesha, is a compound composed of gaṇa, meaning group, and pati, meaning ruler or lord. Though the earliest mention of the word Ganapati is found in hymn 2.23.1 of the 2nd-millennium BCE Rigveda, it is however uncertain that the Vedic term referred specifically to Ganesha. The Amarakosha, an early Sanskrit lexicon, lists eight synonyms of Ganesha, Vighnarāja, Dvaimātura, Gaṇādhipa, Heramba, Vinayaka is a common name for Ganesha that appears in the Purāṇas and in Buddhist Tantras.
This name is reflected in the naming of the eight famous Ganesha temples in Maharashtra known as the Ashtavinayak, the names Vighnesha and Vighneshvara refers to his primary function in Hinduism as the master and remover of obstacles. A prominent name for Ganesha in the Tamil language is Pillai or Pillaiyar, a. K. Narain differentiates these terms by saying that pillai means a child while pillaiyar means a noble child. He adds that the words pallu and pell in the Dravidian family of languages signify tooth or tusk, elephant tooth or tusk. Anita Raina Thapan notes that the root word pille in the name Pillaiyar might have meant the young of the elephant
Rajahnate of Cebu
The Rajahnate of Cebu was an Indianized monarchical polity on the island of Cebu in the Philippines prior to the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors. It was founded by Sri Lumay or Rajamuda Lumaya, a prince of the Chola dynasty which occupied Sumatra. He was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces, according to Visayan folklore, Sri Lumay was a half-Tamil & half-Malay from Sumatra, who settled in the Visayas, and had several sons. One of his sons was Sri Alho, who ruled a land known as Sialo which included the towns of Carcar. Sri Ukob ruled a polity known as Nahalin in the north and he died in battle, fighting with the Muslim Moro pirates known as magalos from Mindanao. The islands they were in were collectively known as Pulua Kang Dayang or Kangdaya, Sri Lumay was noted for his strict policies in defending against Moro Muslim raiders and slavers from Mindanao. His use of scorched earth tactics to repel invaders gave rise to the name Kang Sri Lumayng Sugbu to the town, which was shortened to Sugbu.
Sri Lumay was succeeded by the youngest of his sons, Sri Bantug, who ruled from a known as Singhapala. Sri Bantug had a brother called Sri Parang who was slated to succeed Sri Bantug. But he was a cripple and could not govern his polity because of his infirmity, Parang handed his throne to Sri Bantugs son and his nephew, Sri Humabon, who became the Rajah of Cebu in his stead. During Rajah Humabons reign, the region had become an important trading center where agricultural products were bartered. From Japan and glass utensils were usually traded for native goods, ivory products, leather and semi-precious stones and śarkarā mostly came from India traders and Burmese people traders. The harbors of Sugbu became known colloquially as sinibuayng hingpit, shortened to sibu or sibo and it was during Humabons reign that Lapu-Lapu arrived from Borneo, and was granted by Humabon the region of Mandawili, including the island known as Opong or Opon. First contact with the Spanish occurred during Humabons reign, resulting in the death of Ferdinand Magellan.
If you give them good reception and treat them well, it will be well for you, but if you treat them ill, so much the worse it will be for you, as they have done at Calicut and at Malacca. In reality, this phrase is that of Kota Raya kita, Sri Parang, the limp, had a young son, Sri Tupas, known as Rajah Tupas who succeeded Rajah Humabon as king of Cebu. The Rajahnate was dissolved during the reign of Rajah Tupas by the forces of conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi in the battle of Cebu during 1565
Palawan, officially the Province of Palawan, is an archipelagic province of the Philippines that is located in the Mimaropa region. It is the largest province in the country in terms of area of jurisdiction. Its capital is the City of Puerto Princesa, but it is governed independently from the province as an urbanized city. The islands of Palawan stretch between Mindoro in the northeast and Borneo in the southwest and it lies between the South China Sea and the Sulu Sea. The province is named after its largest island, Palawan Island, measuring 450 kilometres long, the province is composed of the long and narrow Palawan Island, plus a number of other smaller islands surrounding it, totalling roughly 1,780 islands and islets. The Calamianes Group of Islands to the northeast consists of Busuanga, Culion, Balabac Island is located off the southern tip, separated from Borneo by the Balabac Strait. In addition, Palawan covers the Cuyo Islands in the Sulu Sea, the disputed Spratly Islands, located a few hundred kilometres to the west, are considered part of Palawan by the Philippines, and is locally called the Kalayaan Group of Islands.
Palawans almost 2,000 kilometres of coastline is lined with rocky coves. It harbors a vast stretch of forests that carpet its chain of mountain ranges. The mountain heights average 3,500 feet in altitude, with the highest peak rising to 6,843 feet at Mount Mantalingahan, the vast mountain areas are the source of valuable timber. The terrain is a mix of coastal plain, craggy foothills, valley deltas, the province has a total land area of 14,649.73 square kilometres. When Puerto Princesa City is included for geographical purposes, its area is 17,030.75 square kilometres. The land area is distributed to its mainland municipalities, comprising 12,239 square kilometres, and the island municipalities, the province has two types of climate. The first, which occurs in the northern and southern extremities, the other, which prevails in the eastern coast, has a short dry season of one to three months and no pronounced rainy period during the rest of the year. The southern part of the province is virtually free from tropical depressions but northern Palawan experiences torrential rains during the months of July, summer months serve as peak season for Palawan.
Sea voyages are most favorable from March to early June when the seas are calm, the average maximum temperature is 31 °C with little variation all year. Palawan comprises 433 barangays in 23 municipalities and the capital City of Puerto Princesa, as an archipelago, Palawan has 13 mainland municipalities and 10 island towns. The remaining island municipalities are, Coron and Culion, Cuyo and Magsaysay, Cagayancillo and Kalayaan