Armando Reverón was a Venezuelan painter and sculptor, precursor of Arte Povera and considered one of the most important of the 20th century in Latin America. While his mental health deteriorated throughout his life, his artistic abilities remained, his house by the northern coast of Venezuela housed the Reveron Museum, although it was damaged by the Vargas mudslides in December 1999. He is the subject of various homages in different media, is remembered for his "muñecas" or dolls, he began his studies at the Colegio de los Padres Salesianos in Caracas. His maternal great-uncle, Ricardo Montilla, who had studied in New York, teaches him natural drawing and awakens his artistic vocation. In 1896 he was transferred to Valencia after the failure of his parents' marriage. Armando is sent home from Rodríguez-Zocca's family. Under the care of Rodríguez-Zocca's family, Reverón established a close relationship with Josefina, the daughter of the couple, came to appreciate her like his own sister; the walls of the house were some of the first paintings of Reverón, where he attempted to portray the family maid, Juanita Carrizales.
Rodríguez-Zocca's described Reverón´s temperament as "sad and melancholic". At the age of 12 he suffered typhus, which many believe psychically affected him for the rest of his life. Reverón built several huts in the land that he bought in Macuto, the main hut was his workshop. Around his waist he placed a large bag to hold his driftwood-made brushes; the decision to move coincided with a change of behavior and a transformation of his artistic concepts. During this period, by adopting primitive habits and detached from the city, Reverón could develop a deeper understanding of nature, thus entered what the critic Alfredo Boulton called his Período Blanco, located between 1924 and 1932. The GAN possesses an important collection of photographs by Alfredo Boulton of Reverón; these photographs contain a series of Reverón painting Luisa Phelps dated 1930. In 1933, he won a first award to be an exhibition of his work at the Ateneo de Caracas, presented in the gallery Katia Granoff in Paris, France. In early 1940, he began his Período Sepia, which corresponds to a set of canvases painted on the coast and in the port of La Guaira in which brown tones are dominant in landscapes of land and sea.
He subsequently suffered a period of depression following a psychotic breakdown which forced confinement in "San Jorge" sanatorium from "José María Finol". Once recovered, he worked in a different style. From that moment, he took refuge in a magical universe, around objects and dolls created by him, gave birth to the last and delirious expressionist stage of his work figurative period characterized by the use of materials such as chalk, crayons and a theatrical fantasy that became more and more uncontrollable but, through a drawing that aspired to academic correctness, sought to restore the emotional balance of Reverón. Maja at the Museum of Modern Art Woman of the River at the Museum of Modern Art White Landscape at the Museum of Modern Art Elderfield, John. Armando Reveron; the Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 0-87070-711-6. 2007 Reverón exhibition at the MOMA Noelia Sastre, "Reverón encandila a Nueva York" Newspaper El Universal
Vargas State is one of the 23 states of Venezuela. Named after Venezuela's first non-military president, José María Vargas, Vargas comprises a coastal region in the north of Venezuela, bordering Aragua to the west, Miranda to the east, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Capital District to the south, it is home to both airport. The state capital is La Guaira; the Litoral Varguense conurbation is the principal urban agglomeration in the state, part of the Greater Caracas Area. In 1999, the geographic center of Vargas state suffered major floods and landslides, known as La Tragedia de Vargas, causing major losses of life and property, resulting in forced population movements, including the virtual disappearance of some small towns. Thousands died, many more fled the area to other states; this region of Venezuela has undergone important changes over the years, while the geographical borders have remained, the territorial delineation has varied. The area was one of the departments of the Venezuela's Federal District, the governor of this region was chosen by the national government.
The area evolved into a municipality, but was still dependent on the governor of the Federal District. In the 1990s there were increased calls for Vargas to become a separate entity, distinct from Federal District. In 1998 the government of Rafael Caldera decreed Vargas as an independent municipality, separate from the Federal District, with the statute of Federal Territory. Shortly after it became the 23rd state of Venezuela. In mid-December 1999, after several days of ever-increasing rains pouring over the Central Mountain Range and the piedmont within the span of 24 hours along the coastline for about 45 km. the state suffered from massive floods which resulted in severe losses of life and property. In its wake as of December 16, the surviving population witnessed the massive destruction of most of the state infrastructure, including the collapse of most roads, housings and private buildings, of basic services as electricity and communications. Official estimates some 50,000 dead or missing.
In the following weeks nearly the entire state's population was displaced. Locals refer to the Dec. 1999 disaster as "La Tragedia de Vargas". Such climatic phenomenon appears to be periodical, having a cycle of about 70 years, has occurred hundreds thousands of times since a distant past. Vargas State covers a total surface area of 1,497 km². Vargas Caraballeda Carayaca Carlos Soublette Caruao Catia La Mar El Junco La Guaira Macuto Maiquetía Naiguatá Raul Leoni According to the 2011 Census, the racial composition of the population was: Simón Bolívar International Airport Venezuela States of Venezuela 1999 Vargas mudslide catastrophe Dancing devils of Corpus Christi History Geography Geopolitical division Law and government— State government Law and government— Municipal government Economy Sites of interest Folklore Historical seats
Francisco Arturo Michelena Castillo was a Venezuelan painter born in Valencia, Carabobo State. He began to paint at a young age under his father's tutelage. Traveled to Paris where he studied in the famous Académie Julian, he was the first Venezuelan artist to succeed overseas and, with Cristóbal Rojas and Martín Tovar y Tovar, one of the most important Venezuelan painters of the 19th century. His first great success occurred in Paris at Le Salon des Artistes Français in 1887. Encouraged by his teacher Jean-Paul Laurens, Michelena presented a canvas titled L'Enfant Malade, awarded the Gold Medal, second class, the highest honor a foreign artist could receive at the salon; the painting was considered a masterpiece and was acquired by the Astors in New York in the late 19th century. The painting traveled to South Florida when it was acquired by Owens Burns, a business partner of John Ringling, the circus magnate. After Burns' death the painting was stored in the Ringling Museum's vaults where it remained away from public view for more than 60 years.
In 2004 Sotheby's rescued the canvas and arranged for it to be included in an auction of Latin American art. The painting was sold for the record amount of US$1,350,000. Media related to Arturo Michelena at Wikimedia Commons
Martín Tovar y Tovar
Martín Tovar y Tovar was a Venezuelan painter, best known for his portraits and historical scenes. Tovar was died in Caracas, his father, Antonio Maria Tovar, was a former official of the Spanish government who had retired after receiving a serious bullet wound during the War of Independence. His mother, Damiana Tovar Liendo, was from Caracas; the family had been living in exile in Puerto Rico, but returned to Venezuela before Tovar's birth. He received his first lessons from Celestino Martinez who, at the age of nineteen, had just become an instructor at the "Academia de Dibujo". Tovar studied at the Academy itself with Antonio José Carranza and at the "Colegio de La Paz" with Carmelo Fernández. In 1844, he joined with Fernández and two other artists to acquire a lithography workshop owned by German emigrants. In 1850, he travelled to Spain and enrolled at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid. There, he studied with his son, Federico de Madrazo, among others. In 1851, he opened a shop called "Fotografía Artística de Martín Tovar y Tovar", becoming one of his country's pioneer photographers.
In 1852, he found a position in the workshop of Léon Cogniet. Three years he returned to Venezuela, but stayed for only a year before going back to Paris to copy paintings by the major artists, with a view towards using them to establish a national museum in Caracas, his proposal was accepted. He continued to focus on portraits and participated in several exhibitions, including the International Exposition in Paris. Two years he was appointed Director of the "Academia de Bellas Artes" in Caracas. In 1872, he exhibited at the "Primera Exposición Anual de Bellas Artes Venezolanas", organized by the explorers James Mudie Spence and Anton Goering. In 1873, he received. In 1881, he received another commission from President Antonio Guzmán Blanco; the work was presented at the "Exposición Nacional de Venezuela" in 1883 and was awarded a gold medal. This resulted in further commissions to portray the battles of Boyacá, Junín and Ayacucho. After researching and sketching the battle sites, he set up a workshop in Paris, which he maintained from 1887 to the late 1890s, commuting between there and Caracas and doing more portraits as well as the battle scenes.
He had finished only three of the battles when he died in 1902. The Battle of Ayucucho was completed by Antonio Herrera Toro. Enrique Planchart, Martín Tovar y Tovar, Edición del Ministerio de Educación, Dirección de Cultura, 1952 Juan Calzadilla, Tovar y Tovar, C. V. G. Siderúrgica del Orinoco, 1977. Francisco Javier Duplá, Martín Tovar y Tovar, 1827-1902, Editora El Nacional, 2008 ISBN 980-395-182-3 Escuela de Artes Plásticas "Martín Tovar y Tovar"
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, they give rise to different biomes. A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification, which treats steppe climates as intermediates between desert climates and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential. Semi-arid climates tend to support short or scrubby vegetation and are dominated by either grasses or shrubs. To determine if a location has a semi-arid climate, the precipitation threshold must first be determined. Finding the precipitation threshold involves first multiplying the average annual temperature in °C by 20 adding 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year, or 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received.
If the area's annual precipitation is less than the threshold but more than half the threshold, it is classified as a BS. Furthermore, to delineate "hot semi-arid climates" from "cold semi-arid climates", there are three used isotherms: Either a mean annual temperature of 18°C, or a mean temperature of 0°C or −3°C in the coldest month, so that a location with a "BS" type climate with the appropriate temperature above whichever isotherm is being used is classified as "hot semi-arid", a location with the appropriate temperature below the given isotherm is classified as "cold semi-arid". Hot semi-arid climates tend to be located in the 20s and 30s latitudes of the in proximity to regions with a tropical savanna or a humid subtropical climate; these climates tend to have hot, sometimes hot and warm to cool winters, with some to minimal precipitation. Hot semi-arid climates are most found around the fringes of subtropical deserts. Hot semi-arid climates are most found in Africa and South Asia. In Australia, a large portion of the Outback surrounding the central desert regions lies within the hot semi-arid climate region.
In South Asia, both India and sections of Pakistan experiences the seasonal effects of monsoons and feature short but well-defined wet seasons, but is not sufficiently wet overall to qualify as a tropical savanna climate. Hot semi-arid climates can be found in Europe, parts of North America, such as in Mexico, areas of the Southwestern United States, sections of South America such as the sertão, the Gran Chaco, on the poleward side of the arid deserts, where they feature a Mediterranean precipitation pattern, with rainless summers and wetter winters. Cold semi-arid climates tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate, they are found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters.
These areas see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates. Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20 °C or more in that time frame; these large diurnal temperature variations are seen in hot semi-arid climates. Cold semi-arid climates at higher latitudes tend to have dry winters and wetter summers, while cold semi-arid climates at lower latitudes tend to have precipitation patterns more akin to subtropical climates, with dry summers wet winters, wetter springs and autumns. Cold semi-arid climates are most found in Asia and North America. However, they can be found in Northern Africa, South Africa, sections of South America and sections of interior southern Australia and New Zealand. In climate classification, three isotherms means that delineate between hot and cold semi-arid climates — the 18°C average annual temperature or that of the coldest month, the warm side of the isotherm of choice defining a BSh climate from the BSk on the cooler side.
As a result of this, some areas can have climates that are classified as hot or cold semi-arid depending on the isotherm used. One such location is San Diego, which has cool summers for the latitude due to prevailing winds off the ocean but mild winters. Continental climate Dust Bowl Goyder's Line Köppen climate classification Palliser's Triangle Ustic Wave height
Cristóbal Rojas (artist)
Cristóbal Rojas was one of the most important and high-profile Venezuelan painters of the 19th century. Rojas's styles varied throughout his life, he displayed talents in painting that ranged for dramatic effect, to works done in the impressionist style. Cristóbal Rojas Poleo was born in the city of Cúa in the Valles del Tuy to parents who worked in the medical profession. Part of his childhood occurred during the middle of the federal war and Cúa was affected by the events of the war, he initiated studies under his grandfather, José Luis Rojas, who taught him how to draw and motivated him to improve. At 13 years old, his father died and he was forced to begin work in a tobacco factory in Cúa to help support his family. In 1878, an earthquake devastated the Valles del Tuy region, the Rojas faced poverty; as a result, he moved to Caracas where he continued his painting studies, despite again having to work in the tobacco industry to support his mother and family. In Caracas he attended classes by José Manuel Maucó at the Universidad Central de Venezuela.
Between 1880 and 1882, he developed a keen interest in oils and displayed a primitive technique that would prevail in his paintings such as Ruinas de Cúa después del Terremoto and Ruinas del templo de la Merced. During this time he became acquainted with the painter Antonio Herrera Toro coming under contract as Toro's assistant to paint Caracas Cathedral. In 1883, Rojas exhibited his La muerte de Girardot en Bárbula in the Salón del Centenario to commemorate the birth of Simon Bolivar and won a silver medal in second place along with the painter Arturo Michelena; this award would grant him a scholarship by government amounting to 50 pesos each month, to study in Europe. In early 1884 he had moved to study in Paris. In the period between 1883 and 1890 Rojas would experiment with different pictorial tendencies and techniques ranging from post-romanticism to impressionism. Melancholic, with an uncertain temperament, Rojas was inspired by examples of artwork he discovered on his continuous visits to the Louvre.
Between 1886 and 1889 he exhibited many paintings including La miseria. With El Bautizo, a notable change in his work is observed. With a more acute perception of chromatic atmosphere, the painting displayed clear Dutch influences, a style, reflected in a painting he produced in 1889 Dante y Beatriz a orillas del Leteo. Towards the end of 1889, Rojas moved away from the painting of dramatic effects which he had displayed at Paris Hall, began to display talent for scenes and portraits, using colours and paying attention to details with impressionism. However, the subsidies for his scholarship would soon run out, he became plagued with tuberculosis, he was forced to return to Venezuela in 1890, bringing with himself his last paintings, a portrait of President Juan Pablo Rojas Paúl and The Purgatorio, a depiction of purgatory. Soon after his return to Caracas, he died on November 8 of 1890, around 5 weeks before his 33rd birthday. Journalist Ermelindo Rivodó who visited Rojas in Paris in 1885, described the painter as "Somewhat pale, with small moustache and black hair, that emphasize his smooth set of melancholic eyes".
Rojas was known for his reserved but passionate nature socialising with others around him and preferring to study art in his own medium. Peers and artistic commentators have referred to him as "melancholic". Jose Antonio Hedderich, in an interesting article published in the National Magazine of Culture,after studying the life of Rojas described him, he had few friends". However, Hedderich continues to identify that Rojas was of a emotional nature. Once remarking that, "He had fatalistic temperament and was emphatically sad". According to Hedderich, Rojas was embittered by excessive guilty feelings about life and was acutely aware of his conscience; these feelings were reflected in some of his works such as his purgatory painting, painted shortly before his death in the knowledge he was going to die from tuberculosis. Arthur Rimbaud
Venezuela the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas, it has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, 99,889 km2 of continental shelf; this marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species.
There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, it gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993.
A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution. The revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written; this new constitution changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District, federal dependencies. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America. Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil; the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil came to dominate exports and government revenues.
The 1980s oil glut led to a long-running economic crisis. Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995 as per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak; the recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave. The Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez established populist social welfare policies that boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarily reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime. However, such populist policies became inadequate, causing the nation's collapse as their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidy—are blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy; the destabilized economy led to a crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression, shortages of basic goods and drastic increases in unemployment, disease, child mortality and crime. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan Migrant Crisis where more than three million people have fled the country.
By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies. In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year. Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast; the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, Italy, so he named the region Veneziola, or "Little Venice". The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela. Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela. Thus, the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from the native word; the official name was Estado de Venezuela, República de Venezuela, Estados Unidos de Venezuela, a