Stratford-upon-Avon known as just Stratford, is a market town and civil parish in the Stratford-on-Avon District, in the county of Warwickshire, England, on the River Avon, 91 miles north west of London, 22 miles south east of Birmingham, 8 miles south west of Warwick. The estimated population in 2007 was 25,505. Stratford was inhabited by Anglo-Saxons and remained a village before the lord of the manor, John of Coutances, set out plans to develop it into a town in 1196. In that same year, Stratford was granted a charter from King Richard I to hold a weekly market in the town, giving it its status as a market town; as a result, Stratford experienced an increase in commerce as well as urban expansion. The town is a popular tourist destination owing to its status as birthplace of English playwright and poet William Shakespeare, receives 2.5 million visitors a year. The Royal Shakespeare Company resides in Stratford's Royal Shakespeare Theatre; the name is a combination of the Old English strǣt, meaning'street', indicating a shallow part of a river or stream, allowing it to be crossed by walking or driving and avon, the Celtic word for river.
The ` street' was a Roman road. The ford, used as a crossing since Roman times became the location of Clopton Bridge. A survey of 1251-52 uses the name Stratford for the first time to identify Old Stratford and the newer manors; the name was used after that time to describe the area surrounding the Holy Trinity Church and the street of Old Town. The settlement which became known as Stratford was first inhabited by Anglo-Saxons following their 7th-century invasion of what would become known as Warwickshire; the land was owned by the church of Worcester and it remained a village until the late 12th century when it was developed into a town by lord of the manor, John of Coutances. John laid out a new town plan in 1196 based on a grid system to expand Stratford and allow people to rent property in order to trade within the town. Additionally, a charter was granted to Stratford by King Richard I in 1196 which allowed a weekly market to be held in the town, giving it its status as a market town; these two charters, which formed the foundations of Stratford's transformation from a village to a town, make the town of Stratford over 800 years old.
John's plans to develop Stratford into a town meant Stratford became a place of work for tradesmen and merchants. By 1252 the town had 240 burgages, as well as shops and other buildings. Stratford's new workers established a guild known as the Guild of the Holy Cross for their business and religious requirements. Many of the town's earliest and most important buildings are located along what is known as Stratford's Historic Spine, once the main route from the town centre to the parish church; the route of the Historic Spine begins at Shakespeare's Birthplace in Henley Street. It continues through Henley Street to the top end of Bridge Street and into High Street where many Elizabethan buildings are located, including Harvard House; the route carries on through Chapel Street where Nash's New Place are sited. The Historic Spine continues along Church Street where Guild buildings are located dating back to the 15th century, as well as 18th- and 19th-century properties; the route finishes in Old Town, which includes Hall's Croft and the Holy Trinity Church.
During Stratford's early expansion into a town, the only access across the River Avon into and out of the town was over a wooden bridge, thought to have been constructed in 1318. However, the bridge could not be crossed at times due to the river rising and was described by antiquarian John Leland as "a poor bridge of timber and no causey to it, whereby many poor folks and other refused to come to Stratford when Avon was up, or coming thither stood in jeopardy of life." In 1480, a new masonry arch bridge was built to replace it called Clopton Bridge, named after Hugh Clopton who paid for its construction. The new bridge made it easier for people to trade within Stratford and for passing travellers to stay in the town; the Cotswolds, located close to Stratford, was a major sheep-producing area up until the latter part of the 19th century, with Stratford one of its main centres for the processing and distribution of sheep and wool. Stratford became a centre for tanning during the 15th–17th centuries.
Both the river and the Roman road served as trade routes for the town. Despite Stratford's increase in trade, it grew between the middle of the 13th century and the end of the 16th century, with a survey of the town showing 217 houses belonged to the lord of the manor in 1590. Growth continued to be slow throughout the 17th century, with hearth tax returns showing that at most there were 429 houses in the town by 1670. However, more substantial expansion began following several enclosure acts in the late 18th century, with the first and largest development by John Payton who developed land on the north side of the old town, creating several streets including John Street and Payton Street. Before the dominance of road and rail, Stratford was the gateway to the network of British canals. In 1769, the actor David Garrick staged a major Shakespeare Jubilee over three days which saw the construction of a large rotunda and the influx of many visitors; this contributed to the growing phenomenon of Bardolatry.
Stratford-upon-Avon is within the Stratford-on-Avon parliament constituency, represented by Nadhim Zahawi since 2010. Stratford is within the West Midlands Region
Anime music video
An anime music video, known in wasei-eigo as MAD is a fan-made music video consisting of clips from one or more Japanese animated shows or movies set to an audio track songs or promotional trailer audio. The term is specific to Japanese anime, however, it can include American animation footage or video game footage. AMVs are not official music videos released by the musicians, they are fan compositions which synchronize edited video clips with an audio track. AMVs are most posted and distributed over the Internet through AnimeMusicVideos.org or YouTube. Anime conventions run AMV contests who show the finalists/winner's AMVs. AMVs should not be confused with music videos that employ original, professionally made animation, or with such short music video films. AMVs should not be confused with fan-made "general animation" videos using non-Japanese animated video sources like western cartoons, or with the practice of vidding in Western media fandom, which evolved convergently and has a distinct history and fan culture.
Parallels can be drawn between AMVs and songvids, non-animated fan-made videos using footage from movies, television series, or other sources. The first anime music video was created in 1982 by 21-year-old Jim Kaposztas. Kaposztas hooked up two VCRs to each other and edited the most violent scenes from Star Blazers to "All You Need Is Love" by The Beatles to produce a humorous effect; the creation of an AMV centers on using various video editing styles to create a feeling of synchronization and unity. Some examples include: Raw Editing: Using basic zooming in and out "effects" along with simple transitions. FX Editing: This style consists of tons of visual effects; this can be accomplished in programs such as Adobe After Effects. Timing Editing: The editor edits the clips such that the anime footage is in sync with the lyrics or beats to create a perfect harmony. Flow Editing: This requires the editor to use transitions and to keep the AMV flowing rather than to have it consist of rough cuts and choppy parts.
Animation Editing: Although it sounds similar to the term AMV editing, it is a new style where editors take a still image and animate it. Masking: This style requires the editor to remove the background from the anime scene they would like to add effects to, it is a time-consuming process. John Oppliger of AnimeNation has noted that fan-produced AMVs are popular with Western fans but not with Japanese fans. One reason he cited was that Western fans experience a "more purely" visual experience inasmuch as most Western fans cannot understand the Japanese language, the original language of most anime, as a result "the visuals make a greater impact" on the senses; the second reason he cited was that Westerners are "encouraged by social pressure to grow out of cartoons and comics during the onset of adolescence" whereas Japanese natives grow up with animation "as a constant companion". The Japanese culture is permissive with regard to the appropriation of ideas. Works such as dōjinshi, unauthorized comics continuing the story of an official comic series, are encouraged by many anime makers.
These dōjinshi take an original copyrighted work and expand upon the story, allowing the characters to continue on after, before, or during the original story. Most anime producers encourage this practice; some see it as a tribute while others see it from a business viewpoint that it draws in more support for the anime than it would have had otherwise. Some manga artists create their own dōjinshi, such as Maki Murakami's "circle" Crocodile Ave, it seems that American anime distributors hold a similar sort of view in regards to AMVs. In an interview with site AnimeNewsNetwork, FUNimation Entertainment copyright specialist Evan Flournay said they see AMVs as a sort of free advertising. "The basic thinking going into fan videos is thus: if it whets the audience's appetite, we'll leave it alone. But if it sates the audience's appetite, it needs to come down," he says. In recent years there has been an increased demand on the part of the record industry, for the removal of AMVs from sites like YouTube and AnimeMusicVideos.org, with particular regard to YouTube due to its relative popularity as well as its for-profit status.
Public discussions and perspectives give varying accounts of how widespread these actions have become. Most notably in November 2005, the administrator of AnimeMusicVideos.org was contacted by Wind-up Records, requesting the removal of content featuring the work of the bands Creed and Seether. While music labels and corporations see AMVs in negative light the actual musical artists in question do not hold the same views. A number of AMV editors report to having had positive contact with various artists, including Trey Gunn and Mae. Japanese electronic duo Boom Boom Satellites teamed with site AMVJ Remix Sessions to sanction an AMV competition to help promote one of their singles, going so far as to provide the source
Mad (Raven EP)
Mad is an EP released by English heavy metal band Raven in 1986, after the debacle of the album The Pack Is Back, which received bad reviews and insignificant commercial success. The songs of this EP mark the return to a more metallic sound, it has never been re-released on CD. Its tracks were released as bonus tracks on other CD releases. All tracks written by John Gallagher, Mark Gallagher, Rob "Wacko" Hunter. Side One"Speed of the Reflex" – 5:01 "Do or Die" – 3:57Side Two "How Did Ya Get So Crazy" – 3:45 "Seen It on the T. V." – 4:06 "Gimmie Just a Little" – 3:56 John Gallagher - bass, vocals Mark Gallagher - guitar Rob Hunter - drums Nelson Ayres, Paul Higgins - engineers, mixing Dennis King - mastering
The dirham is the currency of Morocco. It is issued by the central bank of Morocco, it is subdivided into 100 centimes. Before the introduction of a modern coinage in 1882, Morocco issued copper coins denominated in falus, silver coins denominated in dirham, gold coins denominated in benduqi. From 1882, the dirham became a subdivision of the Moroccan rial, with 500 Mazunas = 10 dirham = 1 rial; when most of Morocco became a French protectorate in 1912 it switched to the Moroccan franc. The dirham was reintroduced on 16 October 1960, it replaced the franc as the major unit of currency but, until 1974, the franc continued to circulate, with 1 dirham = 100 francs. In 1974, the santim replaced the franc. In 1960, silver 1 dirham coins were introduced; these were followed by nickel 1 dirham and silver 5 dirham coins in 1965. In 1974, with the introduction of the santim, a new coinage was introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 santimat and 1 dirham; the 1 santim coins were aluminium, the 5 up to 20 santimat were minted in brass, with the highest two denominations in cupro-nickel.
Cupro-nickel 5 dirham coins were added in 1980 and changed to a bi-metal coin in 1987. The bi-metal coins bear two year designations for the issue date—1987 in the Gregorian calendar and the 1407 in the Islamic calendar; the 1 santim was only minted until 1987 when new designs were introduced, with a ½ dirham replacing the 50 santimat without changing the size or composition. The new 5 dirham coin was bimetallic, as was the 10 dirham coin introduced in 1995. Cupro-nickel 2 dirham coins were introduced in 2002. In 2011, a new series of coins has been issued, with the 5 and 10 dirham coin utilizing a latent image as a security feature; the first notes denominated in dirham were overprints on earlier franc notes, in denominations of 50 dirhams and 100 dirhams. In 1965, new notes were issued for 10 and 50 dirhams. 100 dirham notes were introduced in 1970, followed by 200 dirham notes in 1991 and 20 dirham notes in 1996. 5 dirham notes were replaced by coins in 1980, with the same happening to 10 dirham notes in 1995.
In mid-October 2009, Bank Al-Maghrib issued four million 50-dirham banknotes to commemorate the bank's 50th anniversary. The commemorative note measures 147 x 70 mm and features the portraits of Kings Mohammed VI, Hassan II, Mohammed V; the back of the notes features the headquarters of Bank Al-Maghrib in Rabat. The speech delivered in 1959 by Mohammed V at the opening of Bank Al-Maghrib is microprinted on the back. In December 2012, Bank-Al Maghrib issued a 25-dirham banknote to commemorate the 25th anniversary of banknote production at the Moroccan State Printing Works, Dar As-Sikkah, it is the first banknote in the world to be printed on Durasafe, a paper-polymer-paper composite substrate produced by Fortress Paper. The front of the commemorative note features an intaglio vignette and a watermark of King Mohammed VI, a magenta-green color shift security thread; the thread, like the watermark, is embedded inside the banknote yet visible behind a one-sided Viewsafe polymer window. It has a transparent polymer window embossed with the King's royal crest.
The back of the note carries a print vignette commemorating 25 years of banknote printing at the Moroccan State Printing Works, Dar As-Sikkah. The windows in Durasafe are formed by die cutting each side of the three layer composite substrate separately. One-sided Viewsafe windows give a clear view inside the substrate where the thread and the watermark of King Mohammed VI are protected, but visible behind the polymer core; the transparent Thrusafe window is created by die-cutting both the outer paperlayers to reveal only the transparent polymer core. On August 15, 2013, Bank Al-Maghrib has announced a new series of banknotes; the notes feature a portrait of the royal crown. Each of the notes show a Moroccan door to the left of the portrait, demonstrating the richness of the country's architectural heritage, symbolizing the openness of the country. Popular denominations are words used in Morocco to refer to different values of the currency; those include the rial, equivalent to 5 santimat, the franc, equivalent to 1 santim.
When dealing with goods with a value lower than a dirham, it is common to use the rial or santim. For high priced goods, such as cars, it is normative to refer to the price in santimat. However, rial is used when centime when speaking in French. Though not used by the young generation, the denomination 1000, 2000... to 100,000 francs will be used by people who lived during the French colonial period when referring to 10, 20 and 1000 dirham. Rial is used for higher value than portions of the dirham, reaching 5000 dhs; this denomination is used in Moroccan Arabic speaking context in popular milieu such as old medina souks or vegetable markets. Moroccan dirham is accepted in trade markets in Ceuta, despite the prices being displayed in Euro. Economy of Morocco Heiko Otto. "Historical banknotes of Morocco". Retrieved 2017-01-03
Mad (Got7 EP)
Mad is the fourth extended play by South Korean boy band Got7, released on September 29, 2015 by JYP Entertainment. The song "If You Do" was used to promote the EP as the lead single; the reissue of the album, titled Mad Winter Edition, was released on November 23. It consists of the same track list, but includes 3 new tracks: "Confession Song", "Everyday" and "The Star"
Mád is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County in northeastern Hungary. The former Jewish synagogue in Mád was restored between 2000 and 2004 with aid from the World Monuments Fund
Mad (Ne-Yo song)
"Mad" is a song by American pop/R&B singer Ne-Yo. It is the third single from his album Year of the Gentleman and was produced by Stargate and himself. Mad would reach as high as 3rd on the Billboard Rhythmic charts; the music video for Mad is noted for containing a The Sixth Sense movie theme in the video. The video for the song was directed by Diane Martel, it premiered on AOL on November 25, 2008. The video, shot in black and white, presents a narrative. After leaving, in an attempt to save a child from a car accident, someone is fatally hit. At the end of the video, it is revealed that the whole time it has been the ghost of Ne-Yo's character singing, that it was he, killed; the video to this song is Part 2 to his song "Part of the List". The music video appears to mirror the 1999 American thriller The Sixth Sense from M. Night Shyamalan, in which Bruce Willis plays a psychologist, shot by an estranged patient of his. Based on how the film was shot and portrayed, Bruce Willis is shown in many situations as if he is there physically, when in actuality he was murdered by his patient, just as how Ne-Yo appears with his girlfriend, seeming to be there physically and that she is ignoring him due to their earlier argument, when he is dead.
The video ranked at number 63 on BET's Notarized: Top 100 Videos of 2009 countdown. "Mad" debuted at number 97 on the Billboard Hot 100. The next week it jumped to number 79 to number 61, number 25, number 15, number 13, to number 11, it reached the top ten of the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs, peaking at number 6. On the UK Singles Chart, it reached number 19, giving Ne-Yo his third top 20 hit from the Year of the Gentleman album, his sixth overall. Despite only peaking at number 19, "Mad" spent four more weeks than his number one hit "So Sick" inside the UK top 100, it debuted on the Canadian Hot 100 at number 93 and rose to a high of 23. Mad full cast and crew