Mad Max is a 1979 Australian dystopian action thriller film directed by George Miller, produced by Byron Kennedy, starring Mel Gibson as "Mad" Max Rockatansky, Joanne Samuel, Hugh Keays-Byrne, Steve Bisley, Tim Burns, Roger Ward. James McCausland and Miller wrote the screenplay from a story by Kennedy. Set in a future Australia, the film presents a saga of societal collapse and revenge in which an unhinged policeman becomes embroiled in a violent feud with a savage motorcycle gang; the first Australian film production to be shot in anamorphic widescreen, principal photography for Mad Max took place in and around Melbourne, lasted six weeks. The film received a polarized reception upon its release in April 1979, although it won three AACTA Awards and attracted a cult following, while its critical reputation has grown since. Filmed on a budget of A$400,000, it earned more than US$100 million worldwide in gross revenue and held the Guinness record for most profitable film; the success of Mad Max has been credited for further opening up the global market to Australian New Wave films.
The film became the first in the Mad Max series, giving rise to three sequels, Mad Max 2, Beyond Thunderdome, Fury Road. In a dystopian Australia "a few years from now", berserk motorbike gang member Crawford "Nightrider" Montazano kills a rookie officer of the Main Force Patrol - Australia's highway patrol unit - and escapes in a Pursuit Special, he manages to elude other MFP officers but encounters the MFP's top pursuit man, Max Rockatansky. Max breaks the Nightrider's concentration during a high-speed chase, resulting in a fiery crash which kills the Nightrider. At the MFP garage, Max is shown a supercharged V8-powered black Pursuit Special. A conversation between Max's superior Fifi Macaffee and Police Commissioner Labatouche reveals that the Pursuit Special was authorized as a bribe to keep Max on the force. Meanwhile, Nightrider's motorbike gang, led by Toecutter and Bubba Zanetti, run roughshod over a town, vandalising property, stealing fuel, terrorising the population, they trap a young couple in a car, destroy the car, rape the couple.
Max and fellow officer Jim Goose arrest Toecutter's young protégé Johnny the Boy at the scene. When neither the rape victims nor any of the townspeople show for Johnny's trial, the federal courts close the case, with Johnny's attorneys releasing him into Bubba's custody over Goose's furious objections. While Goose visits a nightclub in the city the next day, Johnny sabotages his police motorbike. After the motorbike locks up at high speed and crashes, a surprisingly-uninjured Goose borrows a ute to haul his bike back to the MFP. However, Johnny ambushes Goose by throwing a brake drum through his windshield, causing him to crash. At Toecutter's insistence, Johnny throws a match into the wreck of the ute, igniting the gasoline and burning Goose alive. After seeing Goose's charred body in a hospital intensive-care unit, Max becomes disillusioned with the MFP, informs Fifi that he will resign to maintain what sanity he has left. Fifi convinces Max to take a vacation first. Max takes his wife Jessie and their infant son - referred to only as "Sprog", Australian slang for a child - on vacation in a panel van.
When they stop to fix the spare tire, Jessie takes Sprog to buy ice cream. They encounter Toecutter and his gang, who attempt to molest Jessie, but Jessie kicks Toecutter in the crotch and escapes in the van, they flee to a remote farm owned by an elderly friend named May Swaisey. Toecutter's gang ambushes Jessie in the woods. With May's help and Sprog escape, but when they try to drive away, they inadvertently damage the van, which overheats. Jessie and Sprog are run over by the gang. Max arrives too late: Sprog is killed, while a badly-injured Jessie lies comatose in a hospital ICU; the loss of his family drives Max into a rage. He dons his police uniform and takes the black Pursuit Special from the MFP garage to pursue and eliminate the gang, he rams several gang members off a bridge at high speed, kills Bubba during an ambush, forces Toecutter into the path of a speeding semi-trailer truck. Max locates Johnny at a car wreck stealing the boots of its dead driver. Max handcuffs Johnny's ankle to the wrecked vehicle, sets a crude time-delay fuse utilising a slow petrol leak and Johnny's lighter.
Max throws Johnny a hacksaw, leaving him the choice of sawing through either the handcuffs or his ankle in order to escape. The vehicle explodes. George Miller was a medical doctor in Sydney, working in a hospital emergency room where he saw many injuries and deaths of the types depicted in the film, he witnessed many car accidents growing up in rural Queensland and lost at least three friends to accidents as a teenager. While in residency at a Sydney hospital, Miller met amateur filmmaker Byron Kennedy at a summer film school in 1971; the duo produced a short film, Violence in the Cinema, Part 1, screened at a number of film festivals and won several awards. Eight years the duo produced Mad Max, working with first-time screenwriter James McCausland. According to Miller, his interest while writing Mad Max was "a silent movie with sound", employing kinetic images reminiscent of Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd while the narrative itself was basic and simple. Miller believed that audiences would find his violent story more believable if set in a bleak dystopian future.
Screenwriter McCausland drew from his observations of the 1973 oil crisis' effects on Australian motorists: Yet there were further
Afghana or Avagana is a tribal chief or prince in Pashtun, said to be of Bani Israel origin, traditionally considered the progenitor of modern-day Pashtuns, the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan and second largest in Pakistan. The ethnonym "Afghan" is believed to derive from his name. According to the Tanakh, King Saul was the son of Kish, a member of the tribe of Benjamin, one of the twelve Tribes of Israel. Saul had four sons and two daughters; the sons were Jonathan, Abinadab and Ish-bosheth. Saul's daughters were named Michal. Pashtun folklore and some historians suggest that King Saul had five sons instead of four, the fifth was named Irmia; the legend describes Malak Afghana as grandson of King Saul. This name is mentioned in the form of Abgan in the 3rd century CE by the Sassanians and as Avagana in the 6th century CE by Indian astronomer Varahamihira, it is mentioned that Afghana was orphaned at a young age, brought up by King David. When Solomon became the king, Afghana was made commander-in-chief of the army.
Malak Afghana is credited with the building of the first temple in Jerusalem, the Temple Mount, known in Arabic as the Haram al-Sharif:According to Tadhkirat al-Muluk, Malak Afghana migrated to the place known as Takht-i-Sulaiman and generations Qais Abdur Rashid, a descendant of Malak Afghana, embraced Islam. According to legend, after his death he was buried in what is now Zhob Sulaiman Mountains in Pakistan. In other folklore however, Qais Abdur Rashid in his old age, when he felt his time was near, asked his sons to bury him in the vicinity of Zhob at the location where his ancestor Afghana was buried. Nimat Allah al-Harawi author of Tarikh-i-Khan Jahani Makhzan-i-Afghani known as The History of the Afghans Ten Lost Tribes Shariat and Tasawwuf The Legendary Qais Abdur Rashid Pashtun clue to lost tribes of Israel: Genetic study sets out to uncover if there is a 2,700-year-old link to Afghanistan and Pakistan Pashtun Bani Israelite Origins Hebrew Pashtun Article 1 Hebrew Pashtun Article 2 Alden Oreck, The Virtual Jewish History Tour: Afghanistan from Jewish Virtual Library
Alan Maynard Wald Alan M. Wald or Alan Wald, is an American professor emeritus of English Literature and American Culture at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, writer of 20th-Century American literature who focuses on Communist writers. Wald was born on June 1, 1946, in Washington, DC, his parents were Haskell Philip Wald, an economist with the Federal Government and Federal Reserve Bank, Ruth Jacobs, a special education teacher. In 1969, he received a BA in Literature from Antioch College. In 1971, he received an MA and, in 1974, a doctorate, both in English from the University of California at Berkeley. Frederick C. Crews directed his doctoral dissertation. Wald taught American Culture for four full decades. In 1974, he became a lecturer at San Jose State University. In 1975, he became an associate in English at his alma mater, the University of California at Berkeley. In 1975, he began his career at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, first as assistant professor, associate professor, professor.
He served as director of the Program in American Culture and as H. Chandler Davis Collegiate Professor, he retired as professor emeritus on May 31, 2014. As not only professor but researcher and writer, Wald's subjects have included: 20th Century United States Literature. S. Literature. S. Cultural Studies. S.. S. Politics and Culture. People about whom he is considered an expert and scholar include: James T. Farrell, Richard Wright, Mike Gold, Lorraine Hansberry, John Brooks Wheelwright among many other writers on the Left; some of the hitherto lesser known writers in whom he has expertise include: Ann Petry, Jo Sinclair, Willard Motley. Wald has been a self-proclaimed political activist since high school, when he read books by Richard Wright and James T. Farrell, as well as Dalton Trumbo’s novel ‘’Johnny Got His Gun’’. In college, his own radicalism–and intellectual interests–crystalized upon reading Daniel Aaron's Writers on the Left. In the late 1960s, Wald became a "devoted reader" of New Left Review.
In 1971, he ran for city council in Berkeley, for the Socialist Workers Party. In 1986, he co-founded the Marxist-Feminist-Antiracist "Solidarity" and continues to serve as an editor for its journal, Against the Current. In 1997, he joined the editorial board of Science & Society: A Journal of Marxist Thought and Analysis. Throughout his nearly four-decade affiliation with the University of Michigan, his activism includes support for the: Washtenaw County Coalition Against Apartheid, Latin American Solidarity Committee, Palestine Human Rights Campaign, United Coalition Against Racism. On 16 March 1986, Wald was arrested for partaking in a "sit-in" at the office of Rep. Carl Pursell to protest his support for President Ronald Reagan's plan to send $100 million to the counter-revolutionary Contras in Nicaragua. Wald was convicted; as late as 1987, the ‘’New York Times’’ characterized Wald’s political orientation as Trotskyist. His activism continues, demonstrated by his signature on a 2016 "anti-intolerance statement."
Wald identifies himself as having a "secular Jewish identity."In 1975, he married Celia Stodola, who became a practicing nurse in the Obstetrical Unit of the Women's Hospital at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Sarah and Hannah are their two daughters. In 2001, he began a relationship with former student Angela D. Dillard a professor of African-American History at New York University, they became engaged when she took a position at the University of Michigan in 2006. They married in 2007. Awards and grants received by Wald include: 2012: American Studies Association's Mary C. Turpie Prize 2011–2012: National Endowment for the Humanities 2004: Longfellow House Resident Fellow 1999–2000: Guggenheim Fellowship 1989: Yale University Beinecke Fellow 1983–1984: American Council of Learned Societies 1976: American Council of Learned Societies 1969: Woodrow Wilson Fellow Upon his retirement, the Regents of the University of Michigan saluted Wald a "distinguished teacher and researcher by naming Alan M. Wald professor emeritus of English language and literature and professor emeritus of American culture," stating: Professor Wald examined the varied currents of U.
S. leftwing politics and radical esthetics, captured the specificity of writers' lives both renowned and rediscovered by his own investigations, widened the corpus of U. S. literature to include writers across all lines of race, gender and sexuality... served as director of the Program in American Culture and played an instrumental role in establishing the department as a leader in multicultural scholarship... worked to assure racial equality in all aspects of University life and to preserve academic freedom. In March 2013, the University of Michigan held a two-day conference in honor of Wald's four decades of work, called "Lineages of the Literary Left: A Symposium in Honor of Alan M. Wald." Speakers included Michael Löwy. Proceedings were published as Lineages of the Literary Left: Essays in Honor of Alan M. Wald by the University of Michigan's Maize Books. In 2007, he was appointed Collegiate Professor by the Regen