Lumber or timber is a type of wood, processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. There are two main types of lumber, it may be surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping, it is available in many species hardwoods. Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes for the construction industry – softwood, from coniferous species, including pine and spruce, hemlock, but some hardwood, for high-grade flooring, it is more made from softwood than hardwoods, 80% of lumber comes from softwood. In the United States milled boards of wood are referred to as lumber. However, in Britain and other Commonwealth nations, the term timber is instead used to describe sawn wood products, like floor boards. In the United States and Canada timber describes standing or felled trees. In Canada, lumber describes cut and surfaced wood.
In the United Kingdom, the word lumber is used in relation to wood and has several other meanings, including unused or unwanted items. Referring to wood, Timber is universally used instead. Remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of milled lumber, it is lumber cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not processed by a primary sawmill. Resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing. Structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock, its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength and fire resistance. Plastic fiberglass structural lumber can have a "class 1 flame spread rating of 25 or less, when tested in accordance with ASTM standard E 84," which means it burns slower than all treated wood lumber.
Logs are converted into timber by being hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with irregular grain and large knots, to be used and is more economical. There are various types of sawing: Plain sawn – A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log and the grain runs across the width of the boards. Quarter sawn and rift sawn – These terms have been confused in history but mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber. Boxed heart – The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure. Heart center – the center core of a log. Free of heart center – A side-cut timber without any pith. Free of knots – No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber, cut to standardized width and depth, specified in inches. Carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, 4×4; the length of a board is specified separately from the width and depth.
It is thus possible to find 2×4s that are four and twelve feet in length. In Canada and the United States, the standard lengths of lumber are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 feet. For wall framing, "stud" or "precut" sizes are available, are used. For an eight-, nine-, or ten-foot ceiling height, studs are available in 92 5⁄8 inches, 104 5⁄8 inches, 116 5⁄8 inches; the term "stud" is used inconsistently to specify length. Under the prescription of the Method of Construction issued by the Southern Song government in the early 12th century, timbers were standardized to eight cross-sectional dimensions. Regardless of the actual dimensions of the timber, the ratio between width and height was maintained at 1:1.5. Units are in Song Dynasty inches. Timber smaller than the 8th class were called "unclassed"; the width of a timber is referred to as one "timber", the dimensions of other structural components were quoted in multiples of "timber". The dimensions of timbers in similar application show a gradual diminution from the Sui Dyansty to the modern era.
The length of a unit of dimensional lumber is limited by the height and girth of the tree it is milled from. In general the maximum length is 24 ft. Engineered wood products, manufactured by binding the strands, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials, offer more flexibility and greater structural strength than typical wood building materials. Pre-cut studs save a framer much time, because they are pre-cut by the manufacturer for use in 8-, 9-
Six Rivers National Forest
Six Rivers National Forest is a U. S. National Forest located in the northwestern corner of California, it was established on June 3, 1947 by U. S. President Harry S. Truman from portions of Klamath and Trinity National Forests, its over one million acres of land contain a variety of ecosystems and 137,000 acres of old growth forest. It lies in parts of four counties; the forest is named after the Eel, Van Duzen, Trinity and Smith rivers, which pass through or near the forest's boundaries. The forest has 366 miles of wild and scenic rivers, six distinct botanical areas, public-use areas for camping and fishing; the northernmost section of the forest is known as the Smith River National Recreation Area. Forest headquarters are located in California. There are local ranger district offices in Bridgeville, Gasquet and Willow Creek, its old-growth forests include Coast Douglas-fir, Pacific madrone, White Fir. There are five designated wilderness areas in Six Rivers National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System.
Two of them lie in other National Forests or on Bureau of Land Management land. Mount Lassic Wilderness North Fork Wilderness Siskiyou Wilderness Trinity Alps Wilderness Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness The Patterson-Gimlin film, claimed to be a recording of a Bigfoot, was filmed in this national forest. Klamath Mountains Lyng v Northwest Indian Cemetery Protective Association, a 1988 US Supreme Court decision, concerned land in the forest claimed as sacred by several local Native American tribes In 1947 Jose Garcia, father of a present 5-year-old Jerry Garcia, slipped on a rock while fly fishing in the Trinity River and drowned. Jerry claimed to have witnessed this happen, though others familiar with the family assert that he did not. Media related to Six Rivers National Forest at Wikimedia Commons Official website
The coho salmon is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family, one of the several species of Pacific salmon. Coho salmon are known as silver salmon or "silvers"; the scientific species name is based on the Russian common name kizhuch. During their ocean phase, coho salmon have dark-blue backs. During their spawning phase, their jaws and teeth become hooked. After entering fresh water, they develop bright-red sides, bluish-green heads and backs, dark bellies and dark spots on their backs. Sexually maturing fish develop a light-pink or rose shading along the belly, the males may show a slight arching of the back. Mature adults have a pronounced red skin color with darker backs and average 28 inches and 7 to 11 pounds reaching up to 36 pounds, they develop a large kype during spawning. Mature females may be darker with both showing a pronounced hook on the nose; the eggs hatch in early spring after six to seven weeks in the redd. Once hatched, they remain immobile in the redd during the alevin life stage, which lasts for 6–7 weeks.
Alevin no longer have the protective egg shell, or chorion, rely on their yolk sacs for nourishment during growth. The alevin life stage is sensitive to aquatic and sedimental contaminants; when the yolk sac is resorbed, the alevin leaves the redd. Young coho spend one to two years in their freshwater natal streams spending the first winter in off-channel sloughs, before transforming to the smolt stage. Smolts are 100–150 mm and as their parr marks fade and the adult's characteristic silver scales start to dominate. Smolts migrate to the ocean from late March through July; some fish leave fresh water in the spring, spend summer in brackish estuarine ponds, return to fresh water in the fall. Coho salmon live in salt water for one to three years before returning to spawn; some precocious males, known as "jacks", return as two-year-old spawners. Spawning males develop kypes, which are hooked snouts and large teeth; the traditional range of the coho salmon runs along both sides of the North Pacific Ocean, from Hokkaidō, Japan and eastern Russia, around the Bering Sea to mainland Alaska, south to Monterey Bay, California.
Coho salmon have been introduced in all the Great Lakes, as well as many landlocked reservoirs throughout the United States. A number of specimens, were caught in waters surrounding Denmark and Norway in 2017, their source is unknown, but the salmon species is farmed at several locations in Europe, making it probable that the animal has slipped the net at such a farm. The total North Pacific harvest of coho salmon in 2010 exceeded 6.3 million fish, of which 4.5 million were taken in the United States and 1.7 million in Russia. This corresponds to some 21,000 tonnes in all. Coho salmon are the backbone of the Alaskan troll fishery. Coho salmon average 3.5 % by 5.9 % by weight of the annual Alaska salmon harvest. The total North Pacific yields of the pink salmon, chum salmon and sockeye salmon are some 10–20 fold larger by weight. In North America, coho salmon is a game fish in fresh and salt water from July to December with light fishing tackle, it is one of the most popular sport fish in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada.
Its popularity is due in part to the reckless abandon which it displays chasing bait and lure while in salt water, the large number of coastal streams it ascends during its spawning runs. Its habit of schooling in shallow water, near beaches, makes it accessible to anglers on the banks, as well as in boats. Ocean-caught coho is regarded as excellent table fare, it has a moderate to high amount of fat, considered to be essential when judging taste. Only spring chinook and sockeye salmon have higher levels of fat in their meat. Due to the lower fat content of coho, when smoking, it is best to use a cold-smoking rather than hot-smoking process. Coho, along with other species, has been a staple in the diet of several indigenous peoples, who would use it to trade with other tribes farther inland; the coho salmon is a symbol of several tribes, representing life and sustenance. In their freshwater stages, coho feed on plankton and insects switch to a diet of small fish upon entering the ocean as adults.
Spawning habitats are small. Salmonid species on the west coast of the United States have experienced dramatic declines in abundance during the past several decades as a result of human-induced and natural factors; the U. S. National Marine Fisheries Service has identified seven populations, called Evolutionary Significant Units, of coho salmon in Washington and California. Four of these ESUs are listed under the U. S. Endangered Species Act; these are the Lower Columbia River, Oregon Coast, Southern Oregon and Northern California Coasts, Central California Coast. The long-term trend for the listed populations is still downward, though there was one recent good year with an increasing trend in 2001; the Puget Sound/Strait of Georgia ESU in Washington is an NMFS "Species of Concern". Species of Concern are those species for which insufficient information prevents resolving the U. S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's concerns regarding status and threats and whether to list the species under the ESA.
On May 6, 1997, NMFS, on behalf of the Secretary of Commerce, listed as threatened the Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast coho salmon ESU
Erigeron maniopotamicus is a rare species of flowering plant in the aster family known by the common name Mad River fleabane. It is endemic to northwestern California, where it is known from only four locations in Humboldt and Trinity Counties. Erigeron maniopotamicus grows in open areas in forest and meadow habitat along the path of the Mad River in barren areas without much plant cover; the soils are rocky and tan in color and occur near areas of serpentine soils, but the plant does not occur on the serpentine soil. Erigeron maniopotamicus was described to science in 2004 from a type specimen collected on Board Camp Mountain in Humboldt County in California; the authors named the plant after the Mad River, choosing an epithet derived from Greek words meaning "mad river", using the British definition of the word "mad," corresponding to the American term "crazy."Erigeron maniopotamicus is a perennial herb growing from a taproot and caudex unit. The stem has a coating of rough hairs; the leaves are hairy, lance-shaped, up to 10 centimeters long by 1.4 cm wide.
The stem and leaves are purple-tinged. The inflorescence is a cluster of up to 4 heads; each head has a lining of pointed phyllaries. It contains up to 33 white, pinkish, or purple ray florets each about a centimeter long, surrounding numerous yellow disc florets. Potential threats to the species include grazing of cattle and activity related to the logging industry including construction, maintenance of roads, dumping. Jepson Manual Treatment CalPhotos Photo gallery, University of California
Blue Lake, California
Blue Lake is a city in Humboldt County, United States. Blue Lake is located on the Mad River, 16 miles northeast of Eureka, at an elevation of 131 feet; the population was 1,253 at the 2010 census, up from 1,135 in 2000. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.6 square miles, over 95% of, land. Present Blue Lake comprises "old" Blue Lake and Scottsville. In 1854, Augusta Bates settled in the Scottsville area and sold to Brice M. Stokes in 1862. In 1861, the 13-acre Blue Lake was formed from flooding of the north fork of Mad River, it gave the town a resort atmosphere; as the river changed course in the 1920s, the lake disappeared to become what today is a small pond on private property. In 1866, William Scott purchased land from Brice M. Stokes and established "Scott's Farm," becoming Scottsville. Powersville was established in 1869 by David Powers on land claimed by Augusta Bates, Brice M. Stokes and William Scott. In 1876 a post office opened, named "Mad River."
The post office named Blue Lake was established in 1878. The town of Blue Lake was incorporated on April 11, 1910; the lumber industry shipped wood down the Mad River Railroad. During the 1950s, timber shipped from Blue Lake included from Levitt Brothers own lumberyard and nail factory from which lumber and nails were sent to the four Levittown developments in the eastern U. S; the 2010 United States Census reported that Blue Lake had a population of 1,253. The population density was 2,015.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Blue Lake was 1,094 White, 5 African American, 55 Native American, 13 Asian, 4 Pacific Islander, 24 from other races, 58 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 82 persons; the Census reported that 1,253 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 542 households, out of which 152 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 215 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 63 had a female householder with no husband present, 32 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 45 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 12 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 161 households were made up of individuals and 45 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31. There were 310 families; the population was spread out with 248 people under the age of 18, 102 people aged 18 to 24, 361 people aged 25 to 44, 415 people aged 45 to 64, 127 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males. There were 572 housing units at an average density of 920.1 per square mile, of which 542 were occupied, of which 301 were owner-occupied, 241 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 712 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 541 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,135 people, 504 households, 297 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,884.2 people per square mile.
There were 556 housing units at an average density of 923.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.72% White, 0.53% Black or African American, 5.37% Native American, 1.32% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.15% from other races, 2.82% from two or more races. 2.47% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 504 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.9% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.84. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 27.7% from 45 to 64, 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,500, the median income for a family was $37,500. Males had a median income of $35,924 versus $25,563 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,603. About 6.3% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.0% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over. In the state legislature, Blue Lake is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood. Federally, Blue Lake is in California's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman. Carlo Mazzone-Clementi, founder of Dell'Arte International School of Physical Theatre Garth Iorg, American baseball player Dane Iorg, American baseball player Robert F. Benson, renowned artist and College of the Redwoods Art Instructor. Official website
Bald Hills War
Bald Hills War was a war fought by the forces of the California Militia, California Volunteers and soldiers of the U. S. Army against the Chilula, Hupa, Nongatl, Tsnungwe, Wailaki and Wiyot Native American peoples; the war was fought within the boundaries of the counties of Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte in Northern California. During the American Civil War, Army reorganization created the Department of the Pacific on 15 January 1861, on 12 December 1861, the Humboldt Military District, formed to organize the effort to pacify the hostile Indians and protect the peaceful ones from the encroachment of the American settlers; the district was headquartered at Fort Humboldt, now a California State Historic Park located within the City of Eureka, California. The District's efforts were directed at waging the ongoing Bald Hills War against the Indians in those counties. There were several causes of the Bald Hills War; the most important was the disruptive effect of commercial hunting and grazing on food plants by the herds of the settlers cattle and pigs.
Hundreds of deer and elk were killed by parties of hunters for their hides, used for gloves in the gold mines. Acorns and other plant foods they depended on were destroyed by pigs or cattle; the hunting and gathering economy of the Bald Hills tribes that had satisfied their wants was disrupted following the Klamath and Salmon River War in 1855. Increasing numbers of settlers and others traveling through their territory increased this disruption. From 1856 onward thousands of acres of native lands were preempted for the growing of wheat, oats and potatoes and for grazing of cattle or pigs; these lands were chiefly in the valleys of Eel River, Mad River and Bear River, around Humboldt Bay. Ranches and farms appeared in the midst of wilderness where only two or three years before there had been no sign of a white man's presence; the lumber industry was operating nine steam saw mills, with a combined capacity of 24,000,000 board feet per annum, by 1856. The farmers and stockmen of Humboldt County found an outlet for their crops and realized a high price for all their produce selling them to the miners in Klamath and Trinity Counties.
These goods were packed by mule and the stock driven in herds over the Bald Hills trails to the mines. For the Whilkut the surge in settlement by cattle and hog raising settlers into their lands in the Bald Hills, the loss of the game and other plant foods they depended on, caused a feeling of hatred against them and a desire to drive them from the country. Following the bad winter of 1857, the settlers' interference with the tribes' food supply had become a crisis by 1858. Following a series of small incidents between February and June 1858, hostilities were touched off by the killing of a packer, William E. Ross, June 23, 1858; the war began with conflicts between Whilkut native people, local settlers and travelers on the pack mule trails between Humboldt County and Trinity County in Klamath County on upper Redwood Creek and the Bald Hills. On July 1, 1858, three parties of volunteers were organized for a campaign against the Indians on Redwood Creek and Upper Mad River, in the vicinity of Pardee's Ranch.
Following the failure of these local militia parties, in late August 1858, citizens of the Bay towns of Union and Eureka agitated for the regular formation of Volunteer Companies, raising money to defray their expenses. Public meetings of the citizens of Union and Eureka were held for the purpose of considering and adopting some method of protection to life and property during the continuance of the war with the Whilkut. On September 5, 1858, Governor John B. Weller informed Adjutant-General William C. Kibbe that citizens of Trinity and Humboldt counties had reported to him that a band of Indians of the Redwood Tribe had killed several persons, committed many outrages upon the road from Weaverville to Humboldt Bay. Communication between these places was suspended because traveling on that route had become exceedingly dangerous, they were asking the Governor for a military force to open the route, give protection and security to those who desired to travel over it. The Governor requested Adjutant General Kibbe to proceed to Weaverville and make a detailed report of conditions in that region, to ascertain the number of Indians in the vicinity, the character of the outrages that were committed by the hostiles.
If hostilities still prevented travel on the road, Whilkut still maintained a hostile attitude toward the people, the General was to organize a company of volunteer militia to suppress them if such acts were continued, as communication between these important towns must remain open, protection must be given the citizens at all hazards. William C. Kibbe, appointed Isaac G. Messec as Captain of the newly organized California Militia company, the Trinity Rangers. Messec led that unit in the Klamath & Humboldt Expedition against the Whilkut people during the fall and winter of 1858-1859. Following indecisive fighting, severe winter weather forced an end to the so-called Wintoon War, the starving Whilkut were forced to capitulate and were removed to the Mendocino Indian Reservation under the eye of Fort Bragg. Despite the end of the Wintoon War, the causes of conflict spread the warfare to the Chilula, southward to the Eel River Athapaskan peoples and the Mattole in the Mattole River Valley and Bear River Valley.
Additionally the Whilkut returned from the south to their lands. The U. S. Army established Fort Gaston among the Hupa people on the Trinity River and posts in the Eel River valley to keep the peace in the area. Feder