Chelan County, Washington
Chelan County is a county in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, its population was 72,453; the county seat and largest city is Wenatchee. The county was created out of Okanogan and Kittitas Counties on March 13, 1899, it derives its name from a Chelan Indian word meaning "deep water," a reference to 55-mile -long Lake Chelan, which reaches a maximum depth of 1,486 feet. Chelan County is part of the Wenatchee, Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,994 square miles, of which 2,921 square miles is land and 73 square miles is water, it is the third-largest county in Washington by area. Bonanza Peak, highest point in Chelan County Cascade Mountains Chelan Mountains Chelan River Chiwaukum Mountains Columbia River Entiat Mountains Entiat River Lake Chelan Lake Wenatchee Stuart Range The Enchantments Wenatchee Mountains Wenatchee River Columbia River Basalt U. S. Route 2 U. S. Route 97 Okanogan County - northeast Douglas County - east Kittitas County - south King County - southwest Snohomish County - west Skagit County - northwest Lake Chelan National Recreation Area North Cascades National Park Wenatchee National Forest Alpine Lakes Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 66,616 people, 25,021 households, 17,364 families residing in the county.
The population density was 23 people per square mile. There were 30,407 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 83.63% White, 0.26% Black or African American, 0.99% Native American, 0.68% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 12.19% from other races, 2.14% from two or more races. 19.26% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.9 % were of American and 7.1 % Irish ancestry. 80.9% spoke English and 18.1% Spanish as their first language. There were 25,021 households out of which 34.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.40% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.60% were non-families. 25.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.00% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 27.20% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,316, the median income for a family was $46,293. Males had a median income of $35,065 versus $25,838 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,273. About 8.80% of families and 12.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.00% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 72,453 people, 27,827 households, 18,795 families residing in the county; the population density was 24.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 35,465 housing units at an average density of 12.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 79.3% white, 1.0% American Indian, 0.8% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 15.7% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 25.8% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 17.6% were German, 15.0% were American, 11.3% were English, 8.3% were Irish. Of the 27,827 households, 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families, 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age was 39.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,674 and the median income for a family was $57,856. Males had a median income of $41,076 versus $34,261 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,378. About 8.2% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.8% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over. Cashmere Chelan Entiat Leavenworth Wenatchee Chelan Falls Manson South Wenatchee Sunnyslope Blewett Chelan County Public Utility District Indian Pass, Washington Lake Chelan AVA National Register of Historic Places listings in Chelan County, Washington USS Chelan County Wenatchee Valley College Wenatchee School District An illustrated history of Stevens, Ferry and Chelan counties, State of Washington.
Western Historical Pub. Co. 1904. Available online through the Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection Chelan County Chelan County Emergency Management Port of Chelan County Port of Chelan County´s clean technology cluster
In the United States, a river mile is a measure of distance in miles along a river from its mouth. River mile numbers increase further upstream; the corresponding metric unit using kilometers is the river kilometer. They are analogous to vehicle roadway mile markers, except that river miles are marked on the physical river. Riverfront properties are sometimes legally described by their river mile; the river mile is not the same as the length of the river, rather it is a means of locating any feature along the river relative to its distance from the mouth, when measured along the course of the river. River mile zero may not be at the mouth. For example, the Willamette River has its river mile zero at the edge of the navigable channel in the Columbia, some 900 feet beyond the mouth; the river mile zero for the Lower Mississippi River is located at Head of Passes, where the main stem of the Mississippi splits into three major branches before flowing into the Gulf of Mexico. Mileages are indicated as AHP or BHP.
River miles are used in a variety of ways. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in its 2001 Pennsylvania Gazetteer of Streams, lists every named stream and every unnamed stream in a named geographic feature in the state, gives the drainage basin area, mouth coordinates, river mile the distance from the mouth of the tributary to the mouth of its parent stream; some islands are named for their river mile distance, for example the Allegheny River in Pennsylvania has Six Mile Island, Nine Mile Island, Twelve Mile Island, Fourteen Mile Island.. The state of Ohio uses the "River Mile System of Ohio", "a method to reference locations on streams and rivers of Ohio"; this work began by hand measurements on paper maps between 1972 and 1975 and has since been converted to a computer-based electronic version, which now covers the state in 787 river mile maps. Locations of facilities such as wastewater treatment plants and water quality measurement sites are referenced via river miles. Ohio uses one of two systems.
The simplest is just the location in river miles. In cases where there is ambiguity, for example when more than one stream has the same name, it uses a series of river mile strings referring to the distance to the ocean along either the Ohio River or through Lake Erie; the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers uses river miles for its navigation maps. Waterway Mile Marker Database Delaware River Mileage System
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
The Entiat River is a tributary of the Columbia River, joining the Columbia near Entiat. The United States Geological Survey lists two variant names for the Entiat River: En-ti-at-kwa River and Entiatqua River; the river's name is derived from the Columbia-Moses term /nt'yátkw/, meaning "place of grassy water". The name, spelled "Entiat", was selected for the river in 1958 by the Chelan County Public Utility District; the Entiat River is located within Chelan County, in Washington state in the United States. Over 90% of the drainage basin of the Entiat River and its tributaries is publicly owned property the Wenatchee National Forest. A large number of place names in the Entiat River basin were given by Albert H. Sylvester; the Entiat River's headwaters lie in the Glacier Peak Wilderness of the Wenatchee National Forest. Its main source comes from the slopes of Mount Maude and Seven Fingered Jack, Entiat Glacier. From there the river flows east through Entiat Meadows before turning south, it flows south and southeast between the Entiat Mountains on the west and the Chelan Mountains on the east.
Downstream from the main river's confluence with the North Fork Entiat River, the Entiat River falls over Entiat Falls. It collects the waters including the Mad River. In its final miles, the Entiat River turns east to join the Columbia River at Columbia river mile 483.7, just south of the small city of Entiat. At this point the Columbia River is a reservoir created by Rocky Reach Dam; the reservoir's name is Lake Entiat. Fern Lake is located at the headwaters of the North Fork Entiat. Entiat Glacier, located in a cirque on the eastern side of Mount Maude and Seven Fingered Jack, is the headwaters of the Entiat River; the Entiat River supports populations of Chinook salmon, steelhead trout, bull trout. The populations are small due to the scarcity of juvenile-rearing habitat in the lower Entiat River. List of rivers of Washington List of tributaries of the Columbia River "Washington Road & Recreation Atlas". Benchmark Maps, 2000. Entiat River Basin, Washington Department of Ecology
The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of Canada, it flows northwest and south into the US state of Washington turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state of Oregon before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river is 1,243 miles long, its largest tributary is the Snake River, its drainage basin is the size of France and extends into seven US states and a Canadian province. The fourth-largest river in the United States by volume, the Columbia has the greatest flow of any North American river entering the Pacific; the Columbia and its tributaries have been central to the region's culture and economy for thousands of years. They have been used for transportation since ancient times, linking the region's many cultural groups; the river system hosts many species of anadromous fish, which migrate between freshwater habitats and the saline waters of the Pacific Ocean. These fish—especially the salmon species—provided the core subsistence for native peoples.
In the late 18th century, a private American ship became the first non-indigenous vessel to enter the river. In the following decades, fur trading companies used the Columbia as a key transportation route. Overland explorers entered the Willamette Valley through the scenic but treacherous Columbia River Gorge, pioneers began to settle the valley in increasing numbers. Steamships along the river linked facilitated trade. Since the late 19th century and private sectors have developed the river. To aid ship and barge navigation, locks have been built along the lower Columbia and its tributaries, dredging has opened and enlarged shipping channels. Since the early 20th century, dams have been built across the river for power generation, navigation and flood control; the 14 hydroelectric dams on the Columbia's main stem and many more on its tributaries produce more than 44 percent of total US hydroelectric generation. Production of nuclear power has taken place at two sites along the river. Plutonium for nuclear weapons was produced for decades at the Hanford Site, now the most contaminated nuclear site in the US.
These developments have altered river environments in the watershed through industrial pollution and barriers to fish migration. The Columbia begins its 1,243-mile journey in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench in British Columbia. Columbia Lake – 2,690 feet above sea level – and the adjoining Columbia Wetlands form the river's headwaters; the trench is a broad and long glacial valley between the Canadian Rockies and the Columbia Mountains in BC. For its first 200 miles, the Columbia flows northwest along the trench through Windermere Lake and the town of Invermere, a region known in British Columbia as the Columbia Valley northwest to Golden and into Kinbasket Lake. Rounding the northern end of the Selkirk Mountains, the river turns south through a region known as the Big Bend Country, passing through Revelstoke Lake and the Arrow Lakes. Revelstoke, the Big Bend, the Columbia Valley combined are referred to in BC parlance as the Columbia Country. Below the Arrow Lakes, the Columbia passes the cities of Castlegar, located at the Columbia's confluence with the Kootenay River, Trail, two major population centers of the West Kootenay region.
The Pend Oreille River joins the Columbia about 2 miles north of the US–Canada border. The Columbia enters eastern Washington flowing south and turning to the west at the Spokane River confluence, it marks the southern and eastern borders of the Colville Indian Reservation and the western border of the Spokane Indian Reservation. The river turns south after the Okanogan River confluence southeasterly near the confluence with the Wenatchee River in central Washington; this C‑shaped segment of the river is known as the "Big Bend". During the Missoula Floods 10,000 to 15,000 years ago, much of the floodwater took a more direct route south, forming the ancient river bed known as the Grand Coulee. After the floods, the river found its present course, the Grand Coulee was left dry; the construction of the Grand Coulee Dam in the mid-20th century impounded the river, forming Lake Roosevelt, from which water was pumped into the dry coulee, forming the reservoir of Banks Lake. The river flows past The Gorge Amphitheatre, a prominent concert venue in the Northwest through Priest Rapids Dam, through the Hanford Nuclear Reservation.
Within the reservation is Hanford Reach, the only US stretch of the river, free-flowing, unimpeded by dams and not a tidal estuary. The Snake River and Yakima River join the Columbia in the Tri‑Cities population center; the Columbia makes a sharp bend to the west at the Washington–Oregon border. The river defines that border for the final 309 miles of its journey; the Deschutes River joins the Columbia near The Dalles. Between The Dalles and Portland, the river cuts through the Cascade Range, forming the dramatic Columbia River Gorge. No other rivers except for the Klamath and Pit River breaches the Cascades—the other rivers that flow through the range originate in or near the mountains; the headwaters and upper course of the Pit River are on the Modoc Plateau. In contrast, the Columbia cuts through the range nearly a thousand miles from its source in the Rocky Mountains; the gorge is known