Kettering is a city in Montgomery and Greene counties in the U. S. state of Ohio entirely in Montgomery County. It is a suburb of Dayton; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 56,163, making it the largest suburb in the Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area. The area where the city of Kettering now lies was settled from the late 1700s to the mid-1800s as farmland; the population in the area started to grow, prompting the creation of Van Buren Township in 1841. In November 1952, township voters approved incorporating as the Village of Kettering.. By 1955, the village's population had grown to 38,118, which qualified it to claim city status, with the official proclamation by the state on June 24; the city is named for inventor Charles F. Kettering, who resided here in his home, Ridgeleigh Terrace, from 1914 until his death in 1958. Charles Kettering is known for his numerous contributions to the Dayton area. From the 1950s to the 1970s, Kettering's population continued to grow, adding more than 30,000 residents.
This growth was due in part to the many people who started migrating out of nearby Dayton after World War II. Since the 1980s, Kettering has seen a slow decline in population because of an aging population and loss of manufacturing jobs. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.72 square miles, of which 18.68 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. The city is bordered by Dayton and Oakwood to the north; as of the census of 2010, there were 56,163 people, 25,427 households, 14,979 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,006.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 27,602 housing units at an average density of 1,477.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.6% White, 3.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.1% of the population. There were 25,427 households of which 26.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.1% were non-families.
34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 40.9 years. 21% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.7% male and 52.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 57,502 people, 25,657 households, 15,727 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,077.4 people per square mile. There were 26,936 housing units at an average density of 1,441.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.23% White, 1.66% African American, 0.18% Native American, 1.38% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.11% of the population. There were 25,657 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 9.5% have a single female householder, 38.7% were non-families.
33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.85. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, 18.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $45,051, the median income for a family was $55,849. Males had a median income of $41,558 versus $28,921 for females; the per capita income for the city was $27,009. About 3.2% of families and 4.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over. The city utilizes a council-manager form of government. Seven council representatives are elected for four-year terms on a non-partisan basis.
They include the mayor, two at large members, one member from each of the four wards. The current Mayor is Don Patterson. Amy Schrimpf and William J Lautar are the current at-large council members; the current ward council members are: Rob Scott, Ward 1. The mayor and the at-large members' terms expire in 2017, the ward members' terms expire in 2015; the current City Manager is Mark Schwieterman. The Kettering Fire Department is responsible for fire protection in the city; the department has a total of six operational stations and is staffed by 54 career and 50 volunteer firefighters. The fire department is undergoing a transformation to reduce the number of stations to five. One station is being built on Far Hills Avenue, one will be located on the corner of East David Road and Hempstead Station Drive; the three others are in the planning stage. Police protection is provided by the Kettering Police Department; the police department is the only
Montgomery County, Ohio
Montgomery County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 535,153; the county seat is Dayton. The county was named in honor of Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed in 1775 while attempting to capture Quebec City, Canada. Montgomery County is part of the Ohio Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 464 square miles, of which 462 square miles is land and 2.8 square miles is water. Miami County Clark County Greene County Warren County Butler County Preble County Darke County Dayton Aviation Heritage National Historical Park As of the census of 2000, there were 559,062 people, 229,229 households, 146,935 families residing in the county; the population density was 1,211 people per square mile. There were 248,443 housing units at an average density of 538 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.57% White, 19.86% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 1.31% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.49% from other races, 1.51% from two or more races.
1.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 229,229 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.30% were married couples living together, 13.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.90% were non-families. 30.40% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37, the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,156, the median income for a family was $50,071. Males had a median income of $38,710 versus $27,297 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,743.
About 8.30% of families and 11.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.60% of those under age 18 and 8.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 Census, there were 535,153 people, 223,943 households, 138,060 families residing in the county; the population density was 1,159.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 254,775 housing units at an average density of 552.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.9% white, 20.9% black or African American, 1.7% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 24.9% were German, 12.8% were Irish, 9.7% were American, 8.8% were English. Of the 223,943 households, 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.4% were non-families, 32.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.33, the average family size was 2.94.
The median age was 39.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $43,965, the median income for a family was $56,559. Males had a median income of $45,680 versus $34,991 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,828. About 11.7% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.7% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over. Board of Commissioners: Dan Foley Debbie Lieberman County Auditor: Karl L. Keith Clerk of Courts: Russ M. Joseph County Coroner: Dr. Kent Harshbarger County Engineer: Paul Gruner County Prosecutor: Mathias H. Heck Jr. County Recorder: Brandon McClain Sheriff: Rob Streck County Treasurer: Carolyn Rice See also: Election Results, Montgomery County, Ohio In the six presidential elections until 2016, Montgomery County has favored the Democratic candidate, but not by large margins. However, in 2016, Republican Donald Trump defeated Democrat Hillary Clinton. It's the most populated county in Ohio to go for Trump in 2016.
Air Force Institute of Technology. Sinclair Community College Wright State University. University of Dayton Kettering College of Medical Arts The following public school districts are located or in Montgomery County: Local School Districts Brookville Local Schools Brookville High School, Brookville The Dayton Regional STEM School New Lebanon Local Schools Dixie High School, Dixie Jefferson Township Local Schools Jefferson Township High School, Dayton Northridge Local School District Northridge High School Mad River Local Schools Walter E. Stebbins High School, Riverside Valley View Local Schools Valley View High School, Germantown City School Districts Centerville City Schools Centerville High School, Centerville Dayton Public Schools Belmont High School for Computer Technology/Engineering, Dayton Thurgood Marshall High School for the Arts, Dayton Dayton Early College Academy, Dayton Dunbar High School for Professional Studies, Dayton Meadowdale High School for Cultural Studies/International Baccalaureate, Dayton Stivers School for the Arts, Dayton Huber Heights City Schools Wayne High School, Huber Heights (the W
Centerville is a city in Montgomery and Greene counties in the U. S. state of Ohio. A part of the Dayton metropolitan area, its population was 23,999 as of the 2010 census. Centerville is located at 39°38′19″N 84°8′53″W. Although the city is located in Montgomery County, a small portion is located in Greene County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.85 square miles, of which 10.78 square miles is land and 0.07 square miles is water. Centerville and Washington Township voted November 2008 on whether to create a merger commission; the proposed merger commission failed in the township. As of the census of 2010, there were 23,999 people, 10,693 households, 6,694 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,226.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,421 housing units at an average density of 1,059.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.2% White, 4.0% African American, 0.2% Native American, 3.2% Asian, 0.4% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 10,693 households of which 25.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.4% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.78. The median age in the city was 46.9 years. 20.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.2% male and 53.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 23,024 people, 9,996 households, 6,597 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,257.2 people per square mile. There were 10,422 housing units at an average density of 1,021.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.33% White, 2.94% African American, 0.13% Native American, 3.17% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 1.10% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.18% of the population. There were 9,996 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.0% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.82. In the city the population was spread out with 21.6% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $54,892, the median income for a family was $68,580. Males had a median income of $52,331 versus $34,881 for females; the per capita income for the city was $30,210. About 3.4% of families and 4.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.4% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over.
Centerville has the largest collection of early stone houses in the state of Ohio. Many are listed in the National Register of Historic Places; the Town Hall Theatre is located in the "Heart of Centerville" and has been serving the community for over 70 years. The Heart of Centerville features a selection of boutiques and businesses in a historic setting which includes Ohio's largest collection of early stone buildings. Bill's Donut Shop is a popular donut shop located at 268 N Main street, it has is open 24 hours a day, seven days a week. It was ranked second on BusinessInsider.com “The 15 Best Donut Shops in America” and Saveur magazine's March 2013 story “The World’s Best Donuts: The 50 Finest Donut Shops in America.” Centerville Public Schools are part of the Centerville City School District. The district has a preschool, located in each of the two elementary schools teaching kindergarten to first grade; the district has six elementary schools teaching second through fifth grade, three middle schools teaching sixth through eight grade, as well as one high school and an alternative high school.
Students attend Centerville High School. There is one Catholic K-8 School, a Seventh-day Adventist Pre-12 Preparatory School serving the city. Several of the public and private schools have achieved blue ribbon status. Nationally ranked Washington-Centerville Public Library offers residents access to more than 380,000 books, Video Games, music as well as educational programs, community services, research assistance for youth and adults. Michael Bennett, NFL defensive tackle for the Atlanta Falcons Erma Bombeck Stevie Brock, singer Will Johnson, NFL Fullback Phil Donahue, talk show host Claire Falknor, professional soccer player for the Houston Dash Eric Fanning, was appointed 22nd Secretary of the Army by President Obama on May 18, 2016 Andy Harmon, former Philadelphia Eagles player A. J. Hawk, a former NFL linebacker for the Green Bay Packers, Atlanta Falcons, Cincinnati Bengals who announced his retirement on January 7, 2017 Kirk Herbstreit, played quarterback at Ohio State before becoming a sports analyst on the ESPN program College Gameday Ben Judd, video game agent and producer Pat Kilbane, comic actor, singer Holley Mangold, Olympic weightlifte
Mad River (Ohio)
The Mad River is a stream located in the west central part of the U. S. state of Ohio. It flows 66 miles from Logan County to downtown Dayton; the stream flows southwest from its source near Campbell Hill through West Liberty, along U. S. Route 68 west of Urbana, past Springfield along Ohio State Route 4 into Dayton; the stream's confluence with the Great Miami River is in Deeds Park. The Mad River was one of the Great Miami River tributaries that flooded during the Great Dayton Flood of 1913, resulting in the creation of the Miami Conservancy District; the river derives its name from its mad and rapid current. The stream has been known by the names Mad Creek and Tiber River as well as by the Croatian name Fiume Mad; the first road between Cincinnati and Dayton that opened up the "Mad River Country" to European settlement was the Mad River Road, cut in 1797. Today, a ski resort named. Mad River is the largest coldwater fishery in Ohio; the Ohio Department of Natural Resources's Division of Wildlife periodically stocked Mad River with rainbow trout from 1931 until 1984, when the organization began stocking the stream with brown trout instead.
The trout population suffers low reproduction rates due to sedimentation from channelization, extensive agricultural runoff, diminishing habitat. Origin of the name is associated to Irish immigration, from The Mad River in County Sligo, flowing from the Ox Mountains to join the Moy just beside the Village of Cloonacool, with an estuary in Atlantic in the other side of the Ox Mountains close to the coastal town of Enniscrone. List of rivers of Ohio Fishing in Ohio Water pollution
Cincinnati is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, is the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky; the city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census making it Ohio's largest metropolitan area. With a population of 296,943, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States, its metropolitan area is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output and it is the 28th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. Cincinnati is within a day's drive of 49.70% of the United States populace. In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the middle of the country. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U. S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860.
As Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is regarded as the first purely "American" city. Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than East Coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably; the city was surpassed in population by other inland cities Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation and the railroads, St. Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball; the city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States.
Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was referred to as the "Paris of America", due to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, Shillito Department Store. Cincinnati is the birthplace of the 27th President of the United States. Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, Israel Ludlow landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there; the original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville". In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member; the introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, the city established commercial ties with St. Louis and New Orleans downriver.
Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions; the city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by the year 1850. Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River; the first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City. After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati.
In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie. Cincinnati acted as a "border town" during the slave-owning period between 1810 and 1863, its location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south. Many prominent abolitionists called Cincinnati their home during this period, made it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. In 2004, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center was completed along Freedom Way in Downtown, honoring the city's past involvement in the Underground Railroad. In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines. By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities; the Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people t
Hamilton County, Ohio
Hamilton County is a county in the southwest corner of the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 802,374. Making it the third-most populous county in Ohio; the county seat is Cincinnati. The county is named for the first Secretary of Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton County is part of OH-KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the southern portion of Hamilton County was owned and surveyed by John Cleves Symmes, the region was a part of the Symmes Purchase. The first settlers rafted down the Ohio River in 1788 following the American Revolutionary War, they established the towns of Losantiville, North Bend, Columbia. Hamilton County was organized in 1790 by order of Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory, as the second county in the Northwest Territory. Cincinnati was named as the seat. Residents named the county in honor of Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury of the United States and a founder of the Federalist Party, its original boundaries were those defined for the Symmes purchase contract in 1788: the Ohio River in the South, Great Miami River to the west, the Lesser Miami River to the east, the Cayuhoga River to the North.
Its area included about one-eighth of Ohio, had about 2,000 inhabitants. The county was expanded in 1792 to include what is today the lower peninsula of Michigan. Since 1796, other counties were created from Hamilton; the county was the location of much of the Northwest Indian War both before and after its organization. The United States persuaded most of the Shawnee and other Indian peoples to move to locations west of the Mississippi River in the 1820s. Rapid growth occurred during the 1830s and 1840s as the area attracted many German and Irish immigrants after the Great Famine in Ireland and the revolutions in Germany in 1848. During the Civil War, Morgan's Raid passed through the northern part of the county during the summer of 1863. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 413 square miles, of which 406 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water. The county lies in a region of gentle hills formed by the slopes of the Ohio River valley and its tributaries.
The Great Miami River, the Little Miami River, the Mill Creek contribute to this system of hillsides and valleys. No occurring lakes exist, but three major manmade lakes are part of the Great Parks of Hamilton County; the largest lake by far is Winton Woods Lake, covering 188 surface acres, followed by Miami Whitewater Lake, covering 85 surface acres, Sharon Lake, covering 36 surface acres. The county boundaries include the lowest point in Ohio, in Miami Township, where the Ohio River flows out of Ohio and into Indiana; this is the upper pool elevation behind the Markland Dam, 455 feet above sea level. The highest land elevation in Hamilton County is the Rumpke Sanitary Landfill at 1,045 feet above sea level in Colerain Township. Butler County – north Warren County – northeast Clermont County – east Boone County, Kentucky – southwest Kenton County, Kentucky – south Campbell County, Kentucky – southeast Dearborn County, Indiana – west As of the 2000 census, there were 845,303 people, 346,790 households, 212,582 families residing in the county.
The population density was 2,075 people per square mile. There were 373,393 housing units at an average density of 917 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 69.2% White, 26.0% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 2.3% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. 2.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 346,790 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.40% were married couples living together, 14.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.70% were non-families. 32.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 29.70% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 13.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females there were 91.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $40,964, the median income for a family was $53,449. Males had a median income of $39,842 versus $28,550 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,053. About 8.80% of families and 11.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.20% of those under age 18 and 8.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 802,374 people, 333,945 households, 197,571 families residing in the county; the population density was 1,976.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 377,364 housing units at an average density of 929.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 68.8% white, 25.7% black or African American, 2.0% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.1% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.6% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 31.0% were German, 14.7% were Irish, 7.7% were English, 6.6% were American. Of the 333,945 households, 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.4% were married couples living together, 15.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 40
Hamilton is a city in and the county seat of Butler County, United States, in the state's southwestern corner, located 20 miles north of Cincinnati. The population was 62,447 at the 2010 census; the city is part of the Cincinnati metropolitan area. Hamilton has three designated National Historic Districts: Dayton Lane, German Village, Rossville; the city has a council-manager form of government. Its mayor is Patrick Moeller and the city manager is Joshua Smith. Most of the city is in the Hamilton City School District; the industrial city is seeking to revitalize through the arts. Its initiative has attracted many sculpture installations to the city, which founded the Pyramid Hill Sculpture Park. Hamilton, started as Fort Hamilton, constructed in Sept.-Oct. 1791 by General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory; the fort was the first of several built north from Fort Washington into Indian territory. The fort was built to serve as a supply station for the troops of general Arthur St. Clair during his campaign in the Northwest Indian War.
It was used by General "Mad" Anthony Wayne. The fort was located 28 miles upstream from the mouth of the Great Miami River where the river is shallow during normal flow and forded by men and wagons on its gravelly bottom. In 1792 the fort was enlarged with a stable area by General Wayne; the fort was abandoned in 1796 after the signing of the Treaty of Greenville. A settlement grew up around the fort and was platted as Fairfield in 1794. By 1800, Hamilton was becoming an regional trading town; the town was platted, government was seated, the town named by 1803. Hamilton was first incorporated by act of the Ohio General Assembly in 1810, but lost its status in 1815 for failure to hold elections, it was reincorporated in 1827 with Rossville, the community across the Great Miami River in St. Clair Township; the two places severed their connection in 1831 only to be rejoined in 1854. Designated the county seat, this became a city in 1857. On 14 March 1867, Hamilton withdrew from the townships of Fairfield and St. Clair to form a "paper township", but the city government is dominant.
On the afternoon of 17 September 1859, Abraham Lincoln arrived at the Hamilton Station. He gave a campaign speech in support of his fellow Republican, William Dennison, running for Ohio governor. Lincoln's speech concentrated on popular sovereignty, he began: "This beautiful and far-famed Miami Valley is the garden spot of the world." It was during this campaign that the unknown Lincoln was first mentioned as a possible presidential contender. By the mid-19th century, Hamilton had developed as a significant manufacturing city, its early products were machines and equipment used to process the region’s farm produce, such as steam engines, hay cutters and threshers. Other production included machine tools, house hardware, saws for mills, paper making machinery, guns, beer, woolen goods, myriad and diverse output made from metal and cloth. By the early 20th century, the town was a heavy-manufacturing center for vaults and safes, machine tools, cans for vegetables, paper making machinery, locomotives and switches for railroads, steam engines, diesel engines, foundry products, printing presses, automobile parts.
During the two world wars, its factories manufactured war materiel, Liberty ship engines, gun lathes. Manufacturers used coke to feed furnaces, its by-product, fueled street lights. The Great Miami River valley, in which Hamilton was located, had become an industrial giant; the county courthouse, constructed between 1885 and 1889, has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places because of its monumental architecture. The city has three historic districts: German Village and Rossville. Like Cincinnati, Hamilton attracted many German and Italian immigrants from the mid-19th century on, whose influence was expressed in culture and architecture. Hamilton had a Jewish community, it had been founded by German Jews in the 1880s, when nearby Cincinnati was a center of Reform Judaism in the United States. At the time around 250 Jewish families lived in Hamilton. In the 1920s, many Chicago gangsters established second homes in Hamilton; this gave Hamilton the nickname "Little Chicago". Some of these men appeared to have invested in what became an active district of gambling and prostitution.
During World War II, the military declared the entire city off-limits to its enlisted personnel because of its numerous gambling and prostitution establishments. Madame Freeze's and the long row of prostitution houses along Wood Street were notorious among soldiers. Factories in Hamilton converted their operations to support the war effort, manufacturing military supplies, such as tank turrets, Liberty ship and submarine engines, machined and stamped metal parts. With the 1950s came the construction of the new interstate highway I-75, part of a nationwide system and one which bypassed the city. A decision made to reduce traffic through the city resulted in cutting it off from the newest transportation network, businesses were drawn to areas outside with access to the highway; until 1999, when the Butler County Veterans Highway was built, Hamilton was the second-largest city in the United States without direct interstate access. On 30 March 1975, Easter Sunday, James Ruppert murdered 11 family members in his mother's hous