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Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad

The Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad was the second railroad to be built and operated in the U. S. state of Ohio. It was the first railroad company chartered west of the Allegheny Mountains; the railroad first broke ground in Sandusky, for construction on September 17, 1835 at the site, Battery Park Marina. On December 2, 1837, the MR&LE took delivery of its first steam locomotive, built by Rogers and Grosvenor of Paterson, New Jersey. Sandusky was the first locomotive built by Rogers and the first to include features such as cast iron driving wheels and counterweights; the locomotive's transportation from New Jersey was overseen by Thomas Hogg, the railroad's chief mechanical engineer. The MR&LE used a rail gauge of 4 ft 10 in, a gauge that soon became known as "Ohio gauge". Construction continued on the MR&LE, reaching Tiffin by 1841 and Kenton in 1846; the railroad was completed to Springfield in 1849. Over the next several decades, the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad changed ownership at least four times.

In 1892, it came under the control of the Big Four Railroad, which itself became part of the New York Central Railroad. Most of the original MR&LE lines were abandoned by Penn Central at the advent of Conrail in 1976, if not earlier. However, a portion between Bellefontaine and Springfield continues in operation by RailAmerica's Indiana and Ohio Central Railroad. Although most of the MR&LE lines that once ran through downtown Sandusky have been removed, tracks serving the Norfolk Southern coal docks located west of downtown still use a small portion of the original MR&LE right-of-way. Mad River and NKP Railroad Society. "The Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad". Retrieved 2008-03-17; the abandoned Mad River and Lake Erie The Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad

Rajah Matanda

Rajah Ache, better known by his title Rajah Matanda, was one of the rulers of Maynila, a pre-colonial Indianized Tagalog polity along the Pasig River in what is now Manila, Philippines. Ache ruled Maynila, together with Rajah Sulayman, they, along with their cousin Lakan Dula, ruler of Tondo, were three "paramount rulers" with whom the Legaspi expedition dealt when they arrived in the area of the Pasig River delta in the early 1570s. "Rajah Matandâ" means "old ruler" in Tagalog, Joaquin points out that the Islamic origin of the term "Rajah" indicates that the noble houses of Maynila at the time was organized according to a Muslim social orientation if Spanish records indicate that the common folk of Maynila practiced pag-aanito, a religious practice that historians would call "Anitism". Spanish records refer to him as Rajah Ache el Viejo, he is sometimes referred to as Rajah Laya, a name derived from Ladyang Matanda – an alternative pronunciation of his title. Events in Rajah Matanda's life are documented by two different sets of firsthand Spanish accounts.

The better known set of accounts takes place in 1571–72, when the forces of Martin De Goiti, Miguel De Legazpi himself, arrived in Manila Bay. These are described in the numerous accounts of the Legazpi expedition, including those by the expedition's designated notary Hernando de Riquel, by Legazpi himself. Less known are the accounts of the Magellan Expedition in 1521, by which time Magellan had been killed and Sebastian Elcano had taken over command of the expedition; these accounts describe how Ache serving as commander of naval forces for the Sultan of Brunei, was captured by the men Sebastian Elcano. These events, the details Ache's interrogation were recorded in accounts of Magellan and Elcano's men, including expedition members Rodrigo de Aganduru Moriz, Gines de Mafra, the expedition's scribe Antonio Pigafetta. Additional details about Raja Matanda are sometimes derived from genealogical accounts which mention him, but these focus on Ache's genealogy, so do not provide details about specific events.

Among the Spanish accounts of Ache's capture, Rodrigo de Aganduru Moriz is considered to be the one which records Ache's statements most extensively. Details of Ache's early life are thus based on the Aganduru Moriz account. According to Aganduru Moriz' account, Ache's father, whose name Aganduru Moriz' did not mention, died when he was still young, his mother took his place as leader of the Maynila settlement. In the meantime, Ache was raised alongside his cousin, ruler of Tondo – presumed by some to be Bunao Lakandula. During this time, the "young prince" Ache realized that his cousin, ruler of Tondo, was "slyly" taking advantage of Ache's mother, by taking over territory belonging to Maynila; when Ache asked his mother for permission to address the matter, his mother refused, encouraging him to keep his peace instead. Ache could not accept this and thus left Maynila with some of his father's trusted men, to go to his "grandfather", the Sultan of Brunei, to ask for assistance; the Sultan responded by giving Ache a position as commander of his naval force.

Pigaffetta noted that Ache was "much feared in these parts", but the non-Muslim locals, who considered the Sultan of Brunei an enemy. Aganduru Moriz recounts that in 1521, Ache was in command of the Bruneian fleet when they chanced upon what remained of the Magellan expedition, under the command of Sebastian Elcano, somewhere off the southeastern tip of Borneo. Rizal notes that Ache had just won a naval victory at the time, Rizal and Dery both say Ache was on his way to marry a cousin – a ritual which Scott describes as the usual way that nobles at that time gained influence and power. Dery notes that Ache's decision to attack must have been influenced by a desire to bring Elcano's ship back to Manila bay, for use as leverage against his cousin, the ruler of Tondo. Elcano, was able to defeat Ache; as a result, Ache brought onboard Elcano's ship. According to Scott, Ache was released after a ransom was paid; some time between 1521 and 1570, Ache succeeded his mother and became Paramount datu over Maynila, taking on the title of Rajah.

By the time of the next historical accounts about Ache in 1570, Maynila was being ruled by his nephew, who held the title of Rajah. This situation, with Maynila seeming to have two rulers, has been interpreted by scholars in different ways. According to the interpretation of Luis Camara Dery, by the time de Goiti arrived in 1570, Rajah Matanda had ceded his authority to his nephew and heir apparent, Rajah Sulayman, although Rajah Matanda still retained considerable influence. According to the interpretation of William Henry Scott's take, Rajah Sulayman was not proclaimed Paramount ruler until Matanda's death in 1572. By the late 1560s, Miguel López de Legazpi was searching for a more suitable place to establish the Spanish colonial capital, having found first Cebu and Iloilo undesirable because insufficient food supplies and attacks by Portuguese pirates, he was in Cebu when he first heard about a well-supplied, fortified settlement to the north, sent messages of friendship to its ruler, Rajah Matanda, whom he addressed as "King of Luzon."

In 1570, Legazpi put Martín de Goiti in command of an expedition north to Manila and tasked him with negotiating the establishment of a Spanish fort there. When the forces of de Goiti arrived in 1570, they were welcomed by Rajah Matanda, but just as Matanda was receiving de Goiti on the shor

Indian basic trainer aircraft competition

The Basic trainer aircraft procurement process started during the last quarter of 2009 when Indian air force issued a Request for proposal on 16 December 2009, based on input received in response to a request for information issued earlier. Request for proposal called for 75 aircraft to be purchased "Off-the -self"; the RFP stipulated that the aircraft should have been “recently certified.” The manufacturer was to deliver the first 12 aircraft within 24 months of the contract. The remaining trainers would follow in batches. Further the aircraft must have ejection seats. A pre-bidders conference was held on February 2010. There after Seven Contenders namely South Korea. There after five aircraft participated in the Field Evaluation trials which were Hawker Beechcraft T-6C, Pilatus PC-7MkII, Korean Aerospace Industries KT-1, EADS PZL-130 OrlikTC II and GropG 120TP; the trials which started during September 2010 was planned to be held at the air force station at Tambaram, but was shifted to Jamnagar where the climatic conditions were considered similar.

The IAF had set up teams of test pilots and flight test engineers to evaluate the planes for a period of five days each till the end of October 2010. During trial flight characteristics, handling qualities, fuel consumption, duration of sorties, ease of handling and operations, available instrumentation of each contender was observed; the Field Evaluation report were completed by December 2010 and the report was submitted to the defence ministry. Three companies – the Americans and the Koreans passed trials; the Indian basic trainer competition entered its final phase. Commercial bids of the three final contenders were opened in May 2011 and the lowest bidder among the shortlisted competitors was announced in June 2011 as M/s Pilatus. After negotiations, a proposal was sent to Cabinet Committee on Security, which cleared the transaction on 10 May 2012. Although there were some protest from Korean manufacturer. $523-million, contract which included of supply 75 PC-7 Mk.2 propeller trainers and integrated ground-based training package was signed on 24 May 2012 with option of additional supply of 30 more aircraft within three years of contract signature.

Indian MRCA competition Indian microlight aircraft competition http://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/paris-air-show/2011-06-19/paris-2011-india-selects-pilatus-pc-7-urgent-trainer-requirement. Https://web.archive.org/web/20111123062251/http://www.defencenow.com/news/381/india-to-ink-swiss-basic-trainer-aircraft-deal-and-french-missile-deal-for-mirage-fighters-shortly.html http://www.thesundayindian.com/en/story/ccs-to-discuss-rs-1850-cr-trainer-aircraft-proposal/254/28608/

Life, the Universe and Everything

Life, the Universe and Everything is the third book in the five-volume Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy science fiction "trilogy" by British writer Douglas Adams. The title refers to the Answer to Life, the Universe, Everything; the story was outlined by Adams as Doctor Who and the Krikkitmen to be a Tom Baker Doctor Who television six-part story, but was rejected by the BBC. It was considered as a plotline for the second series of the Hitchhiker's TV series, never commissioned. A radio adaptation of Life, the Universe and Everything was recorded in 2003 under the guidance of Dirk Maggs, starring the surviving members of the cast of the original Hitchhiker's radio series. Adams himself, at his own suggestion, makes a cameo appearance; the radio adaptation debuted on BBC Radio 4 in September 2004. After being stranded on pre-historic Earth after the events in The Restaurant at the End of the Universe, Arthur Dent is met by his old friend Ford Prefect, who drags him into a space-time eddy, represented by an anachronistic sofa.

The two end up at Lord's Cricket Ground two days before the Earth's destruction by the Vogons. Shortly after they arrive, a squad of robots land in a spaceship in the middle of the field and attack the assembled crowd, stealing The Ashes before departing. Another spaceship arrives, the Starship Bistromath, helmed by Slartibartfast, who discovers he is too late and requests Arthur and Ford's help; as they travel to their next destination, Slartibartfast explains that he is trying to stop the robots from collecting all the components of the Wikkit Gate. Long ago, the peaceful population of the planet of Krikkit, unaware of the rest of the Universe due to a dust cloud that surrounded its solar system, were surprised to find the wreckage of a spacecraft on their planet. Reverse engineering the vessel, they explored past the dust cloud and saw the rest of the Universe taking a disliking to it and determining it must go, they built a fleet of ships and robots to attack the rest of the Universe in a brutal onslaught known as the Krikkit Wars, but were defeated.

Realizing that the Krikkit population would not be satisfied alongside the existence of the rest of the Universe, it was decided to envelop the system in a Slo-Time envelope, allowing Krikkit to survive long after the rest of the universe has ended. However, one ship carrying a troop of robots from Krikkit avoided the Slo-Time envelope, these robots began to retrieve the pieces of the Gate after they were dispersed about space and time. Slartibartfast and Ford transport to an airborne party that has lasted numerous generations where another Gate component, the Silver Bail, is to be found, but Arthur finds himself separated from the others and ends up at a Cathedral of Hate created by a being called Agrajag. Agrajag reveals that Arthur has killed him countless times before, each time reincarnating into a new form, soon killed by Arthur, now plans to kill Arthur in revenge. However, when he realizes that Arthur has yet to cause his death at a place called Stavromula Beta, Agrajag discovered he took Arthur out of his relative timeline too soon and that killing him now would cause a paradox, but attempts to kill Arthur anyway.

In his insanity, Agrajag brings the Cathedral down around them. Arthur manages to escape unharmed due to learning how to fly after falling and missing the ground while catching sight of a piece of luggage he had lost at a Greek airport years before. After collecting the suitcase, Arthur inadvertently comes across the flying party and rejoins his friends. Inside, they find Trillian. Arthur, Ford and Slartibartfast return to the Bistromath and try to head off the robots activating the Wikkit Gate. Meanwhile, the Krikkit robots steal the last piece, the Infinite Improbability Drive core from the spaceship Heart of Gold, capturing Zaphod Beeblebrox and Marvin the Paranoid Android at the same time; the Bistromath arrives too late at the gate to stop the robots, so its occupants transport to the planet to attempt to negotiate with the Krikkit people. To their surprise, they find that the people seem to lack any desire to continue the war, are directed to the robot and spaceship facilities in orbit about the planet.

With Zaphod and Marvin's help, the group is able to infiltrate the facilities. Trillian deduces that the Krikkiters have been manipulated, reasoning that the people of Krikkit could not be smart enough to develop their ultimate weapon—a bomb that could destroy every star in the universe—while being stupid enough not to realize that this weapon would destroy them; the characters discover. Built to serve a war-faring species, Hactar was tasked to build a supernova-bomb that would link the cores of every sun in the Universe together at the press of a button and cause the end of the Universe. Hactar purposely created a dud version of the weapon instead, causing his creators to pulverize him into dust, which thus became the dust cloud around Krikkit. However, Hactar was still able to function, though at a much weaker level. Trillian and Arthur speak to Hactar in a virtual space. Hactar reveals that he spent eons creating the spaceship that crashed on Krikkit to inspi

Archduke Heinrich Anton of Austria

Archduke Heinrich Anton of Austria, was an Archduke of Austria and Lieutenant field marshal. Ernst was the fifth son of the viceroy Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria and Princess Elisabeth of Savoy. In 1852 was made a Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria. Heinrich Anton had a military career and became Feldmarschallleutnant and commander of a division in Graz and Brünn, he distinguished himself during the Battle of Custoza. Heinrich Anton married morganically on February 4 1868 in Bolzano with singer Leopoldine Hofmann, who became Freifrau von Waideck in 1878, they had 1 daughter Maria Rainiera, Countesse von Waideck, who married in 1892 Graf Enrico Lucchesi Palli, Count von Campofranco and Duke della Grazia. The Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria disapproved of this morganatic marriage and Heinrich Anton was expelled from the Royal family, he laid down all his military functions and moved to Luzern in Switserland, where the couple lived until he was pardoned by the Emperor in 1871.

The couple returned to Lombardy–Venetia where Heinrich Anton retired from the army and lived in a palace in the Musterstreet in Bolzano. On a rare visit to Vienna in 1891, both Heinrich Anton and his wife contracted pneumonia and they died in the same night. Constantin von Wurzbach: Habsburg, Heinrich Anton Maria Rainer Karl Gregor. In: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich. Part 6. Kaiserlich-königliche Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Wien 1860, Page 277. Sigmund Hahn: Reichsraths-Almanach für die Session, Satow, 1867, S. 50

Schneeberg (Fichtel Mountains)

At 1,051 m above sea level, the Schneeberg is the highest mountain in the Fichtelgebirge, a mountain range in Upper Franconia in northeast Bavaria, Germany. It can be identified from a distance by its squat tower - a relic of the Cold War; the summit comprises a jumble of granite rocks and a rock pillar on which the Backöfele observation tower stands and is still dominated by the relics of military installations including its Cold War listening post. The name Schneeberg may be derived from snede. However, it is more that the name comes from Schnee and the fact that the mountain is snow-capped for long periods of time; the group of rocks at the highest point on the mountain is called Backöfele, after which the observation tower was named. In the Thirty Years' War, folk from the surrounding village are supposed to have fled to this place where they baked their bread; the mountain has always had great strategic significance due to its commanding field of view. In 1498 Captain Kunz von Wirsberg, captain of the Gebürg, was assigned by the margrave in Bayreuth to establish a warning system.

As a result, he set up a network of observation posts on various mountains in the Fichtelgebirge that in time of danger had to send beacon or smoke signals to the neighbouring posts. The Schneeberg was one of these posts. In 1520 the villagers of Weißenstadt had to establish a permanent sentry position here. In 1713 the ruins of this post could still be seen. In 1879 the Fichtelgebirge branch of the German-Austrian Alpine Club built the first simple platform on the rock summit. In 1904 a log cabin followed and in 1926 the Weißenstadt group of the Fichtelgebirge Club built the observation tower Backöfele from oak logs. In 1938 the Luftwaffe had a 35-metre-high wooden tower built on the mountain, the purpose of, kept "secret". In 1942 it was razed for "unexplained reasons". On 14 November 1951 US Forces requisitioned part of the summit and erected various buildings and steel structures for antennas and parabolic mirrors. In 1961 the German Armed Forces took over the area to the north of the summit and, in 1967, communication sector "E" took up its surveillance role in a new tower.

The top of the mountain was a military out-of-bounds area and the Backöfele was now "behind the wire". Following the easing of military tension in Europe in the early 1990s, the US Forces left the Schneeberg on 30 April 1992 and, on 31 March 1993, the Bundeswehr closed its military surveillance mission; the last soldier left the Schneeberg air defence site on 30 June 1994 and the real estate was transferred to the Federal Finance Department. The former Bundeswehr tower was rented to the firm of Mannesmann for mobile phone use. On 29 December 1995, on the initiative of the district administrator Dr. Peter Seißer, Wunsiedel county bought a 6,500 m² of land in the former American out-of-bounds area, on which the Backöfele stands. Together with the Fichtelgebirge Nature Park they have implemented land rehabilitation measures. Since 29 August 1996 the Backöfele observation tower has been open to the public again; as part of the environmental restoration scheme the old refuge hut belonging to the Weißenstadt mountain rescue service was demolished despite the fact that the Fichtelgebirge National Park had given assurances only a few days beforehand that they wanted to preserve this hut for walkers and mountain rescue teams.

As a result, the Weißenstadt rescue service built a new refuge hut below the summit area. The low average temperature of 3.7 °C around the summit of the Schneeberg means that it is still able to support a glacial plant community. Access to the areas of vegetation is not permitted, because the plants are susceptible to trampling. Below the summit area is one of the last German capercaillie populations outside of the Alps. In winter, tracks are seen that indicate the return of the lynx to the high Fichtelgebirge around the Schneeberg; the tarmac road to the summit of the Schneeberg is closed to the private vehicles. The peak can however be climbed on foot using the various trails; the points of departure for these trails include Bischofsgrün, Weißenstadt, Vordorfermühle, Leupoldsdorferhammer and the Seehaus car park on the B 303/E 48. These walks are between eight kilometres long. Rainer H. Schmeisser: Der Schneeberg, Beiträge zur Geschichts- und Landeskunde des Fichtelgebirges Nr. 1, Regensburg 1979 Dietmar Herrmann: Lexikon Fichtelgebirge, Ackermann Verlag Hof/Saale Rudolf Thiem: Der Schneeberg - höchster Berg des Fichtelgebirges' ISBN 3-926621-47-8 The Schneeberg Information about the Luftwaffe's former communication sector tower at lostplaces.de