Blackest Night is a 2009–2010 American comic book crossover storyline published by DC Comics, consisting of an eponymous, central miniseries written by Geoff Johns and penciled by Ivan Reis, a number of tie-in books. "Blackest Night" involves Nekron, a personified force of death who reanimates deceased superheroes and seeks to eliminate all life and emotion from the universe. Geoff Johns has identified the series' central theme as emotion; the crossover was published for eight months as a limited series and in both the Green Lantern and Green Lantern Corps comic titles. Various other limited series and tie-ins, including an audio drama from Darker Projects, were published; the storyline was first mentioned at the conclusion of the "Sinestro Corps War" in Green Lantern vol. 4, #25. As the war between the Green Lantern and Sinestro Corps reaches its climax, the four Green Lanterns of Earth—Hal Jordan, Guy Gardner, John Stewart, Kyle Rayner—are told by the Guardians Ganthet and Sayd of the Blackest Night prophecy.
According to the prophecy, the two existing Corps would be joined by five new ones, each driven by a specific emotion and empowered by a specific color of the emotional spectrum, leading to a "War of Light" that would subsequently destroy the universe. Johns says the prophecy has its origins in the story "Tygers" by Alan Moore, which touches on the rising up of the Guardians' enemies the Weaponers of Qward, Ranx the Sentient City, the Children of the White Lobe, the destruction of the Green Lanterns, shows Hal Jordan and Mogo dying. Both Geoff Johns and Ethan Van Sciver said that Blackest Night is the third part of a Green Lantern event trilogy that began with Rebirth and continued with "Sinestro Corps War". In a December 2007 interview with IGN, Johns stated that he has the monthly Green Lantern book plotted up until issue #55. More details for the event were revealed in DC Universe #0, which depicted Black Hand discovering the black power battery on the planet of Ryut. Blackest Night #0 was released on May 2, 2009, —Free Comic Book Day—and portrays a series of events directly leading into Blackest Night #1.
The standalone, self-titled miniseries consists of Blackest Night eight monthly issues. Tie-ins include issues of Green Lantern and Green Lantern Corps starting with issues #43 and #38 and nine 3-issue limited series: Blackest Night: Tales of the Corps, Blackest Night: Superman, Blackest Night: Batman, Blackest Night: Titans, Blackest Night: Wonder Woman, Blackest Night: Flash, Blackest Night: JSA. Ethan Van Sciver had planned to work on the opening book, but because of his work on The Flash: Rebirth miniseries he was not able to complete both effectively. Van Sciver and Ivan Reis created many of the designs for this storyline. Green Lanterns Ash and Saarek find the Black Central Power Battery at a classified location within Sector 666. After touching the battery, Saarek reports; the two are killed when two monstrous hands emerge from below them as the battery calls "flesh". In Green Lantern Corps, a field of asteroids in an unknown region of space is depicted with the colors of the spectrum in the background.
The asteroids, which are the remains of the planet Xanshi, are shattered and a large quantity of black power rings move through them. In Gotham City, Black Hand removes Bruce Wayne's skull from his grave and carries it with him, a Black Lantern power battery begins to charge; the Guardians of Oa observe the War of Light and realize that Ganthet and Sayd are correct but are kept from intervening by Scar, who swiftly kills one and imprisons the rest. Thousands of black rings assault the Corps' crypt. Hal Jordan and the newly revived Flash investigate Bruce Wayne's grave and are attacked by Black Lantern Martian Manhunter. On Oa, the Green Lanterns are met by all of the resurrected Lanterns. Hawkgirl and Hawkman are killed by Black Lanterns Elongated Man and Sue Dibny and join the growing Black Corps; the Atom is tricked into visiting Black Lantern Hawkman, Deadman is the first to realize the dead superheroes are not their true selves when his physical body revives as a Black Lantern while he is still free.
Aquaman and his Black Lantern family attack Mera. A black ring strikes the Spectre, binding the spirit Aztar and reviving Crispus Allen as a Black Lantern; the black rings are unable to revive dead characters who are at peace, such as former Dove Don Hall as his partner Hawk and his brother Hank rise. In Gotham, Hal Jordan and Barry Allen are confronted by several Black Lanterns, including Ronald Raymond. Hal, the Atom and Flash battle the Black Lanterns when the Indigo Tribe appear and use their Indigo power with other rings to obliterate the Black Dibnys. Mera finds the new Gehenna, who merge to create a new Firestorm. Indigo says; the Indigo Tribe leave the other heroes to fight the invading Black Lanterns. Black Lantern Firestorm separates Gehenna and Jason, kills Gehenna and absorbs Jason's consciousness. Black rings revive the villains. Mera and Flash use Atom's powers to escape through a telephone line. Flash leaves and gives all the superheroes in the US the key to defeat the Black Lanterns—merging lights with a Green Ring—and the Atom and the Justice Society of America battle many Lanterns together.
Jean Loring kills and causes Damage to revive as a Lantern, which empowers the Black Lantern power battery. Barry arrives in Coast City. Black Hand summons Nekron, who revives the residents of Coas
Murray Boltinoff was a writer and editor of comic books, who worked for DC Comics from the 1940s to the 1980s, in which role he edited over 50 different comic book series. A graduate of New York University, in 1933 Boltinoff was hired as an assistant editor at the New York American—the first newspaper to hire his younger brother Henry Boltinoff as a cartoonist. Although Craig Yoe has stated that "Murray had got Henry job", Don Markstein reported that it was more difficult for Henry to sell artwork to Murray, as "both to avoid any appearance of favoritism". Henry Boltinoff subsequently began selling cartoons to Whitney Ellsworth at National Allied Publications, suggested that Ellsworth hire Murray as an assistant, which Ellsworth did around the year 1940; as an editor, he oversaw the creation of the Doom Patrol in My Greatest Adventure, came up with their tagline, "The World's Strangest Heroes". When the Doom Patrol series was cancelled in 1968, Boltinoff and artist Bruno Premiani appeared in the story to urge readers to keep the series alive.
Boltinoff revived Metamorpho as the backup feature in World's Finest Comics #218–220 and #229 after the character had a brief run as the backup in Action Comics #413–418. Gina Misiroglu has described Boltinoff as Metamorpho's "savior" from post-cancellation obscurity due to his "tendency to stick into whichever comic happened to be working on at the time." The character's creator Bob Haney reported having read an interview in which Boltinoff claimed to have created Metamorpho, attributed this to senility on Boltinoff's part. Haney was not the only one to comment on Boltinoff's memory: Superboy and the Legion of Super-Heroes writer Jim Shooter recounted that Boltinoff "would forget the character's powers" and "seemed to have early stage Alzheimer’s. Seriously. Ask his former assistant, Jack Harris. Murray would give me instructions, forget what he’d said be upset that I hadn’t followed some orders he’d never given me. I ended up doing rewrites because Murray misremembered things."While editing Superboy and the Legion of Super-Heroes, his actions included rejecting Dave Cockrum's proposal for a new character on the grounds that the character was "too weird looking", hiring Mike Grell as artist.
Grell subsequently described his conflict with Boltinoff over the lack of racial diversity in the Legion's 30th-century setting, noting that Boltinoff had forbidden him from representing a corrupt police officer as that setting's first black character, on the grounds that "'You can't do that because there's something negative in that character.' Murray felt that would make the character appear weak" and "we've never had a black person in the Legion of Super-Heroes, now you're gonna have one in there who's not perfect". Murray Boltinoff retired from the comics industry in 1988, his final editing credit was Sgt. Rock #422; as editor unless noted: Murray Boltinoff at the Comic Book DB "DC Profiles #4: Murray Boltinoff" at the Grand Comics Database Murray Boltinoff at Mike's Amazing World of Comics
Teen Titans Go! (TV series)
Teen Titans Go! is an American animated television series airing in the U. S. on Cartoon Network since April 23, 2013 and based on the DC Comics fictional superhero team. The series was announced following the popularity of DC Nation's New Teen Titans shorts. Sporting a new animation style, Teen Titans Go! Serves as a comedic spin-off with little to no continuity to the previous series or any other media in the DC Comics franchise. Many DC characters are referenced in the background; the original principal voice cast returns to reprise their respective roles. This series explores. On March 8, 2018, it was announced that the series had been renewed for a fifth season, which aired on June 25, 2018. A feature film, Teen Titans Go! To the Movies, was released in theaters on July 27, 2018; the production companies of the series are Warner Bros.. Animation, with the animation outsourced to Canada at Bardel Entertainment. Teen Titans Go! is an animated series that follows the adventures of the young Titans residing in Jump City when they are not saving the world while living together as teenagers without adults who intrude.
Unlike most of the other superhero series, the situations are comic and parodic - for example, juvenile jokes that reach new heights of danger, obtaining a license to drive after destroying the Batmobile or washing the suits after staining them when fighting their enemies. The show features characters who have appeared in the original series, albeit with reduced roles and/or exaggerated personalities, it features greater attachment to the DC Universe at large, with more references to other characters including those in the Justice League, plus a few appearances by Batman and Commissioner Gordon in lighthearted moments. The show is littered with in-jokes regarding the whole of DC's library, many of them in blink-and-miss moments, as well as numerous jokes at the expense of the show itself. Teen Titans Go! has received mixed reviews by critics. Common Sense Media gave the show 4 out of 5 stars and wrote that it "manages a few positive messages alongside the clever comedy and characterizations".
IGN writer Scott Collura gave the pilot episode a score of 7.8 out of 10, stating that "DC Animation revamps the beloved Teen Titans series for a new generation – with pretty fun results". Randy Schiff of The Buffalo News praised its writing and animation, calling it a "consistently quirky comedy, laced with keen social commentary". After the trailer for the series' film adaptation was released, Scott Mendelson of Forbes praised the series and its "nihilistic madness", writing that "Taken on its own terms, it is blisteringly funny and endlessly clever, offering grimly cynical history lessons, comedically grimdark holiday specials, occasional pure fantasy freak-outs... amid some serious superhero genre trolling and self-commentary."Writing for Slant Magazine, Lee Wang gave the show 2 stars out of 4, saying "Teen Titans Go! would offer little to the most ardent Titans nostalgists and completists". Aaron Wiseman of Moviepilot cited various criticisms of the show, noting slight appreciation for the characters of Starfire and Raven.
Joseph Murphy of the website WhatCulture believed the show had "so much potential, why it is upsetting that to date, Teen Titans Go! has been a failure." WatchMojo.com criticzed the use of irony in the series' teachings due to fearing children's may not understand it. The show's pilot episode brought in over 3 million viewers. On June 11, 2013, Cartoon Network renewed Teen Titans Go! for a second season, citing successful ratings. According to Hope King, a tech reporter for CNNMoney, Teen Titans Go! was one out of three of the most viewed television shows and other media to contribute to a record setting 1.3 million simultaneous Xfinity On-Demand viewings during the January 2016 United States blizzard. Teen Titans Go! Content is featured as part of the toys-to-life video game Lego Dimensions, via two packs released on September 12, 2017; these include a Team Pack containing Beast Boy and Raven minifigures and constructible T-Car and Spellbook of Azarath items. The characters are able to access a Teen Titans Go!-themed Adventure World featuring locations from the series, as well as an exclusive episode themed after the game.
Additionally, the pre-existing mini figures of Cyborg from DC Comics and Robin from The Lego Batman Movie are able to turn into their Teen Titans Go! counterparts when used in the Teen Titans Go! Adventure World. On September 25, 2017, a theatrical film adaptation of the series was announced by Warner Bros. Pictures and Warner Bros. Animation for release on July 27, 2018. Titled Teen Titans Go! To the Movies, the film was written by series executive producers and developers Aaron Horvath and Michael Jelenic, directed by Horvath and fellow producer Peter Rida Michail; the voice cast of the TV series reprise their roles, with Will Arnett and Kristen Bell starring. Warner Bros. announced that a crossover featuring the Titans from both TTG and the original 2003 version was in the works. In the Young Justice episode, Nightmare Monkeys, TTG's animation style was used as a basis during Beast Boy's visions within his mind. Official website Teen Titans Go! on IMDb Teen Titans Go! at the Big Cartoon DataBase Teen Titans Go! at TV.com
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
Wally West is a fictional superhero that appears in American comic books published by DC Comics. He was the first Kid Flash, his power consists of superhuman speed. He made his first appearance as Kid Flash in Flash #110 in 1959. Barry Allen dies in the crossover Crisis on Infinite Earths #8 and Wally took up the mantle of the Flash in Crisis on Infinite Earths #12, holding that role until 2009 in DC's main lineup, his physical appearance is a redhead with green eyes and is portrayed with a lighthearted and caring personality. Wally has an important role as the Flash in DC Rebirth. In his debut as the Flash, Wally wears a distinct red and gold costume, traditionally storing the costume compressed inside a ring and creating a costume directly out of Speed Force energy, he is the fastest character. In DC Rebirth, the Flash wears a red and silver costume and generates blue or white lightning to show that the Speed Force is inside him more than before. In 2011, IGN ranked Wally West #8 on their list of the "Top 100 Super Heroes of All Time", ahead of any other speedsters, stating that "Wally West is one of the DCU's greatest heroes if he does not rank as the original Scarlet Speedster".
In 2013, Wally West placed 6th on IGN's Top 25 Heroes of DC Comics. Wally West has appeared in many forms of media, including the Justice League cartoons, in which he is voiced by Michael Rosenbaum, he appeared in the 2010 TV show Young Justice as Kid Flash, voiced by Jason Spisak, as the Flash in Justice League animated features such as Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths, voiced by Josh Keaton. Wally made his live-action debut in the second season of The Flash, as portrayed by Keiynan Lonsdale. In this version Wally is the younger brother of Iris West-Allen, he was part of the main cast of the third season of Legends of Tomorrow. Wallace Rudolph West, or Wally West, was created by John Broome and Carmine Infantino and introduced in The Flash #110; the character was the nephew of the existing Flash character's girlfriend and wife, Iris West. During a visit to the Central City police laboratory where Barry Allen worked, the freak accident that gave Allen his powers repeated itself, bathing Wally in electrically charged chemicals.
Now possessing the same powers as the Flash, West donned a smaller-sized copy of Barry Allen's Flash outfit and became the young crimefighter Kid Flash. Wally had a strained relationship with his own parents and looked to his beloved aunt and uncle for moral support and guidance, he operated as a lone superhero in his hometown, Blue Valley, when not partnering with the Flash. This costume was altered to one that would make him more visually distinctive; the original red was replaced with a costume, yellow with red leggings and lightning bolt emblem. The ear pieces remained yellow, but became red in issues. In addition to his appearances within the Flash title, the character was a founding member of the newly created Teen Titans, where he became friends with Dick Grayson known as Robin known as Nightwing. Sometime Wally contracted a mysterious illness that affected his entire bodily system; this could have been caused by one of two things, Wally was a boy when the electrified chemicals altered his body, still developing and maturing or when his was struck with a weapon during his time with the Teen Titans.
As such, as Wally's body matured, his altered body chemistry was killing him. During the 1985–1986 miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths, Barry gave his life to save the Earth when destroying the antimatter cannon, aimed at Earth. Unaware of this, Wally was coaxed by Jay Garrick into assisting the heroes against the Anti-Monitor's forces. During the final battle with the Anti-Monitor, Wally was struck by a blast of anti-matter energy, which cured his disease. In the aftermath of the conflict, Wally took on his fallen mentor's identity; the decision by DC Comics' editorial staff to radically change their fictional universe saw a number of changes to the status quo of the character. Wally West became the new Flash, but less powerful than his predecessor. For example, instead of being able to reach the speed of light, he could run just faster than that of sound; the character had to eat vast quantities of food to maintain his metabolism. Those changes were followed up and 1987 saw the publication of a new Flash comic written by Mike Baron.
These stories focused not the state of Wally's wealth. West won a lottery, bought a large mansion, began dating beautiful women; the character's finances and luck continued to wane until Flash vol. 2, #62, when his fortunes stabilized. The 1990s saw further modifications to the look of the character, with a modified uniform appearing in 1991; this modified costume altered the visual appearance of the traditional Flash costume, with a belt made of two connecting lightning bolts meeting in a "V" at the front, removal of the wings from the top of his boots, a change in the material of his costume, opaque lenses added to the eyes of his cowl. This modified design utilized elements of the costume designed by artist Dave Stevens for the live action television series The Flash. A difficult encounter was made with the first Reverse-Flash. Thawne had been killed by Barry Allen shortly before Allen'
The Teen Titans known as the New Teen Titans or the Titans, are a fictional superhero team appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics in an eponymous monthly series. As the group's name suggests, its members are teenage superheroes, many of whom have acted as sidekicks to DC's premiere superheroes in the Justice League. First appearing in 1964 in The Brave and the Bold #54, the team was founded by Kid Flash and Aqualad, with the team adopting the name Teen Titans in issue 60 following the addition of Wonder Girl to its ranks. Over the decades, DC has cancelled and relaunched Teen Titans many times, a variety of characters have been featured heroes in its pages. Significant early additions to the initial quartet of Titans were Green Arrow's sidekick, Aquagirl, Bumblebee and Dove, three heroes who did not wear costumes: boxer Mal Duncan, psychic Lilith, caveman Gnarrk; the series became a genuine hit for the first time however during its 1980s revival as The New Teen Titans under writer Marv Wolfman and artist George Pérez.
This run depicted the original Titans now as young adults and introduced new characters Cyborg and Raven, as well as the former Doom Patrol member Beast Boy, who would all become enduring fan-favorites. A high point for the series both critically and commercially was its famous "The Judas Contract" storyline, in which the team is betrayed by its member Terra to its archenemy Deathstroke. Stories in the 2000s introduced a radically different Teen Titans team made up of newer DC Comics sidekicks such as the new Robin, Wonder Girl, Kid Flash, as well as Superboy, some of whom had featured in the similar title Young Justice. Prominent additions from this era included Miss Martian, Ravager and Blue Beetle. Concurrently, DC published Titans, which featured some of the original and 1980s members now as adults, led by Dick Grayson in his adult persona of Nightwing. A new run following DC's The New 52 reboot in 2011 introduced new characters to the founding roster, including Solstice and Skitter, although this new volume proved commercially and critically disappointing for DC.
In 2016, DC used the Titans Hunt and DC Rebirth storylines to re-establish the group's original founding members and history, reuniting these classic heroes as the Titans, while introducing a new generation of Teen Titans led by new Robin featuring the new Aqualad and Kid Flash. The Teen Titans have been adapted to other media numerous times, have enjoyed a higher profile since Cartoon Network's light-hearted Teen Titans animated television series in the early-mid 2000s, as well as its DC Nation spin-off Teen Titans Go!. A live-action Teen Titans series was in development for the network TNT before moving production to DC's in-house web television service DC Universe, its characters and stories were adapted into the 2010s animated series Young Justice. Within DC Comics, the Teen Titans have been an influential group of characters taking prominent roles in all of the publisher's major company-wide crossover stories. Many villains who face the Titans have since taken on a larger role within the publisher's fictional universe, such as Deathstroke, the demon Trigon, the evil organization H.
I. V. E. Robin, Kid Flash and Aqualad team up to defeat a weather-controlling villain known as Mister Twister in The Brave and the Bold #54 by writer Bob Haney and artist Bruno Premiani, they appeared under the name "Teen Titans" in The Brave and the Bold #60, joined by Wonder Woman's younger sister Wonder Girl. After being featured in Showcase #59, the Teen Titans were spun off into their own series with Teen Titans #1 by Haney and artist Nick Cardy; the series' original premise had the Teen Titans helping teenagers and answering calls. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that Haney "took some ribbing for the writing style that described the Teen Titans as'the Cool Quartet' or'the Fab Foursome'; the attempt to reach the youth culture embracing performers like the Beatles and Bob Dylan impressed some observers." Green Arrow's sidekick Speedy makes guest appearances before joining the team in Teen Titans #19. Aqualad takes a leave of absence from the group in the same issue, but makes several guest appearances, sometimes with girlfriend Aquagirl.
Neal Adams was called upon to rewrite and redraw a Teen Titans story, written by Len Wein and Marv Wolfman. The story, titled "Titans Fit the Battle of Jericho!", would have introduced DC's first African American superhero but was rejected by publisher Carmine Infantino. The revised story appeared in Teen Titans #20. Wolfman and Gil Kane created an origin for Wonder Girl in Teen Titans #22 and introduced her new costume. Psychic Lilith Clay and Mal Duncan join the group. Beast Boy of the Doom Patrol makes a guest appearance seeking membership, but was rejected as too young at the time; the series explored events such as protests against the Vietnam War. One storyline beginning in issue #25 saw the Titans deal with the accidental death of a peace activist, leading them to reconsider their methods; as a result, the Teen Titans abandoned their identities to work as ordinary civilians, but the effort was a
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is a social and cultural construct". One definition describes Eastern Europe as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Eastern Orthodox and some Ottoman culture influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc. A similar definition names the communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. Majority of historians and social scientists view such definitions as outdated or relegated, but they are still sometimes used for statistical purposes. Several definitions of Eastern Europe exist today, but they lack precision, are too general, or are outdated.
These definitions vary both across cultures and among experts political scientists, as the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is a social and cultural construct". While the eastern geographical boundaries of Europe are well defined, the boundary between Eastern and Western Europe is not geographical but historical and cultural; the Ural Mountains, Ural River, the Caucasus Mountains are the geographical land border of the eastern edge of Europe. In the west, the historical and cultural boundaries of "Eastern Europe" are subject to some overlap and, most have undergone historical fluctuations, which makes a precise definition of the western geographic boundaries of Eastern Europe and the geographical midpoint of Europe somewhat difficult; the East–West Schism divided Christianity in Europe, the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity.
Western Europe according to this point of view is formed by countries with dominant Roman Catholic and Protestant churches. Eastern Europe is formed by countries with dominant Eastern Orthodox churches, like Belarus, Greece, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Russia and Ukraine for instance; the schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern and Western churches. This division dominated Europe for centuries, in opposition to the rather short-lived Cold War division of 4 decades. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West, the Eastern Orthodox Christian churches in the east. Due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however problematic; the fall of the Iron Curtain brought the end of the East-West division in Europe, but this geopolitical concept is sometimes still used for quick reference by the media or sometimes for statistical purposes.
Another definition was used during the 40 years of Cold War between 1947 and 1989, was more or less synonymous with the terms Eastern Bloc and Warsaw Pact. A similar definition names the communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. Historians and social scientists view such definitions as outdated or relegated. Eurovoc, a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union, has entries for "23 EU languages", plus the languages of candidate countries. Of these, those in italics are classified as "Eastern Europe" in this source. UNESCO, EuroVoc, National Geographic Society, Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography, STW Thesaurus for Economics place the Baltic states in Northern Europe, whereas the CIA World Factbook places the region in Eastern Europe with a strong assimilation to Northern Europe, they are members of the Nordic-Baltic Eight regional cooperation forum whereas Central European countries formed their own alliance called the Visegrád Group.
The Northern Future Forum, the Nordic Investment Bank, the Nordic Battlegroup, the Nordic-Baltic Eight and the New Hanseatic League are other examples of Northern European cooperation that includes the three countries collectively referred to as the Baltic states. Estonia Latvia Lithuania The Caucasus nations of Armenia and Georgia are included in definitions or histories of Eastern Europe, they are located in the transition zone of Western Asia. They participate in the European Union's Eastern Partnership program, the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly, are members of the Council of Europe, which specifies that all three have