The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an
The Golden Ass
The Metamorphoses of Apuleius, which Augustine of Hippo referred to as The Golden Ass, is the only ancient Roman novel in Latin to survive in its entirety. The protagonist of the novel is called Lucius. At the end of the novel, he is revealed to be from Madaurus, the hometown of Apuleius himself; the plot revolves around the protagonist's curiosity and insatiable desire to see and practice magic. While trying to perform a spell to transform into a bird, he is accidentally transformed into an ass; this leads to a long journey and metaphorical, filled with inset tales. He finds salvation through the intervention of the goddess Isis, whose cult he joins; the date of composition of the Metamorphoses is uncertain. It has variously been considered by scholars as a youthful work preceding Apuleius' Apology of 158/9 AD, or as the climax of his literary career and as late as the 170s or 180s. Apuleius adapted the story from a Greek original of which the author's name is said to be Lucius of Patrae; this Greek text has been lost, but there is Λούκιος ἢ ὄνος, a similar tale of disputed authorship, traditionally attributed to Lucian of Samosata, a contemporary of Apuleius.
This surviving Greek text appears to be an epitome of "Lucius of Patrae's" text. The original lost story was written by Lucian and the abridged version was transmitted under his name. Book One The prologue establishes an audience and a speaker, who defines himself by location and occupation; the narrator journeys to Thessaly on business. On the way, he runs into an unnamed traveler; the unnamed traveler refuses to believe Aristomenes' story. The narrator tells a short story about a sword swallower, he promises Aristomenes a free lunch. The narrator becomes more eager to learn about magic; the narrator arrives at Hypata, where he stays with Milo, a family friend and miser, his wife Pamphile. Photis, Milo's servant, takes the narrator to the baths, after which the narrator goes to the marketplace. There, he buys some fish and runs into his old friend Pytheas, now a magistrate. Pytheas reveals the narrator's name as Lucius. Pytheas says that Lucius overpaid for the fish and humiliates the fish-monger by trampling on the fish.
Lucius returns to Milo's house and empty-handed. Milo asks Lucius about his life, his friends, his wanderings. Lucius goes to sleep hungry. Book Two The next morning, Lucius meets his aunt Byrrhena in the town, she warns him that Milo's wife is an evil witch who will kill Lucius. Lucius, however, is interested in becoming a witch himself, he returns to Milo's house, where he makes love to the slave-girl Fotis. The next day, Lucius goes to his aunt's home for dinner, there meets Thelyphron, who relates his tale of how witches cut off his nose and ears. After the meal, Lucius drunkenly returns to Milo's house in the dark, where he encounters three robbers, whom he soon slays before retiring to bed. Book Three The next morning, Lucius is abruptly arrested for the murder of the three men, he is taken to court where he is laughed at and witnesses are brought against him. They are just about to announce his guilt, it turns out that it was a prank played by the town upon Lucius, to celebrate their annual Festival of Laughter.
That day and Photis watch Milo's wife perform her witchcraft and transform herself into a bird. Attempting to copy her, Lucius accidentally turns himself into an ass, at which point Photis tells him that the only way for him to return to his human state is to eat a rose, she puts him in the stable for the night and promises to bring him roses in the morning, but during the night Milo's house is raided by a band of thieves, who steal Lucius the ass, load him up with their plunder, leave with him. Book Four On a break in his journey with the bandits, Lucius the ass trots over to a garden to munch on what seem to be roses when he is beaten by the gardener and chased by dogs; the thieves reclaim him and he is forced to go along with them. The thieves kidnap a young woman, housed in a cave with Lucius the ass. Charite starts crying, so an elderly woman, in league with the thieves begins to tell her the story of Cupid and Psyche. Psyche is the most beautiful woman on earth, Venus jealously arranges for Psyche's destruction, ordering her son Cupid to arrange for her to fall in love with a worthless wretch.
An oracle tells Psyche's parents to expose her on a mountain peak, where she will become the bride of a powerful, monstrous being. Psyche is left on the mountain, carried away by a gentle wind. Book Five The elderly woman continues telling the story of Psyche. Cupid, Venus's son, secretly preserves Psyche. Psyche's jealous sisters arouse her fear about her husband's identity. Book Six The elderly woman finishes telling the story of Cupid and Psyche, as Psyche is forced to perform various tasks for Venus with the help of Cupid and an assortment of friendly crea
Iulia Constantia Zilil
Iulia Constantia Zilil was an ancient Roman-Berber city in Dchar Jdid, located 40 km southwest of Tangier and 13 km northeast of Asilah. It was one of the three colonias in Mauretania Tingitana founded by emperor Augustus between 33 and 25 BC for veterans of the battle of Actium. Iulia Constantia Zilil was one of many western Berber towns in the province of Mauretania Tingitana, it had already been a Phoenician and Mauretanian settlement since the 4th century BC. The city was an important station on the Antonine Itinerary, it was located at 40 km south-west of Tangier, 13 km in the north-east of Asilah, close to the present village of Dshar Jdid. In the second half of 2nd century AD, the city was surrounded by an enclosure, it comprised residential districts, a big temple and an amphitheater, outside of the city a thermal unit and a cistern with four compartments, supplied with a underground aqueduct. The most spectacular monument in Iulia Constantia was that of the early Church of Iulia Constantia Zilil.
Featuring three naves, it was equipped with a baptistery and various appendices close to the western door. This old church is the only one found in Atlantic Morocco, was related to Christian adherence among Romanised Berbers; the city was destroyed during the years 410-430 AD, at the time of the invasion of Mauretania Tingitana by Vandal tribes. But evidences show that the city remained populated as a small fishing village until the Arab invasion in the early 8th century. Eliane Lenoir, "Fouilles de Dchar Jedid", 1977–1980, B. A. M. XIV, 1981–1982, p. 169-225.. Eliane Lenoir, "La ville romaine de Zilil du Ier av IVe siècle ap. J.-C. dans L’afrique romaine, Iersiècle av. J.-C - début Ve siècle ap. J.-C. colloque de la SOPHAU", Pallas, 68, 2005, p. 65-76. Church of Iulia Constantia Zilil Iulia Valentia Banasa Iulia Campestris Babba Lixus Tingis Roman roads in Morocco
Caesarea in Numidia was an ancient city and bishopric in Roman North Africa. It was a Roman colonia in Roman-Berber North Africa, it is now called Cherchell, in modern Algeria. Phoenicians from Carthage founded a settlement on the northern coast of Africa, 100 km west of the present-day city of Algiers at present Cherchell around 400 BC to serve as a trading station and named the city Iol or Jol, it became a part of the kingdom of Numidia under Jugurtha, who died in 104 BC and it became significant to the Berber monarchy and generals of Numidia. The Berber Kings Bocchus I and Bocchus II lived there, as did other Kings of Numidia. Iol was situated in an area called Mauretania, a part of the Numidian kingdom. During the 1st century BC, due to the city’s strategic location, new defences were built; the last Numidian king Juba II and his wife, the Greek Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Selene II, were forced to flee the other part of Numidian kingdom because the local population disapproved of their king being too Romanized, which caused civil unrest between 26 and 20 BC. Roman Emperor Octavianus Caesar Augustus had intervened in the situation and in 33 BC Rome and divided the Numidian Kingdom into two.
One half of the kingdom became a part of the Roman province of Africa Nova, while western Numidia and Mauretania became one kingdom in the hands of a Berber prince named Juba II. Although his father was once an ally of Pompey, Juba had lived in Rome under the tutelage of Julius Caesar, learning to read and write Greek and Latin; as he was considered too Roman to rule and his wife, Cleopatra Selene, were at the mercy of civil unrest when Emperor Augustus intervened. Juba II renamed Caesarea Mauretaniae, in honor of the emperor. Caesarea would become the capital of the Roman client kingdom of Mauretania, which became one of the important client kingdoms in the Roman Empire, their dynasty was among the most loyal client Roman vassal rulers. Juba and Cleopatra did not just rename their new capital, but rebuilt the town as a typical Graeco-Roman city in fine Roman style on a large and expensive scale, complete with street grids, a theatre, an art collection and a lighthouse similar to the one at Alexandria.
The construction and sculptural projects in Caesarea and throughout the kingdom were built in a rich mixture of ancient Egyptian and Roman architectural styles. The monarchs are buried in their mausoleum, the Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania which can still be seen; the seaport capital and its kingdom flourished during this period with most of the population being of Greek and Phoenician origin with a minority of Berbers. It remained a significant power center under Numidian rule with a Greco-Roman civilization as a veneer, until 40 AD, when its last monarch Ptolemy of Mauretania was murdered on a visit to Rome; the murder of Ptolemy set in motion a series of reactions resulting in a devastating war with Rome. In 44 AD after a four-year bloody revolt, the capital was captured and Roman Emperor Claudius divided the Mauretanian kingdom into two provinces; the province of which Caesarea became the capital was called Mauretania Caesariensis after it. The city itself was settled with Roman soldiers and was given the rank of a colonia, so was called Colonia Claudia Caesarea.
In centuries, the Roman population expanded, as did the Berber population, resulting in a mixed Greco-Phoenician and Roman population. The city featured a hippodrome, basilica, numerous Greek temples and Roman civic buildings. During this heyday, the city had its own school of philosophy and library; as a significant city of the Roman Empire it had trading contacts across the Roman world. Considered to be one of the more loyal of Roman provincial capitals, Caesarea grew under Roman rule in the 1st and 2nd century AD, soon reaching a population of over 30,000 inhabitants. In 44 AD, dng the reign of Emperor Claudius it became the capital of the imperial province of Mauretania Caesarensis; the emperor made it a colonia, “Colonia Claudia Caesarea”. As with many other cities throughout the empire, he and his successors further Romanised the area, building monuments, enlarging the bath houses, adding an amphitheatre, improving the aqueducts. Under the Severan dynasty, a new forum was added; the city recovered.
In centuries, the Roman population expanded, as did the Berber population, resulting in a mixed Berber and Roman population. The city was Romanized under Septimius Severus and it grew to be a rich city with nearly 100,000 inhabitants, according to historian Gsell. In about 165 AD, it was the birthplace to the future Roman Emperor Macrinus. From an early stage, the city had a small but growing population of Christians and Berber and was noted for the religious debates and tumults which featured the hostility of Roman public religion toward Christians. By the 4th century, the conversion of the population from pagan to Christian beliefs resulted in nearly all of the population being Christianised. By the 5th century the capital of Mauretania Caesariensis was Romanised, according to Theodor Mommsen, one of the 80 cities in the Maghreb populated by Roman colonists from Italy, it remained an loyalist force for the Roman Empire. Additionally, the Romanized city's elite held considerable control of international trade.
Although it stagnated for over a hundred years and lost population, as did most cities in the Roman Empire, it still remained much as it had been since it was founded. Consequent
The Chellah or Shalla, is a medieval fortified Muslim necropolis located in the metro area of Rabat, Morocco, on the south side of the Bou Regreg estuary. The Phoenicians established a trading emporium at the site; this was the site of an ancient Roman colony in the province of Mauretania Tingitana. Salā was the name given to the city founded by the Muslim conquerors of North Africa, abandoned during the Almohad era rebuilt by the Marinids in the 13th century; the ruins of their medieval fortress are still extant. The Berber Almohads used the site as a royal burial ground; the Marinids made the site a holy necropolis, or chellah, built a complex that included mosque and royal tombs. The tall minaret of the now-ruined mosque was built of stone and zellige tilework, still stands. Contrary to legend, the corsairs of Salé did not operate out of Salé, but out of the city that would become known as Rabat, on the south bank of the Bou Regreg; the Phoenicians founded several colonies in. The settlement along the banks of the Bou Regreg was known as Shalat.
It was controlled from Carthage. The Romans built their own city, Sala Colonia near the same site; the Roman town was referred to as "Sala" by Ptolemy. Excavations show a substantial port city with ruined Roman architectural elements including a decumanus maximus or principal roadway, a forum and a triumphal arch. Sala was a center of Christianity since the 2nd century. One of the two main Roman Roads in Mauretania Tingitana reached the Atlantic through Iulia Constantia Zilil and Sala Colonia. Another may have been built towards the south, from Sala to modern Casablanca called Anfa; the Romans had two main naval outposts on the Atlantic coast of the province: Sala Colonia, Lixus. The port of Sala was used by commercial Roman ships as a way station on their southwestward passages to Anfa and the Insula Purpuraria. Sala remained linked to the Roman Empire after the withdrawal in the 4th century of the occupying Roman legions to Tingis and Septem in northern Mauretania Tingitana. A Roman military unit remained there until the end of the 5th century.
Archaeological objects of Visigothic and Byzantine origin found in the area attest to the persistence of commercial or political contacts between Sala and Roman Europe, up to the establishment of a Byzantine presence in Berber North Africa during the 7th century. Sala continued to exist as a town of the Christianized Berbers, but was in ruins when the Muslim Arabs arrived in the 7th century; the Byzantine governor of the area, Count Julian of Ceuta, surrendered to Uqba ibn Nafi in 683. Around 1030, the town of Salā was founded at the site by the Banu'Ashara family. With the extinction of the Umayyad dynasty in 1031, the Almoravids assumed control of the Maghreb and erected new buildings in Salā, they rebuilt the Great Mosque of Salā on the site of the mosque of the Banu'Ashara, completing it in 1196. By 1147, the Almoravids had been overthrown by the Berber Almohads, who used the site as a royal burial ground, it was made chellah, by the Marinids in the 13th century. His remains were moved to the necropolis after he died at Algeciras in 1286.
The tall minaret of the now-ruined mosque was built of stone and zellige tilework, still stands. Near the minaret is the tomb of the Maranid ruler, Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Othman, known as the Black Sultan. Many of the remaining structures in Chellah were damaged by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake; the site has been converted to a garden and tourist venue, today it is included in the metropolitan area of Rabat. Since 2005, the ruins of Chella host an international "Festival of Jazz" each year, called Jazz au Chellah. Additionally, it is home to a venue of the annual Mawazine music festival in Rabat showcasing jazz or traditional music, as opposed to more popular contemporary music featured at some of the larger venues; the site, as part of the metropolitan Rabat, was granted World Heritage Status in 2012. Berbers Colonia Exploration of Africa Mauretania Tingitana Roman roads in Morocco Volubilis Ghaki, Mansour, "Toponymie et Onomastique Libyques: L'Apport de l'Écriture Punique/Néopunique", La Lingua nella Vita e la Vita della Lingua: Itinerari e Percorsi degli Studi Berberi, Studi Africanistici: Quaderni di Studi Berberi e Libico-Berberi, No.
4, Naples: Unior, pp. 65–71, ISBN 978-88-6719-125-3, ISSN 2283-5636. Head, Barclay. "Mauretania", Historia Numorum, Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 887–890. Global Heritage Fund Profile Photos of Roman Sala Colonia ruins today
Lambaesis, Lambaisis or Lambaesa, is a Roman archaeological site in Algeria, 11 km southeast of Batna and 27 km west of Timgad, located next to the modern village of Tazoult. The former bishopric is a Latin Catholic titular bishopric. Lambaesa was founded by the Roman military; the camp of the third legion, to which it owes its origin, appears to have been established between AD 123-129, in the time of Roman emperor Hadrian, whose address to his soldiers was found inscribed on a pillar in a second camp to the west of the great camp still extant. However, other evidence suggests; the town is built 622 m above sea level in the plain and on the spurs of the Djebel Asker By AD 166 mention is made of the decurions of a vicus, 10 curiae of which are known by name. Lambaesis was populated by Romanized Berbers and by some Roman colonists with their descendants: Latin was the official and used language. III Augusta was disbanded by Gordian III and the legionaries dispersed among the North African provinces.
But the legion was restored in the AD 250s by Valerianus and Gallienus and from on the legion was known as Augusta Restituta. Its final departure did not take place till after AD 392. Indeed, under Septimius Severus, Numidia was separated from Africa Vetus, governed by an imperial procurator. Under the new organization of the empire by Diocletian, Numidia was divided in two provinces: the north became Numidia Cirtensis, with capital at Cirta, while the south, which included the Aurès Mountains and was threatened by raids, became Numidia Militiana, "Military Numidia", with capital at the legionary base of Lambaesis. Subsequently however, Emperor Constantine the Great reunited the two provinces in a single one, administered from Cirta, now renamed Constantina in his honour, its governor was raised to the rank of consularis in AD 320, the province remained one of the seven provinces of the diocese of Africa until the invasion of the Vandals in AD 428, which began its slow decay, accompanied by desertification.
The province remained under Vandal rule, but was limited to the coastal areas by Berber raids. It was restored to Roman rule after the Vandalic War, when it became part of the new praetorian prefecture of Africa; the Byzantines occupied Lambaesis and vicinity from the sixth century but around AD 683 the Arabs conquered the area, naming what remained of the city Bar-el-Molouk in the 10th century. Lambaesis was an episcopal. For such an important town, its bishopric is absent from the historical record. Lambaesis did not send a representative to the Council of Nicaea nor Chalcedon and is not mentioned by LeQuinn. Saint Cyprian mentions a heretic bishop of Lambaesis, condemned by a local synod of bishops around the year 240; the extinct diocese was nominally restored as a titular bishopric. Revived as Lambaisis, it was renamed Lambaesis in 1925, it has had the following incumbents, of the lowest rank: Jan Dembowski Hieronim Stojnowski Mateo José González Rubio Eduardo Vásquez, Dominican Order Thomas O’Callaghan, O.
P. Jean-Marie-Michel Blois, Paris Foreign Missions Society, as Apostolic Vicar of Southern Manchuria 南滿 and as Apostolic Vicar of Shenyang 瀋陽 promoted first Metropolitan Archbishop of Shenyang 瀋陽 James Moynagh, S. P. S. Vincenzo Maria Jacono Thomas Edward Gill John Stephen Cummins John Joseph Paul Cardinal Marian Jaworski, while Apostolic Administrator of Lviv Metropolitan Archbishop of the same Lviv, President of Episcopal Conference of Ukraine, Apostolic Administrator of Lutsk, Cardinal-Priest of S. Sisto Michel Pierre Marie Mouïsse Carlo Roberto Maria Redaelli, David Prescott Talley, Auxiliary Bishop of Atlanta The remains of the Roman town, more of the Roman camp, in spite of wanton vandalism, are among the most interesting ruins in northern Africa; the ruins are situated on the lower terraces of the Aures Mountains, consist of triumphal arches, aqueducts, vestiges of an amphitheatre, baths and an immense quantity of masonry belonging to private houses. To the north and east lie extensive cemeteries with the stones standing in their original alignments.
Of the temple of Aesculapius only one column is standing, though in the middle of the 19th century its façade was entire. The capitol or temple dedicated to Jupiter and Minerva, cleared of debris, has a portico with eight columns. On level ground about two-thirds of a mile from the centre of the ancient town stands the camp, its site now occupied by the penitentiary an
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi