Algonquin Provincial Park
Algonquin Provincial Park is a provincial park located between Georgian Bay and the Ottawa River in Ontario, Canada within the Unorganized South Part of Nipissing District. Established in 1893, it is the oldest provincial park in Canada. Additions since its creation have increased the park to its current size of about 7,653 square kilometres. For comparison purposes, this is about one and a half times the size of Prince Edward Island or about a quarter of the size of Belgium; the park is contiguous with several smaller, administratively separate provincial parks that protect important rivers in the area, resulting in a larger total protected area. Its size, combined with its proximity to the major urban centres of Toronto and Ottawa, makes Algonquin one of the most popular provincial parks in the province and the country. Highway 60 runs through the south end of the park, while the Trans-Canada Highway bypasses it to the north. Over 2,400 lakes and 1,200 kilometres of streams and rivers are located within the park.
Some notable examples include Canoe Lake and the Petawawa, Amable du Fond and Tim rivers. These were formed by the retreat of the glaciers during the last ice age; the park is considered part of the "border" between Southern Ontario. The park is in an area of transition between northern coniferous forest and southern deciduous forest; this unique mixture of forest types, the wide variety of environments in the park, allows the park to support an uncommon diversity of plant and animal species. It is an important site for wildlife research. Algonquin Park was named a National Historic Site of Canada in 1992 in recognition of several heritage values including: its role in the development of park management. Algonquin Park is the only designated park within the province of Ontario to allow industrial logging to take place within its borders. In the 19th century, the logging industry harvested the large white pine and red pine trees to produce lumber for domestic and American markets, as well as square timber for export to Great Britain.
The loggers were followed by small numbers of farmers. At that time, the area's beauty was recognized by nature preservationists. To manage these conflicting interests, the Ontario Government appointed a commission to inquire into and report on the matter; the act to establish Algonquin Park was drawn up in 1892 by this five member Royal Commission, made up of Alexander Kirkwood, James Dickson, Archibald Blue, Robert Phipps, Aubrey White. Their report recommended the establishment of a park in the territory lying near and enclosing the headwaters of five major rivers, those being: the Muskoka, Little Madawaska River, Amable du Fond River, Petawawa River, South rivers; the commissioners remarked in their report: "the experience of older countries had everywhere shown that the wholesale and indiscriminate slaughter of forests brings a host of evils in its train. Wide tracts are converted from fertile plains into arid desert and streams are dried up, the rainfall, instead of percolating through the forest floor and finding its way by easy stages by brook and river to the lower levels, now descends the valley in hurrying torrents, carrying before it tempestuous floods."
Report of the Royal Commission on Forest Conservation and National Park, Mar. 8, 1893Although much of the area within Algonquin had been under license for some time, it was intended to make the park an example of good forestry practices. Only licenses to cut pine would be issued; the commissioners had recommended. Researchers believe that smoke from a forest fire in Algonquin Park was responsible for New England's Dark Day of May 19, 1780; this is based on investigations into scar marks which are left in the growth rings of trees that survive forest fires. Data obtained from such scar marks make it possible to approximate the date of a past fire. Industrial logging continues in significant portions of the park's interior. After 2013 amendments to the park management plan, 65.3% of the park remains in the recreation/utilization zone where logging is permitted. Numerous methods of timber harvesting take place throughout the park including clear cutting, selection cutting and shelterwood cutting.
As of 2009, the Algonquin Forestry Authority is reviewing an application that would allow for expansion of current logging roads and the addition of new ones. Forestry activities in Algonquin, including logging are carried out in accordance with a Forest Management Plan prepared according to Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry requirements; the planning process includes public consultation opportunities at several stages of preparation. The 2010-2020 approved Forest Management Plan for the Algonquin Park Forest, the 2015-2020 Phase 2 Plan, the associated Annual Work Schedules and Reports are available on the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry's website. An Act to establish "Algonquin National Park of Ontario" was passed by the Liberal government of Oliver Mowat in the Ontario Legislature, May 23, 1893. Although called a "national park", Algonquin has always been under the jurisdiction of the provinc
York River (Ontario)
The York River is a river in Renfrew County, Hastings County and Haliburton County in Ontario, Canada. The river is in the Saint Lawrence River drainage basin, flows from the southern extension of Algonquin Provincial Park to the Madawaska River; the river begins in the southern extension of Algonquin Provincial Park at Yorkend Lake, in geographic Clyde Township in the municipality of Dysart et al, Haliburton County. It flows west out of the park through geographic Eyre Township and Harburn Township loops back east into the southernmost part of the park in geographic Bruton Township, it takes in the left tributary North York River just before Branch Lake, turns southeast, passes over the High Falls, exits the park into Benoir Lake. It continues east into Baptiste Lake where it enters geographic Herschel Township in the municipality of Hastings Highlands, Hastings County; the river leaves the lake south at the lake's southeast tip, controlled by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources-operated Baptiste Lake Dam, enters the town of Bancroft, passes over the Bancroft Light & Power Generating Station and dam.
The river is crossed by Ontario Highway 28 and Ontario Highway 62 in the town centre turns east and northeast. It is crossed again by Ontario Highway 28, passes over Egan Chute and Fram Chute at Egan Chutes Provincial Park, reenters Hastings Highlands at geographic Monteagle Township; the rivers continues northeast into geographic Carlow Township in the municipality of Carlow/Mayo, passes over the Conroy Rapids and enters the Conroy Marsh, a 24 km2 provincially significant wetland. As the river flows through the marsh, it first passes into the municipality of Brudenell and Raglan, Renfrew County takes in the right tributary Little Mississippi River; the river reaches its mouth as a right tributary of the Madawaska River in geographic Radcliffe Township in the municipality of Madawaska Valley, near the community of Mayhews Landing. The Madawska River flows via the Ottawa River to the Saint Lawrence River. In the second half of the 19th century, the river was used to transport logs out of the forests surrounding its watershed.
Now, parts of this river have been turned into a provincial waterway park as well as a provincial nature reserve. The river alternates between fast flowing portions in steep sided gorges to slower movement through post-glacial sand flats. In these are changes in the river course has created ox-bows and abandoned ox-bows that are now ponds and wetlands. Group of Seven artist A. J. Casson painted a number of scenes from this region, including one titled "Conroy Marsh" and several along the York River itself. Egan Chute Farm Chute High Falls, Baptiste Lake High Falls, Benoir Lake Little Mississippi River Papineau Creek Alder Creek Salmon Trout Creek Mallard Creek Bresnahan Creek Bentley Creek L'Amable Creek Clark Creek Faraday Creek Baptiste Lake McGarry Creek Hound Creek Hudson Creek Hamilton Creek Lighthouse Creek Chainy Creek Elephant Creek Benoir Lake Allen Creek Fourcorner Creek Kingscote Creek Mink Creek North York River Clyde Creek List of Ontario rivers
Greater Madawaska is an incorporated township in Renfrew County in eastern Ontario, created on January 1, 2001, through the amalgamation of the Township of Bagot and Blythfield. As of 2011, it has a population of 2,518; the largest communities in the township are the villages of Griffith. The municipal offices are located in Calabogie. Other communities in the township include Ashdad, Barrett Chute, Black Donald, Camel Chute, Hurds Lake, Lower Dacre, Mount St. Patrick, Spruce Hedge and Wilson; the ghost towns of Khartum and Balvenie are located in the township. Two fire towers were located in the township in the middle of the 20th century; these were located at Matawatchan. These were put out of use in 1970; the township is composed of the geographic townships of Bagot, Brougham and Matawatchan. The town borders in downstream order Centennial Lake, Black Donald Lake, Norcan Lake and Calabogie Lake, all four on the Madawaska River, is located in the northern section of the Ottawa River Valley; the Calabogie Peaks ski resort is located in the township.
The Kingston and Pembroke Railway ran through the town, with stations at Ashdad and Calabogie, until it was abandoned in 1986. It has now become the K&P Rail Trail; the Calabogie Motorsports Park is a racing venue that hosts regional road racing and is the main circuit in the Ottawa metropolitan area. Much of the National Film Board's classic 1968 film, The Best Damn Fiddler from Calabogie to Kaladar, was shot on farmland around Barryvale. List of townships in Ontario Official website Balvenie and Its People
Eastern Ontario is a secondary region of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario which lies in a wedge-shaped area between the Ottawa River and St. Lawrence River, it shares water boundaries with Quebec to the north and New York State to the east and south, as well as a small land boundary with the Vaudreuil-Soulanges region of Quebec to the east. It includes the census divisions of the following: the counties of Prescott and Russell, Stormont and Glengarry, Renfrew and Grenville, Frontenac and Lennox and Addington; some sources may include Hastings, Prince Edward, sometimes Northumberland in the definition of Eastern Ontario, but others classify them as Central Ontario. The region may be referred to as Southeastern Ontario to differentiate it from the Northern Ontario secondary region of Northeastern Ontario. French explorers and fur traders were the first recorded Europeans to pass through this region. Samuel de Champlain, traversed the Ottawa River in 1615 on his way westward to the Great Lakes.
The largest city in the region is the city of Ottawa, capital of Canada, which accounts for 60% of Eastern Ontario's population. Kingston, itself once capital of the Province of Canada, is the other major city in the region outside of the National Capital Region. Much of the remainder of the region relies on tourism. Heavier reliance on recreation and tourism exists in the more rugged Renfrew county in the northwest of Eastern Ontario. Of all Ontario's regions, parts of Eastern Ontario are the most influenced by the United Empire Loyalists, American settlers who moved to Upper Canada out of loyalty to the British Crown during and after the American Revolutionary War; the Loyalist influence has a presence in the counties of Lennox and Addington and Grenville, Lanark and Prince Edward. In Ottawa and Russell, Stormont and Glengarry, Renfrew, Eastern Ontario is home to the largest Franco-Ontarian community within Ontario. Extensive immigration by Scottish Highlanders from the Highland land clearances took place around the time of the United Empire Loyalist migration.
After the Loyalist period, more waves of Highland emigration came from Inverness-shire, Scotland to seek a better quality of life. The majority of these Scottish immigrants settled in the specific Highland community Glengarry County. Large numbers of Irish Catholics from Cork and surrounding counties settled in the area in the decades following the War of 1812, the majority of them in or near present-day Ottawa. Many arrived through government backed immigration schemes to settle unoccupied lands and fill labour shortages. Along with the Franco-Ontarians in particular, they made up the majority of canal builders on the large Rideau Canal project and were employed in the area's extensive lumber industry. Through the last century, newer immigrant groups have added to the cultural mix in Ottawa itself. There are still a large number of Francophones in Eastern Ontario in Prescott and Russell United Counties; the climate of Eastern Ontario is humid continental with large seasonal variation. Snow and ice are dominant during the winter season.
Ottawa receives close to 250 cm of snowfall over an average winter and snow remains on the ground for a couple of months, at minimum. Winters are celebrated in Eastern Ontario; the average temperature in January is −6 °C. In recent years, there seems to be a trend towards snow free periods in mid-winter. However, in the winter months of 2008, there were records levels of snow fall. Ice storms are relatively common on lower terrain if compared with other parts of the country. One such large storm caused vast power outages and affected the local economy, known as the 1998 Ice Storm. Winters are more severe and longer along the Ottawa River in higher terrain of Renfrew County than further south along the Upper St. Lawrence River shoreline. Summers are warm and humid in the Ottawa and St. Lawrence valleys lasting a little longer than winter does in duration; the average July maximum temperature is 27 °C. Temperatures exceed 35 °C, during periods of hot weather, high humidity is an aggravating factor, pushing the temperature into the 40's with the humidex.
Thunderstorms are on occasion severe, causing property damage. Spring and fall are changeable seasons, prone to extremes in temperature and unpredictable swings in conditions. Average annual precipitation is around 950 mm; the eastern section of Eastern Ontario, east and southeast of Ottawa, including the towns of Cornwall and Hawkesbury is a flat plain, dotted with some extensive woodlots and boggy marshes, but is farmland. Certain sections here are prone to low-lying flooding and spring ice jams on the banks of the South Nation River; the Laurentian Highlands, which form a small section of the extensive Canadian Shield, cuts through the western section from the Upper Ottawa River valley southeast toward to the St. Lawrence River around Gananoque. Here sedimentary rock can be found folding over the Shield; this is the portion where the greatest concentration of inland lakes are found. In Renfrew County, this higher terrain is called the'Madawaska Highlands' after a major river that bisects these hills.
Some highland peaks are over 400 m higher than the Ottawa River. The picturesque area of the St. Lawrence River bordering New York State is known as the Thousand Islands region reflected by its numerous small islands; the bu
The Bonnechere River is a river in the Saint Lawrence River drainage basin in Nipissing District and Renfrew County in eastern and northeastern Ontario, Canada. The river flows from Algonquin Provincial Park to the Ottawa River east and north of the town of Renfrew; the river's name is thought to come from the French "bonne chère" meaning "good cheer". The Bonnechere River begins in Algonquin Provincial Park at McKaskill Lake in geographic Clancy Township in the Unorganized South Part of Nipissing District, it heads north into geographic Niven Township loops back southeast into Clancy Township, under a Hydro One transmission corridor and into geographic Guthrie Township. It continues southeast through the Crooked Chute, over the High Falls, through the Stacks Rapids to the unincorporated place Basin Depot, located on a former logging road; the river continues southeast out of the park at Boundary access point, enters geographic Burns Township in Madawaska Valley, Renfrew County heads into geographic Richards Township in Killaloe and Richards, Renfrew County, takes in the left tributary Pine River, passes through the Jack Chute Rapids, reaches Round Lake, where it takes in the right tributary Sherwood River.
The rivers leaves the lake at Grassy Bay controlled by the Round Lake Dam and reaches Golden Lake in North Algona Wilberforce, where it is crossed by Ontario Highway 60. The lake is home to Killaloe at the west and the Algonquins of Pikwàkanagàn First Nation at the southeast. From Golden Lake until the river reaches Admaston/Bromley downstream, the river forms the boundary between North Algona Wilberforce and Bonnechere Valley; the Bonnechere River leaves Golden Lake controlled by the Golden Lake Dam. The river reaches its mouth at Lac des Chats on the Ottawa River near the settlement of Fergusons Beach; the river drains an area of 2,400 square kilometres. During the 19th century, the river was used to transport white pine logs from the forested areas surrounding the river. A number of hydroelectric plants have been built on the river; the Bonnechère Caves, formed from ancient limestone, are located by the river near the village of Eganville, Ontario, in the hamlet of Fourth Chute, Ontario. The First Chute of the river is where the Bonnechere empties at Castleford.
The Second Chute is in Renfrew. The Third Chute is in Ontario; the Fourth Chute is in the small village Fourth Chute, the Fifth Chute is in Eganville, Ontario. There are two provincial parks along its length: the Bonnechere River Provincial Park and the Bonnechere Provincial Park; the Bonnechere River lies in a 175 million year old rift valley called the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben. Over the years, songs have been written about the Bonnechere River including the recent "In The Arms Of The Bonnechere River" by Ottawa Valley singer/songwriter, Terry McLeish; each year the river is host to a raft run between the fourth chute. Arranged by local Shriners the run has taken on a less official status, occurring with little to no organization apart from its pre-determined date during Victoria Day weekend. Participants design and build a raft or anything else they hope will take them down the river; the river presents natural obstacles in the form of light rapids. There is no competitive angle to the run with no prize at the end other than a good time.
Most participants are young adults from the area returning to visit friends and family. Having surpassed its twenty-fourth year, the river run is a local tradition. Golden Lake Scharfe Creek Eadys Creek Beaudrys Creek Browns Creek Sauers Creek Cochrane Creek Brennans Creek Round Lake Turners Creek Reserve Creek Jacks Creek Sherwood River Byers Creek Pine River Robitaille Creek Dupuis Creek Hogan Creek Jenkins Creek Batise Creek Gross Creek McGuire Creek North Bonnechere River Fairy Creek Madawaska River - nearby river with similar characteristics
University of Guelph
The University of Guelph is a comprehensive public research university in Guelph, Canada. It was established in 1964 after the amalgamation of Ontario Agricultural College, the MacDonald Institute, the Ontario Veterinary College, has since grown to an institution of more than 32,000 students and over 1,500 faculty as of fall 2015, it offers 94 undergraduate degrees, 48 graduate programs, 6 associate degrees in many different disciplines. The Veterinary medicine program at the University of Guelph was ranked 4th in the world in 2015; the University of Guelph is ranked 4th in Canada in Maclean's "University Rankings 2018" in the Comprehensive category, which includes universities that conduct a significant degree of research and offer a wide range of undergraduate and professional degrees. It is given top marks for student satisfaction among medium-sized universities in Canada by The Globe and Mail, it has held these rankings with its reputation, innovative research-intensive programs, lively campus life cited as particular strengths.
According to the Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, the university's Hospitality and Tourism Management program has Canada's highest research index. The University of Guelph has been ranked 50th by Times Higher Education in their list of the top 100 universities under 50 years old; the university has a key focus on life science and has ranked 76–100 in the world by ARWU. The faculty at the University of Guelph hold 28 Canada Research Chair positions in the research areas of natural sciences, health sciences and social sciences. Academic achievements include the first scientific validation of water on Mars, Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer on board the Curiosity rover, the Barcode of Life project for species identification; the University of Guelph traces its origins back to when the Ontario government bought 200 hectares of farmland from Frederick William Stone and opened the Ontario School of Agriculture on May 1, 1874, renamed the Ontario Agricultural College in 1880. The Experimental Farm has been part of the original project along with the museum of agriculture and horticulture.
Its first building was Moreton Lodge, located where Johnston Hall now stands, which included classrooms, residences, a library, a dining room. In 1874, the school started an apiculture department, teaching students about bees and beekeeping, in a dedicated building. In more recent years, the program has continued at the Honey Bee Research Centre located in the Arboretum, continuing research on honeybee health, providing apiculture and beekeeping courses and offering "many other educational experiences" including informative videos for beekeepers; the Macdonald Institute was established in 1903 to house women's home economics programs, nature studies, some domestic art and science. It was named after its financier, Sir William Macdonald, who worked to promote domestic sciences in rural Canada, founded Macdonald College and McGill University College; the Ontario Veterinary College, founded in Toronto in 1862, was moved to Guelph in 1922. Famous economist John Kenneth Galbraith was an undergraduate at the college.
In 1919 the Ontario Agricultural College aimed at recruiting "farm boys" with a low cost, two year program and "the lowest possible rate" for room and board. The Ontario Legislature amalgamated the three colleges into the single body of the University of Guelph on May 8, 1964; the University of Guelph Act brought about the Board of Governors to oversee administrative operations and financial management, the Senate to address academic concerns. The non-denominational graduate and undergraduate institution was, remains known for the agricultural and veterinary programs that shaped it. Wellington College was established shortly after the University of Guelph Act, five years was split three ways into the College of Arts, which exists in the present day, the College of Physical Science and the College of Social Science; the Macdonald Institute would be renamed the College of Family and Consumer Studies during the split. After this split, the University of Guelph started reorganizing into its present-day form, starting from the establishment of the College of Biological Sciences in 1971.
The College of Physical Science would be married to the OAC's School of Engineering in 1989, creating the College of Engineering and Physical Sciences. The College of Social Science and the College of Family and Consumer Studies were joined to create the College of Social and Applied Human Sciences in 1998; the College of Management and Economics would be established from the segregation of offered business and economic degrees and courses in 2006. The university is named after the city. Guelph comes from the Italian Guelfo and the Bavarian-Germanic Welf known as Guelf, it is a reference to the reigning British monarch at the time Guelph was founded, King George IV, whose family was from the House of Hanover, a younger branch of the House of Welf was sometimes spelled as Gwelf. The main university campus spans 412 hectares, including the 165-hectare University of Guelph Arboretum and a 12-hectare research park. Earliest examples of the campus' architecture date back to the inception of the Ontario Agricultural College and include the President's house and Raithby House, which were constructed with local limestone.
The campus has a number of notable midcentury modernist buildings in the Brutalism style, which were constructed in the 1960s as part of the school's
Unorganized South Nipissing District
Unorganized South Nipissing District is an unorganized area in north-central Ontario, in the District of Nipissing. It is entirely within and includes most of Algonquin Provincial Park. Acanthus Achray Brent Canoe Lake Coristine Daventry Government Park Kilrush Kiosk Lake Traverse Mink Lake Odenback Radiant Stuart Population trend: Population in 2011: 80 Population in 2006: 67 Population in 2001: 51 Population in 1996: 636 Population in 1991: 628 Most of the population lives outside of Algonquin Park on the northern or northwestern fringes of the region. According to the 2016 Census, the blocks that encompass the Townships of Boulter, Lauder and Boyd had a combined population of 57; the area around Loxton Lake in Ballantyne Township had a population of 26. Census Block 35480228215 which covers parts of Bronson and Stratton Townships in the Northeast corner of Algonquin Park had a population of 5, while 15 people lived in Census Block 35480228146 which covers most of the western part of the region.
List of townships in Ontario