Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière, was a French playwright and poet regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature. His extant works include comedies, tragicomedies, comédie-ballets and more, his plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed at the Comédie-Française more than those of any other playwright today. His influence is such that the French language itself is referred to as the "language of Molière". Born into a prosperous family and having studied at the Collège de Clermont, Molière was well suited to begin a life in the theatre. Thirteen years as an itinerant actor helped him polish his comic abilities while he began writing, combining Commedia dell'arte elements with the more refined French comedy. Through the patronage of aristocrats including Philippe I, Duke of Orléans—the brother of Louis XIV—Molière procured a command performance before the King at the Louvre. Performing a classic play by Pierre Corneille and a farce of his own, The Doctor in Love, Molière was granted the use of salle du Petit-Bourbon near the Louvre, a spacious room appointed for theatrical performances.
He was granted the use of the theatre in the Palais-Royal. In both locations Molière found success among Parisians with plays such as The Affected Ladies, The School for Husbands and The School for Wives; this royal favour brought a royal pension to the title Troupe du Roi. Molière continued as the official author of court entertainments. Despite the adulation of the court and Parisians, Molière's satires attracted criticism from churchmen. For Tartuffe's impiety, the Catholic Church denounced this study of religious hypocrisy followed by the Parliament's ban, while Don Juan was withdrawn and never restaged by Molière, his hard work in so many theatrical capacities took its toll on his health and, by 1667, he was forced to take a break from the stage. In 1673, during a production of his final play, The Imaginary Invalid, Molière, who suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis, was seized by a coughing fit and a haemorrhage while playing the hypochondriac Argan, he finished the performance but died a few hours later.
Molière was born in Paris, the son of Jean Poquelin and Marie Cressé, the daughter of a prosperous bourgeois family. Upon seeing him for the first time, a maid exclaimed, "Le nez!", a reference to the infant's large nose. Molière was called "Le Nez" by his family from that time, he lost his mother when he was ten and he does not seem to have been close to his father. After his mother's death, he lived with his father above the Pavillon des Singes on the rue Saint-Honoré, an affluent area of Paris, it is that his education commenced with studies at a Parisian elementary school. In 1631, Jean Poquelin purchased from the court of Louis XIII the posts of "valet de chambre ordinaire et tapissier du Roi", his son assumed the same posts in 1641. The title required an initial cost of 1,200 livres. Molière studied as a provincial lawyer some time around 1642 in Orléans, but it is not documented that he qualified. So far he had followed his father's plans. In June 1643, when Molière was 21, he decided to abandon his social class and pursue a career on the stage.
Taking leave of his father, he joined the actress Madeleine Béjart, with whom he had crossed paths before, founded the Illustre Théâtre with 630 livres. They were joined by Madeleine's brother and sister; the new theatre troupe went bankrupt in 1645. Molière had become head of the troupe, due in part to his acting prowess and his legal training. However, the troupe had acquired large debts for the rent of the theatre, for which they owed 2000 livres. Historians differ as to whether the lover of a member of his troupe paid his debts, it was at this time that he began to use the pseudonym Molière inspired by a small village of the same name in the Midi near Le Vigan. It was likely that he changed his name to spare his father the shame of having an actor in the family. After his imprisonment, he and Madeleine began a theatrical circuit of the provinces with a new theatre troupe. Few plays survive from this period; the most noteworthy are Le Docteur Amoureux. In the course of his travels he met Armand, Prince of Conti, the governor of Languedoc, who became his patron, named his company after him.
This friendship ended when Armand, having contracted syphilis from a courtesan, turned towards religion and joined Moliè
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Marquise-Thérèse de Gorla
Marquise-Thérèse de Gorla known under her stage name Mademoiselle Du Parc, was a French actress and ballet dancer. She was one of the stars of the Molière's company, she was known for her love affairs and as an object of affection for many famous people. She was the daughter of Giacomo Gorla, an "operator" in Lyon in 1635, she seems to have started as a dancer and actress in a travelling troupe, before becoming a member of Molière's company in the city of Lyon. On February 23, 1653 she married one of her colleagues in the troupe, René Berthelot, who had the stage name "Du Parc". After the marriage she took on the stage name as Mlle. Du Parc, he was an actor. Gorla was the subject of many poems by Corneille; the troupe of Molière, having arrived at Paris, Du Parc performed before the monarch October 24, 1658 in the Louvre in the role of Hippolytus, before the public at the Petit Bourbon. In 1659–1660; the Du Parc couple was active in the Theatre du Marais. Around Easter 1660, they returned to the Molière's troupe, where she was the star performing lead roles in plays as well as ballets.
Larousse and Lyonnet both relate the following testimony: "She made some notable antics, because we saw her legs and part of her thighs through its split skirt on both sides, with silk stockings attached to the top of panties", something which aroused great attention by contemporaries. She left the band to join that of the Hôtel de Bourgogne and author Jean Racine; this quasi-kidnapping was the result of a quarrel between Molière. The latter, 18 years older, had provided the first aid, support and sometimes its best actors. Racine wrote the role of Andromaque for her, she died as one of the greatest stars in France. She was suspected to have been poisoned, but the probable cause of death seems to have been a miscarriage or an incompetent abortion. During the Poison Affair, Racine was pointed out by La Voisin, who claimed that he had poisoned de Gorla, but this claim was never examinedShe is the subject of the 1997 French language film Marquise
Armande-Grésinde-Claire-Élisabeth Béjart was a French actress, one of the most famous French stage actors of the 17th century. She belonged to a famous theatre family in 17th-century France, she was the daughter of Madeleine Béjart. In 1643 her mother Madeleine co-founded, with Molière, the theatre company called Illustre Théâtre. Molière directed her education and she grew up under his eye. Armande married Molière in 1662, when he was 40 and she 17. Together, they had three children: Marie Madeleine Esprit and Pierre Jean-Baptiste Armand, she played her first important role in Molière's company in June 1663, as Élise in the Critique de l'école des femmes. She was out of the cast for a short time in 1664, when she bore Molière a son, with Louis XIV and Henrietta of England standing sponsors to the child, her mother had a relationship with Molière which continued after her marriage to him. In the spring, beginning with the fêtes at Versailles given by the king to Anne of Austria and Maria Theresa of Spain, she started her long list of important roles.
She was at her best as Celimène her own finished portrait, in Le Misanthrope, just as admirable as Angélique in Le Malade imaginaire. She was the Elmire at the first performance of Tartuffe, the Lucile of Le Bourgeois gentilhomme. All these parts were written by her husband to display her talents to the best advantage and she made the most of her opportunities. Neither was happy. On the strength of a scurrilous anonymous pamphlet, La Fameuse Comédienne, ou histoire de la Guérin, her character was held unduly low, she was guilty of indifference and ingratitude of infidelity. But Molière too could not resist the charm and grace which fascinated others, they were reconciled. After Molière's death, the secession of Baron and several other actors, the rivalry of the Hôtel de Bourgogne and the development of the Palais-Royal, by royal patent, into the home of French opera, she brought together actors from the Théâtre du Palais-Royal and the Théâtre du Marais to form the Théâtre Guénégaud on 23 May 1673.
The combination, known as the troupe du roi, at first was unfortunate, but in 1679 they secured Mlle du Champmeslé absorbed the company of the Hôtel de Bourgogne, in 1680 the Comédie-Française was born. On 31 May 1677, she married her second husband, the actor Eustache François Guérin, had one son by him, she became a Sociétaire of the Comédie-Française, as a member of its pioneer troupe of actors in 1680. She retired 14 October 1694 with a pension of 1000 pounds. Three years after the death of Molière, Armande paid 5400 pounds for a house in Meudon a suburb of Paris; this house had been owned by the surgeon Ambroise Paré from 1550. She lived there with her second husband, until her death on November 30, 1700, her house is now the Museum of History of Meudon. Her portrait is given in a well-known scene in Le Bourgeois gentilhomme. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Béjart". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press.
Pp. 659–660. Madeleine Jurgens et Elisabeth Maxfield-Miller, Cent ans de recherches sur Molière, sur sa famille et sur les comédiens de sa troupe, Archives nationales, 1963
Béjart is the name of several French actors of the 17th century. The four actors listed here were children, grandchildren, of Marie Hérve and Joseph Béjart, the holder of a small government post. There were 10 children in the family, poor and lived in the Marais the theatrical quarter of Paris. Four of the children became notable in the acting profession. Madeleine Béjart, was a French actress and theatre director, one of the most famous French stage actors of the 17th-century. Madeleine was the second child of Marie-Herve Bejart, she debuted with her elder brother Joseph at the Theatre du Marais and in the provinces in the late 1630s. Madeleine headed a travelling company to which her sister Geneviève — who played as Mlle Hervez — and her brothers belonged, before they joined Molière in forming l'Illustre Théâtre. In 1643 she co-founded, with the Illustre Théâtre, of which she was co-director, she was described as a skillful administrator with the ability to avoid conflicts among the staff. She could choose to perform any of the roles in the plays by Molière.
She became famous from her performances in his plays. She chose smaller parts and left the main parts to Mademoiselle Du Parc and her daughter Armande Béjart, she had a relationship with Molière. In 1662 Molière married her daughter Armande; this marriage does not seem to have ended her relationship with Molière. She remained with Molière until her death on 17 February 1672. Madeleine had an illegitimate daughter by an Italian count, her conduct on her early travels had not been exemplary, but whatever her private relations with Molière may have been, however acrimonious and violent her temper and her family remained faithful to his fortunes, she was a tall, handsome blonde, an excellent actress in soubrette parts. Among her creations were Marotte in Les Précieuses ridicules, Lisette in L'École des maris, Dorine in Tartuffe. A contemporary, Georges de Scudery, described her:"She was beautiful, she was gallant, she was intelligent, she sang, she danced well, she played all kinds of instruments, she wrote nicely in verse and prose and her conversation was entertaining.
She was over all one of the best actresses of her age and her acting had so much charm, that it inspired all the feigned passion of the plays one saw her represent at the Theatre." Madeleine's daughter, Armande was a famous actress and married Molière. Their brothers included Joseph Béjart, a strolling player and a member of Molière's first company, accompanying him in his theatrical wanderings, was with him when he returned permanently to Paris, dying soon after, he created the parts of Lélie in L'Étourdie, Eraste in Le Dépit amoureux. Joseph's brother Louis was in Molière's company during the last years of touring, he created many parts in his brother-in-law's plays — Valère in Le Dépit amoureux, Dubois in Le Misanthrope, Alcantor in Le Mariage forcé, Don Luis in Le Festin de Pierre — and was an actor of varied talents. As a result of a wound received when interfering in a street brawl, he became lame and retired in 1670 with a pension, the first granted by the company to a comedian. Maurice Béjart, choreographer Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Béjart". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 659–660
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+