London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Douglas Coupland is a Canadian novelist and artist. His fiction is complemented by recognized works in design and visual art arising from his early formal training, his first novel, the 1991 international bestseller Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, popularized terms such as "McJob" and "Generation X". He has published thirteen novels, two collections of short stories, seven non-fiction books, a number of dramatic works and screenplays for film and television, he is a columnist for Financial Times. He is a frequent contributor to The New York Times, e-flux journal and Vice, his art exhibits include Everywhere is Anywhere is Anything is Everything, exhibited at the Vancouver Art Gallery, the Royal Ontario Museum and the Museum of Contemporary Canadian Art, Bit Rot at Rotterdam's Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art and the Villa Stuck. Coupland is an Officer of the Order of Canada, a member of the Order of British Columbia, he published his thirteenth novel Worst. Person. Ever. in 2012.
He released an updated version of City of Glass and a biography of Marshall McLuhan for Penguin Canada in their Extraordinary Canadians series, called Extraordinary Canadians: Marshall McLuhan. He is the presenter of the 2010 Massey Lectures, a companion novel to the lectures, Player One – What Is to Become of Us: A Novel in Five Hours. Coupland has been longlisted twice for the Scotiabank Giller Prize in 2006 and 2010, was a finalist for the Writers' Trust Fiction Prize in 2009, was nominated for the Hubert Evans Non-Fiction Prize in 2011 for Extraordinary Canadians: Marshall McLuhan. Coupland was born on December 30, 1961 at Royal Canadian Air Force base RCAF Station Baden-Soellingen in Baden-Söllingen, West Germany, the second of four sons to Dr. Douglas Charles Thomas Coupland, a medical officer in the Royal Canadian Air Force, homemaker C. Janet Coupland, a graduate in comparative religion from McGill University. In 1965, the Coupland family relocated to West Vancouver, British Columbia, where Coupland's father opened private family medical practice at the completion of his military tour.
Coupland describes his upbringing as producing a "blank slate". "My mother comes from a sour-faced family of preachers who from the 19th century to well into the 20th scoured the prairies thumping Bibles. Her parents unwittingly transmitted their values to my mother. My father's family weren't that different."Graduating from Sentinel Secondary School in West Vancouver in 1979, Coupland went to McGill University with the intention of studying the sciences physics. Coupland returned to Vancouver to attend art school. At the Emily Carr College of Art and Design on Granville Island in Vancouver, in Coupland's words, "I... had the best four years of my life. It's the one place I've felt totally at home, it was a magic era between the PC goon squads. Everyone talked to everyone and you could ask anybody anything." Coupland graduated from Emily Carr in 1984 with a focus on sculpture, moved on to study at the European Design Institute in Milan and the Hokkaido College of Art & Design in Sapporo, Japan.
He completed courses in business science, fine art, industrial design in Japan in 1986. Established as a designer working in Tokyo, Coupland suffered a skin condition brought on by Tokyo's summer climate, returned to Vancouver. Before leaving Japan, Coupland had sent a postcard ahead to a friend in Vancouver; the friend's husband, a magazine editor, read the postcard and offered Coupland a job writing for the magazine. Coupland began writing for magazines as a means of paying his studio bills. Reflecting on his becoming a writer, Coupland has admitted. I never wanted to be a writer. Now that I do it, there's nothing else I'd rather do." He has stated that he has not been employed since 1988. From 1989 to 1990, Coupland lived in the Mojave Desert working on a handbook about the birth cohort that followed the Baby Boom, he received a $22,500 advance from St. Martin's Press to write the nonfiction handbook. Instead, Coupland wrote Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, it was rejected in Canada before being accepted by an American publishing house in 1991.
Reflecting on the writing of his debut novel years Coupland said, "I remember spending my days dizzy with loneliness and feeling like I'd sold the family cow for three beans. I suppose. I was trying to imagine a life for myself on paper that wasn't happening in reality."Not an instant success, the novel increased in sales attracting a following behind its core idea of "Generation X". Over his own protestations, Coupland was dubbed the spokesperson for a generation, stating in 2006 "I was just doing what I do and people sort of stuck that on to me. It's not like I spend my days thinking that way." Terms popularized by Coupland in the novel, including Generation X and McJob entered the vernacular. His second novel, Shampoo Planet, was published by Pocket Books in 1992, it focused on the generation after Generation X, the group called "Global Teens" in his first novel and now labeled Generation Y. Coupland permanently moved back to Vancouver, he had spent his "twenties scouring the globe thinking there had to be a better city out there, until it dawned on that Vancouver is the best one going".
He wrote a collection of small books, which together were compiled, after the advice of his publisher, into the book Life After God. This col
Bilthoven is a village in the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is a part of the municipality of De Bilt, it has a railway station with connections to Utrecht and Baarn. It is home to the Netherlands National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, RIVM; the statistical area "Bilthoven", which can include the surrounding countryside, has a population of around 17560. The history of the town goes back to 20 August 1843, the day when the Utrecht-Amersfoort railway track began operating. A station was placed at the junction of the track line with the Soestdijkseweg; the Dutch railways did not plan a station on this spot. Around 1900, the first villas appeared round the new station; the train traffic to and from the new station increased at the same time: in 1902, one could take the train in both directions 52 times per day. As a result of this rail connection with the city, the fact that the land nearby was cheap, the number of villas continued to increase rapidly. At this time the name of the town was still Bilt-station, but since it was not just a station anymore, the name was changed during a Council meeting on the 23 May 1917.
Several names were presented, among which Bilt-Buiten, the Biltwijk and the Leyen. The name Biltsche Duinen was chosen. However, this name was not accepted by the Dutch railway company. For this reason, on 11 October 1917 another Council meeting was dedicated to the naming of the village. At this Council meeting several names were discussed, such as Bilt-Hoog and the Bilthof; the majority of the Council agreed to the name of Bilthoven, suggested by Council member Melchior. Three international peace groups were founded in Bilthoven in the aftermath of World War I: the International Fellowship of Reconciliation in 1919, Service Civil International in 1920, War Resisters' International in 1921; the founding meetings of all three groups took place at the home of Betty Boeke. The experimental school De Werkplaats Kindergemeenschap, founded by Kees Boeke, has been based in Bilthoven since 1926; the former Dutch Queen Beatrix went to this school. Bilthoven railway station
Charles Alexander Jencks is a cultural theorist, landscape designer, architectural historian, co-founder of the Maggie’s Cancer Care Centres. He became famous in the 1980s as theorist of Postmodernism. In recent years Jencks has devoted time to landform architecture in Scotland; these landscapes include the Garden of Cosmic Speculation and earthworks at Jupiter Artland outside Edinburgh. His continuing project Crawick Multiverse, commissioned by the Duke of Buccleuch, opened in 2015 near Sanquhar. Born in Baltimore, Maryland, on June 21, 1939, Charles Alexander Jencks was the son of composer Gardner Platt Jencks and Ruth DeWitt Pearl. Jencks attended Brooks School in North Andover and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in English literature at Harvard University in 1961 and a Master of Arts degree in architecture from the Harvard Graduate School of Design in 1965. In 1965 Jencks moved to the United Kingdom where he now has houses in London. In 1970 Jencks received a PhD in architectural history, studying under the radical modernist Reyner Banham at University College, London.
This thesis was the source for his Modern Movements in Architecture which criticised the suppression of some Modernist variations. Jencks married Pamela Balding in 1961. Married secondly Maggie Keswick by whom he has two children: John Jencks, a London-based filmmaker, married to Amy Agnew, Lily Clare Jencks, who in 2014 wed Roger Keeling. Jencks married Louisa Lane Fox as his third wife in 2006, is thus the stepfather of her son Henry Lane Fox and daughter Martha Lane Fox. Jencks' first architectural design was a studio in the woods, a cheap mass-produced garage structure of $5,000 – titled The Garagia Rotunda, where he spent part of the summers with his family; the ad hoc use of readymade materials was championed in his polemical text with Nathan Silver Adhocism – the Case for Improvisation in 1971 and 2013. Jencks' architectural designs experimented with ideas from complexity theory, his London house was designed with Maggie Keswick and Postmodern architects including Terry Farrell and Michael Graves.
After his second wife Maggie Keswick Jencks died in 1995, Jencks helped co-found and Maggie's Cancer Caring Centres. Based on the notion of self-help and the fact that cancer patients are involved in a long, drawn-out struggle, the Centres provide social and psychological help in an attractive setting next to large hospitals, their architecture and art are designed to support both patients and caregivers and to give dignity to those who, in the past hid their disease. Maggie Keswick Jencks is the author of the book The Chinese Garden, on which her husband worked. Jencks switched to landscape design as a site for symbolic exploration when Maggie asked Charles to design in the family home and garden in Scotland; the result in 2003 was the Garden of Cosmic Speculation, a series of twenty areas designed around various metaphors such as the DNA garden, Quark Walk, Fractal terrace and Comet Bridge. Further hybrid landforms and symbolic sculptures were built in Edinburgh, Long Island, Suncheon South Korea, other countries, some of, published in The Universe in The Landscape, 2011.
From 2010, Jencks started work on the Crawick Multiverse, a fifty-five acre site in southwest Scotland. This project developed for Richard Buccleuch, opened in 2015; the Metaphysical Landscape, was an exhibition of sculpture at Jupiter Artland, 2011. Jencks exhibited at the Merz Gallery, Sanquhar 2016; the Garden of Cosmic Speculation, designed in part by Jencks and begun in 1988, was dedicated to Jencks' late wife Maggie Keswick Jencks. Jencks, his wife and their friends designed the garden based on natural and scientific processes. Jencks' goal was to celebrate nature, but he incorporated elements from the modern sciences into the design; the garden contains species of plants. Preserving paths and the traditional beauty of the garden is still his concern, but Jencks enhances the cosmic landscape using new tools and artificial materials. Just as Japanese Zen gardens, Persian paradise gardens, the English and French Renaissance gardens were analogies for the universe, the design represents the cosmic and cultural evolution of the contemporary world.
The garden is a microcosm – as one walks through the gardens they experience the universe in miniature. According to Jencks, gardens are autobiographical because they reveal the happiest moments, the tragedies, the truths of the owner and family; as the garden developed, so too did such sciences as cosmology, this allowed a dynamic interaction between the unfolding universe, an unfolding science, a questioning design. Jencks believes that contemporary science is a great moving force for creativity, because it tells us the truth about the way the universe is and shows us the patterns of beauty; as explained in his book The Universe in the Landscape, his work is content-driven. His many landforms are based on the idea that landforming is a radical hybrid activity combining gardens, urbanism, architecture and epigraphy. Thus, the landforms include enigmatic writing and complex symbolism, they provoke the visitor to interpret landscape on the smallest scale. Jencks has become a leading figure in British landscape architecture.
His landscape work is inspired by black holes, genetics, chaos theory and solitons. In Edinburgh, Scotland, he designed the landform at the Scottish Nationa
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland. It is the seat of government of the Netherlands. With a metropolitan population of more than 1 million, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam; the Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, with a population of 2.7 million, is the 13th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation; the Hague is the seat of the Cabinet, the States General, the Supreme Court, the Council of State of the Netherlands, but the city is not the constitutional capital of the Netherlands, Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander lives in Huis ten Bosch and works at the Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, together with Queen Máxima; the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and other Dutch companies.
Most foreign embassies in the Netherlands and 200 international governmental organisations are located in the city, including the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court, which makes The Hague one of the major cities hosting a United Nations institution along with New York City, Vienna and Nairobi. Because of this, The Hague is known as the home of international law and arbitration; the Hague was first mentioned as Die Haghe in 1242. In the 15th century, the name des Graven hage came into use "The Count's Wood", with connotations like "The Count's Hedge, Private Enclosure or Hunting Grounds". "'s Gravenhage" was used for the city from the 17th century onward. Today, this name is only used in some official documents like marriage certificates; the city itself uses "Den Haag" in all its communications. Little is known about the origin of The Hague. There are no contemporary documents describing it, sources are of dubious reliability. What is certain is that The Hague was founded by the last counts of the House of Holland.
Floris IV owned two residences in the area, but purchased a third court situated by the present-day Hofvijver in 1229 owned by a woman called Meilendis. Floris IV intended to rebuild the court into a large castle, but he died in a tournament in 1234, before anything was built, his son and successor William II lived in the court, after he was elected King of the Romans in 1248, he promptly returned to The Hague, had builders turn the court into a "royal palace", which would be called the Binnenhof. He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished during the reign of his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal, still intact, is the most prominent, it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onward, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative center and residence when in Holland; the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Die Haghe in a charter dating from 1242.
It became the primary residence of the Counts of Holland in 1358, thus became the seat of many government institutions. This status allowed the village to grow. In its early years, the village was located in the ambacht, or rural district, of Monster, governed by the Lord of Monster. Seeking to exercise more direct control over the village, the Count split the village off and created a separate ambacht called Haagambacht, governed directly by the Counts of Holland; the territory of Haagambacht was expanded during the reign of Floris V. When the House of Burgundy inherited the counties of Holland and Zeeland in 1432, they appointed a stadtholder to rule in their stead with the States of Holland and West Friesland as an advisory council. Although their seat was located in The Hague, the city became subordinate to more important centres of government such as Brussels and Mechelen, from where the sovereigns ruled over the centralised Burgundian Netherlands. At the beginning of the Eighty Years' War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, as it allowed Spanish troops to occupy the town.
In 1575, the States of Holland, temporarily based in Delft considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William the Silent. In 1588, The Hague became the permanent seat of the States of Holland as well as the States General of the Dutch Republic. In order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, "city rights" have no place anymore. Only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France; as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, while the government was situated in The Hague.
When the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague expanded. Many streets were built for the large number of civil se
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012