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A madhhab is a school of thought within fiqh. The major Sunni madhhabs are Hanafi, Shafi'i and Hanbali, they emerged in the ninth and tenth centuries CE and by the twelfth century all jurists aligned themselves with a particular madhhab. These four schools recognize each other's validity and they have interacted in legal debate over the centuries. Rulings of these schools are followed across the Muslim world without exclusive regional restrictions, but they each came to dominate in different parts of the world. For example, the Maliki school is predominant in West Africa; the first centuries of Islam witnessed a number of short-lived Sunni madhhabs. The Zahiri school, identified as extinct, continues to exert influence over legal thought; the development of Shia legal schools occurred along the lines of theological differences and resulted in formation of the Twelver and Ismaili madhhabs, whose differences from Sunni legal schools are of the same order as the differences among Sunni schools. The Ibadi legal school, distinct from Sunni and Shia madhhabs, is predominant in Oman.

The transformations of Islamic legal institutions in the modern era have had profound implications for the madhhab system. With the spread of codified state laws in the Muslim world, i.e. Mughal India's Fatwa Alamgiri, the influence of the madhhabs beyond personal ritual practice depends on the status accorded to them within the national legal system. State law codification drew on rulings from multiple madhhabs, legal professionals trained in modern law schools have replaced traditional ulema as interpreters of the resulting laws. In the 20th century many Islamic jurists began to assert their intellectual independence from traditional madhhabs; the Amman Message, endorsed in 2005 by prominent Islamic scholars around the world, recognized four Sunni schools, two Shia schools, the Ibadi school and the Zahiri school. According to John Burton, “modern research shows” that fiqh was first “regionally organized” with “considerable disagreement and variety of view”. In the second century of Islam, schools of fiqh were noted for the loyalty of their jurists to the legal practices of their local communities, whether Mecca, Basra, etc.

Al-Shafi‘i writes that, `every capital of the Muslims is a seat of learning whose people follow the opinion of one of their countrymen in most of his teachings`. The "real basis" of legal doctrine in these "ancient schools" was not a body of reports of Muhammad's sayings, silent approval or those of his Companions, but the `living tradition` of the school as "expressed in the consensus of the scholars", according to Joseph Schacht, it has been asserted that madhahib were consolidated in the 9th and 10th centuries as a means of excluding dogmatic theologians, government officials and non-Sunni sects from religious discourse. Historians have differed regarding the times. One interpretation is that Sunni Islam was split into four groups: the Hanafites, Shafi'ites and Zahirites; the Hanbalites and Jarirites developed two more schools. During the era of the Islamic Gunpowders, the Ottoman Empire reaffirmed the official status of these four schools as a reaction to Shi'ite Persia; some are of the view that Sunni jurisprudence falls into two groups: Ahl al-Ra'i and Ahl al-Hadith.10th century Shi'ite scholar Ibn al-Nadim named eight groups: Maliki, Shafi'i, Imami Shi'ite, Ahl al-Hadith and Kharijite.

In the 12th century Jariri and Zahiri schools were absorbed by the Shafi'i school. Ibn Khaldun defined only three Sunni madhahib: Hanafi and one encompassing the Shafi'i, Maliki and Hanbali schools as existing noting that by the 14th-century historian the Zahiri school had become extinct, only for it to be revived again in parts of the Muslim world by the mid-20th century; the fiqh schools were in political and academic conflict with one another, vying for favor with the ruling government in order to have their representatives appointed to legislative and judiciary positions. Geographer and historian Al-Muqaddasi once satirically categorized competing madhahib with contrasting personal qualities: Hanafites conscious of being hired for official positions, appeared deft, well-informed and prudent. While such descriptions were assuredly humorous in

Zaphod Beeblebrox

Zaphod Beeblebrox is a fictional character in the various versions of the humorous science fiction story The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams. He is from a planet in the vicinity of Betelgeuse, is a "semi-half-cousin" of Ford Prefect, with whom he "shares three of the same mothers"; because of "an accident with a contraceptive and a time machine", his direct ancestors from his father are his direct descendants. This character is described across all versions as having two heads and three arms, though explanations of how he came to receive the extra appendages differed between versions; the original radio version never explained the second head, but did explain that Zaphod "grew" the third arm in the six months between meeting the character of Trillian on Earth, the start of the series. The third radio series implies that he had a third arm when growing up – the fifth has him offer to Trillian that "I'd grow my third arm back for you, baby", when they first meet. In the novel, he said the third arm was "recently... fitted just beneath his right one to help improve his ski-boxing."

According to the original Hitchhiker's radio series script book, an ad libbed comment by Mark Wing-Davey in the eighth radio episode would suggest that Zaphod had grown a fourth arm. In the television series, Ford Prefect remarks to Zaphod that "the extra arm suits you." Eoin Colfer wrote and published an official 6th book for the Hitchhiker's series, in which it is implied Zaphod's third arm may have been grown so that he would have one hand for each of Eccentrica Galumbits's breasts. In the Infocom game version of the story, Zaphod blends in on Earth by hiding his second head in a covered bird cage. In the novel The Restaurant at the End of the Universe, the ghost of Zaphod's great-grandfather has two heads; this and other information presented in the narrative prose seem to indicate that having two heads is a common – even universal – trait of Zaphod's species. For the 2005 movie, it's hinted that Zaphod "created" the second head himself when shutting off the parts of his mind that contain portions of his personality that "are not presidential," but he wanted to keep these traits, so he hid his second head under his neck and wears a large collar or scarf to keep it hidden.

As such, the movie is the only version that explains the second head. In this filmed version, the second head appears underneath the first between his chin and the top of his chest, popping up when the first head is flipped backwards; the third arm is hidden underneath Zaphod's clothing, appears to be controlled by the second head, only appears a few times, such as for tormenting Arthur Dent, piloting the spaceship Heart of Gold, or preparing a Pan Galactic Gargle Blaster. In And Another Thing... Colfer's addition to the book series, a photo is mentioned which shows Zaphod with the second head replaced by that of a woman, it is implied that Zaphod may have surgically attached this woman's head to himself, before realising he liked the idea of a second head better than he liked her, swapping her for a reproduction of his original head. Zaphod wears unique clothing that contains a mixture of bright and contrasting colours to make him stand out and be the centre of attention wherever he goes. In the television series, he wears the same outfit throughout each of the episodes, but in the movie his clothes, their style and their colour scheme change several times.

Zaphod invented the Pan Galactic Gargle Blaster. He was voted "Worst Dressed Sentient" seven consecutive times. He's been described as "the best Bang since the Big One" by Eccentrica Gallumbits, as "one hoopy frood" by others. In the seventh episode of the original radio series, the narrator describes Beeblebrox as being the "owner of the hippest place in the universe", as voted on in a poll of the readers of the fictional magazine Playbeing, he was the President of the Galaxy. He is the only man to have survived the Total Perspective Vortex, though it was established that he survived only because he was in an Electronically Synthesised Universe created for him, thus making him the most important being in that universe and thus uniquely equipped to survive its version of the Vortex, his brain-care specialist, Gag Halfrunt said, "Vell, Zaphod's just zis guy, you know?" He used his position as President of the Galaxy to steal the Heart of Gold, a spaceship taking advantage of Infinite Improbability Drive, at its unveiling.

Early in Zaphod's career he joined forces with the Safety and Civil Reassurance Administration to investigate the loss of the Starship Billion Year Bunker, on which were stored compounds so powerful a teaspoonful could blow up/infect/irradiate a whole planet, by-products of The Sirius Cybernetics Corporation synthetic personalities programme. As a character, Zaphod is hedonistic and irresponsible, narcissistic to the point of solipsism, extremely insensitive to the feelings of those around him. In the books and radio series, he is quite charismatic which causes many characters to ignore his other flaws. Douglas Adams claimed that he based Zaphod on an old friend of his from Cambridge called Johnny Simpson, who "had that nervous sort of hyperenergetic way of trying to appear relaxed."In the books, he is, accordi

Wheaton–Glenmont, Maryland

Wheaton–Glenmont was a census-designated place in Montgomery County, Maryland, at the 2000 United States Census, at which time it had a population of 57,694. For the 2010 U. S. Census the area was split into the two census-designated places of Glenmont. Wheaton–Glenmont is located at 39°3′13″N 77°3′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the place had a total area of 10.2 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 57,694 people, 19,596 households, 13,971 families living in the area; the population density was 5,635.1 people per square mile. There were 20,125 housing units at an average density of 1,965.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the area was 49.92% White, 18.83% African American, 0.40% Native American, 12.16% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 13.26% from other races, 5.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 25.92% of the population. There were 19,596 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.7% were non-families.

22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.39. In the specified area the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 32.7% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.0 males. The median income for a household in the area was $59,211, the median income for a family was $62,295. Males had a median income of $39,064 versus $32,578 for females; the per capita income for the area was $23,927. About 6.4% of families and 8.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.0% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Geographic data related to Wheaton–Glenmont at OpenStreetMap

Simon Reevell

Simon Justin Reevell is a British barrister and Conservative Party politician. He was Member of Parliament for Dewsbury in West Yorkshire during one parliament, losing his seat at the 2015 election. Reevell was raised in the West Riding of Yorkshire. After attending Manchester Polytechnic and obtaining a degree in Economics, he embarked on a career in the army as an infantry officer, but this was cut short by injury; as a result, he decided to train as a barrister and represented many members of the armed forces before courts-martial. One case, in which Reevell established that members of the TA were sent to Iraq without adequate training, led him to do all that he could to change the incumbent Labour government – which led to him standing to become a Conservative MP for Dewsbury at the 2010 general election. Based in chambers in Sheffield, he practises in general criminal law, specialising in defending service personnel at courts-martial both in the UK and abroad. Reevell was selected to represent the Conservative Party in Dewsbury at the 2010 general election.

He won the seat from Labour with a small majority of 1,526 resulting in a 7.8% swing to the Conservatives from Shahid Malik. It was the first time the seat of Dewsbury had been won by a Conservative MP since that of John Whitfield in the 1983 general election, making Reevell only the second Conservative MP since 1922 to win the seat. Reevell was re-selected in 2013 to represent the Conservative Party in Dewsbury at the 2015 general election. At the 2015 general election Reevell was defeated by Labour's Paula Sherriff who took the seat with a majority of 1,451. In 2014 it was revealed that Reevell was, after the speaker of the house of commons John Bercow, the most long-winded speaker in parliament, contributing an average of 460 words every time he speaks. Reevell said: “You get a lot of MPs who say things like ‘does my honourable friend agree that tomorrow is Thursday? I don’t do that; when I contribute to a debate it’s an actual speech in which I make serious points." In response to the 2010 Gaza aid envoy crisis Reevell commented that many fellow Tory MP's did not understand the depth of anger amongst Muslim voters regarding the crisis stating.

“Meanwhile, I was getting bombarded with emails about it.” When Kirklees Council announced in 2014 that they were considering closing all of the districts libraries except for Huddersfield and Dewsbury Reevell said. Any properly run organisation would have planned and prioritised, it is short-term thinking. Lots of local authorities are being asked to save a lot of money.” In response the Labour leader of Kirklees Council hit back stating that “We wouldn’t be talking about a nuclear option if we didn’t have £140 million cut from our budget every year.” He said that cuts on a national level left councils with no choice but to slash services. In March 2015 Reevell announced he had received a letter from "the Scholars of Dewsbury" complaining that the 2015 Counter-Terrorism and Security Bill “seeks to alienate… the Muslim community” and is for “party political gain”. Reevell hit back stating that such claims were "irresponsible" and "wrong", he went on to say that. The purpose of the Counter-Terrorism and Security Bill is to stop this.

The Bill may impact most on young British Muslims. Young British Catholics and atheists have not swelled the ranks of ISIS; those who have left the UK and gloat on social media about jihad purport to be Muslims. But to criticise the Bill for being somehow anti-Muslim is to conflate two separate matters." He went on to say that. Reevell emphasised to the group that. If community leaders cannot prevent the flow of those who want to kill, this legislation will do it for them." He mentioned that. It has all-party support. At both the Second and Third Readings there was not a call for a vote." He went on to comment that the groups claims that Muslims do not have the same ‘level of protection in law as other sections of society’ is "wrong". and that. Reevell is married to Louise, a barrister, he plays tennis and is interested in late Victorian oil paintings, classic cars and military history. Reevell is an active supporter of the RNLI, Help for Heroes and Dog's Trust. Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou

Novator KS-172

The Novator KS-172 is a Russian air-to-air missile designed as an "AWACS killer" at ranges up to 400 km. The missile has had various names during its history, including K-100, Izdeliye 172, AAM-L, KS–172, KS-1, 172S-1 and R-172; the airframe appears to have been derived from the 9K37 Buk surface-to-air missile but development stalled in the mid-1990s for lack of funds. It appears to have restarted in 2004 after a deal with India, who wants to produce the missile in India for their Su-30MKI fighters, it is the heaviest air-to-air missile produced. Modern airforces have become dependent on airborne radars carried by converted airliners and transport aircraft such as the E-3 Sentry and A-50'Mainstay', they depend on similar aircraft for inflight refuelling, maritime patrol and electronic warfare and C4ISTAR. The loss of just one of these aircraft can have a significant effect on fighting capability, they are heavily defended by fighter escorts. A long-range air-to-air missile offers the prospect of bringing down the target without having to fight a way through the fighter screen.

Given the potential importance of "blinding" Western AWACS, Russia has devoted considerable resources to this area. The R-37 is an evolution of their R-33 with a range of up to 400 km, there have been persistent rumours – if little hard evidence – of an air-to-air missile with a range of 200 km based on Zvezda's Kh-31 anti-radar/anti-shipping missile or its Chinese derivative, the YJ-91. NPO Novator started work in 1991 on a long-range air-to-air missile with the Russian project designation Izdeliye 172. Called the AAM-L, it made its first public appearance at the International Defence Exhibition in Abu Dhabi in early 1993, followed by the Moscow Air Show that year, it was described as having a range of 400 km. Some flight-testing was done on a Su-27, but it appears that the Russians withdrew funding for the project soon afterwards; the missile resurfaced as the KS–172 in 1999, as part of a new export-led strategy whereby foreign investment in a 300 km -range export model would fund a version for the Russian airforce.

Again it appears. In late 2003, the missile was offered again on the export market as the 172S-1. In March 2004, India was reported to have invested in the project and to be "negotiating a partnership" to develop the "R-172". In May 2005 the Indians were said to have finalised "an arrangement to fund final development and licence produce the weapon" in a joint venture similar to that which produced the successful BrahMos cruise missile. Since the missile has had a higher profile, appearing at the 2005 Moscow Air Show on a Su-30 as the K-172, a modified version being shown at the 2007 Moscow Air Show designated as the K-100-1; this name first appeared in a Sukhoi document in 2006, sources such as Jane's now refer to the missile as the K-100. The mockup shown in 1993 had a strong resemblance to the Buk airframe, but since the Indians became involved there have been some changes. An Indian magazine gave the specifications of the KS–172 in April 2004 as a core 6.01 m long and 40 cm in diameter with a wingspan of 61 cm, with a booster of 1.4 m, 748 kg total weight.

It had a solid fuel tandem rocket booster capable of speeds up to 4,000 km/h, 12g manoevring, an adaptive HE fragmentation warhead. Development would concentrate on the seeker head, resistance to jamming and a steering system with 3D thrust vector control. In May 2005 it was reported that there were two versions and without a rocket booster, with ranges of 400 km and 300 km respectively. At the MAKS in August 2005, a range of 300 km was quoted for a streamlined missile with a small booster and fins on both booster and fuselage; however the model shown at the 2007 MAKS airshow under the name K-100 was closer to the original 1993 mockup in the photo above, with different-shaped fins that were further up the fuselage, an larger booster with TVC vents. At the same show it was shown under the wing of a Su-35BM, implying that at least two could be carried by Flanker-class aircraft rather than just one on the centreline. Guidance is by inertial navigation until the missile is close enough to the target to use active radar for terminal homing.

The K-100 has an enlarged derivative of the Agat 9B-1103M seeker used in the R-27. It has a lock-on range of 40 km, described by an Agat designer as "one fifth or less of the overall range". KS-172 Prototype in 1993. KS-172S-1 Prototype in 2003. R-37 was developed from the R-33 and is intended for the Sukhoi Su-35 Flanker-E, Sukhoi Su-37 Flanker-F, MiG 1.42 MFI and other future fighters. According to Defence Today the range depends on the flight profile, from 80 nautical miles for a direct shot to 215 nautical miles for a cruise glide profile. Jane's reports two variants, the R-37 and the R-37M. Work on the missile appears to have restarted in late 2006, as part of the MiG-31BM programme to update the Foxhound with a new radar and ground attack capability. Kh-31 – the Chinese have licensed the anti-radar version of this Russian air-to-surface missile, may be working on an "AWACS killer" variant of their YJ-91 derivative; the Russians claim the anti-shipping

David Southwick

David James Southwick is an Australian politician, has been the member for Caulfield in the Victorian Legislative Assembly since 2010. In December 2018, Southwick was appointed the Shadow Minister for Police, Shadow Minister for Community Safety, Shadow Minister for Corrections, he is a member of the Liberal Party. Southwick was born and raised in Caulfield and completed his high school certificate at Mount Scopus Memorial College, he studied for a Bachelor of Business at Victoria University. In 1991 he was awarded an Honorary Fellowship in recognition of his service on the University Council. While at university Southwick started his business career including being founding and serving as managing director of The Body Collection. In this business, he employed 50 staff. Southwick has been the director or managing director of The Market Stars Group, ICE Events Pty Ltd and David James Investments Pty Ltd. Southwick was the Liberal candidate for the Division of Melbourne Ports in the 2004 federal election, achieving a swing of 2 points against the incumbent MP Michael Danby.

In the 2006 state election he was a Liberal candidate for the Southern Metropolitan Region, narrowly missing out on being elected. He was elected in 2010 as the Member for Caulfield and delivered his first speech on 8 February 2011, he is Chair of the Parliament's Education and Training Committee and one of the Parliament's inaugural representatives on the board of the Victorian Responsible Gaming Foundation. In November 2012, it was revealed, he claimed to have been an'Adjunct Professor' at RMIT, that he had a graduate diploma in marketing from Monash University, despite being a few units short. Both universities stated; the information was subsequently removed from his website. Southwick responded to the claims by saying that'Adjunct Professor' was a title used to refer to him while undertaking teaching overseas on behalf of the RMIT Graduate School of Business in Hong Kong, when he was an Adjunct Lecturer. During July 2013, in a first for Victorian members of parliament, Southwick launched David Southwick.

TV. The purpose of the website was to provide video updates to Caulfield residents about local events and issues in Victorian politics. At the time Southwick said: "As a fan of technology and emerging new media I have established this website so that local residents can access up to date and engaging video content including what is going on in their own neighbourhood; this content is delivered in a way that the viewer can watch in their own time as if they are part of the action" In 2015, Southwick was one of 13 MLAs who voted against banning anti-abortion campaigners from protesting outside abortion clinics. Prior to the 2018 election, Southwick expressed his opposition to Safe Schools, the aim of, to stop bullying towards LGBT students. Southwick has objected to aggressive renewable energy targets, promised to stop Labor's target. In the voluntary assisted dying vote, Southwick voted against the legislation. Parliamentary voting record of David Southwick at Victorian Parliament Tracker Official website