The Lok Sabha is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers; the house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi. The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552; the house has 545 seats, made up by the election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Tribes; the quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of, conducted in 2011. This exercise earlier included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme, being implemented; the 16th Lok Sabha is the latest to date. The schedule for the 2019 Lok Sabha Election has been announced by the Election Commission of India. Broken into seven phases the General Elections will be held from 11th April 2019 till 19th May 2019; the Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV, headquartered within the premises of Parliament. A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, the electorate small; the Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India; the Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India into two new independent countries and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan. According to Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States and the House of the People; the Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952. Article 84 of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows: He / She should be a citizen of India, must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
He / She should not be less than 25 years of age. He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament, he / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law. However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament: If he / she holds office of profit. A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances: When the holder of the seat, by writing to the speaker, resigns; when the holder of the seat is absent from 60 consecutive days of proceedings of the House, without prior permission of the Speaker. When the holder of the seat is subject to any dis
Ministry of Railways (India)
The Ministry of Railways is a ministry in the Government of India, responsible for the country's rail transport. The ministry operates the state-owned Indian Railways, an organisation that operates as a monopoly in rail transport and is headed by the Chairman of Railway Board; the ministry is headed by the Minister of Railways, a cabinet-level minister who presents the rail budget every year in parliament. There is one Union Minister of Railways, one Minister of State for Railways. Manoj Sinha and Rajen Gohain are the current Minister of State for Railways; the Railway Board, the apex body of the Indian Railways reports to the Minister of Railways. The Railway Board comprises one Chairman, five "members of the Railway Board.", a Financial Commissioner. It includes a Director-General, Director-General and a Director-General. A number of directorates report to the Railway Board. Most of the officers posted in Ministry of Railways are either from organised Group A Railway services or Railway Board Secretariat Service.
The Ministry of Railways is housed inside Rail Bhavan in New Delhi. The East India Railway Committee, chaired by Sir William Acworth, hence known as the Acworth Committee, pointed out the need for unified management of the entire railway system. On the recommendations of this committee and ratification of the resolution for separation in 1921, the government took over the actual management of all the railways, separated the railway finances from the general governmental finances, leading to the practice of presenting the Railway Budget separately from the general budget of India every year; the Railway Board was expanded to have a Financial Commissioner, a member in charge of ways, works and projects, a member in charge of administration and traffic. Accordingly, from 1 April 1929, the responsibility for the compilation of accounts for the Railways was taken over by the Financial Commissioner, Railways from the Auditor General. In 1924, the railway budget formed about 70% of the country's budget.
So separating it out allowed better focus on each budget's priorities. The Railway Budget now is less than 15% of India's national budget; the presentation of the Railway budget is of interest to the people, because the introduction of new train services, fare changes and tariffs are announced at this time. Each year, the railway budget is made available for viewing. Official website of the Ministry of Railways IRFCA link of railways ministers
Pranab Mukherjee is an Indian politician who served as the 13th President of India from 2012 until 2017. He is a Bharat Ratna awardee, awarded in 2019 by President of India Shri Ram Nath Kovind. In a political career spanning five decades, Mukherjee has been a senior leader in the Indian National Congress and has occupied several ministerial portfolios in the Government of India. Prior to his election as President, Mukherjee was Union Finance Minister from 2009 to 2012. Mukherjee got his break in politics in 1969 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi helped him get elected to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of Parliament of India, on a Congress ticket. Following a meteoric rise, he became one of Gandhi's most trusted lieutenants and a minister in her cabinet by 1973. During the controversial Internal Emergency of 1975–77, he was accused of committing gross excesses. Mukherjee's service in a number of ministerial capacities culminated in his first stint as finance minister in 1982–84. Pranab Mukherjee was Leader of the House in the Rajya Sabha from 1980 to 1985.
Mukherjee was sidelined from the Congress during the premiership of Rajiv Gandhi, Indira Gandhi's son. Mukherjee had viewed himself and not the inexperienced Rajiv, as the rightful successor to Indira following her assassination in 1984. Mukherjee lost out in the ensuing power struggle, he formed his own party, the Rashtriya Samajwadi Congress, which merged with the Congress in 1989 after reaching a consensus with Rajiv Gandhi. After Rajiv Gandhi's assassination in 1991, Mukherjee's political career revived when Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha Rao appointed him Planning Commission head in 1991 and foreign minister in 1995. Following this, as elder statesman of the Congress, Mukherjee was the principal and architect of Sonia Gandhi's ascension to the party's presidency in 1998; when the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance came into power in 2004, Mukherjee won a Lok Sabha seat for the first time. From until his resignation in 2012, Mukherjee was number-two in Prime Minister Manmohan Singh's government.
He held a number of key cabinet portfolios—Defence, External Affairs and Finance —apart from heading several Groups of Ministers and being Leader of the House in the Lok Sabha. After securing the UPA's nomination for the country's presidency in July 2012, Mukherjee comfortably defeated P. A. Sangma in the race to Rashtrapati Bhavan, winning 70 percent of the electoral-college vote. In 2017, Mukherjee decided not to run for re-election and to retire from politics after leaving the presidency due to "health complications relating to old age", his term expired on 25 July 2017. He was succeeded as President by Ram Nath Kovind. In June 2018 Mukherjee became first former President of India to address a Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh event. Pranab was born in a Bengali Kulin Brahmin family in Mirati, a village in the Bengal Presidency of British India, his father, Kamada Kinkar Mukherjee was active in the Indian independence movement and was a member of West Bengal Legislative Council between 1952 and 1964 as a representative of the Indian National Congress and was the member of AICC.
His mother was Rajlakshmi Mukherjee. He attended the Suri Vidyasagar College in Suri affiliated to University of Calcutta, he subsequently earned MA degree in Political Science&History and LL. B. degree. In 1963, he became Lecturer of Political Science at Vidyanagar College. Mukherjee's political career began in 1969, when he managed the successful Midnapore by-election campaign of an independent candidate, V. K. Krishna Menon. Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, recognized Mukherjee's talents and recruited him to her party, the Indian National Congress, he became a member of the Rajya Sabha in July 1969. Mukherjee was re-elected to the house in 1975, 1981, 1993 and 1999. Mukherjee became a Gandhi loyalist and is described as his "man for all seasons". Mukherjee's rise was rapid in the early phase of his career and he was appointed Union Deputy Minister of Industrial Development in Indira Gandhi's cabinet in 1973. Mukherjee was active in the Indian cabinet during the controversial Internal Emergency of 1975–77.
Ruling Congress politicians of the day including Mukherjee were accused of using extra-constitutional powers to "wreck established norms and rules of governance". Following the Congress's defeat in the 1977 general elections, the newly formed Janata government-appointed Shah Commission indicted Mukherjee. Mukherjee emerged unscathed and rose through a series of cabinet posts to become Finance Minister from 1982 to 1984, his term was noted for his work in improving the finances of the government that enabled Gandhi to score a political point by returning the last installment of India's first IMF loan. As Finance Minister, Mukherjee signed the letter appointing Manmohan Singh as Governor of the Reserve Bank of India. In 1979, Mukherjee became Deputy Leader of the INC in the Rajya Sabha, in 1980 he was appointed Leader of the House. Mukherjee was considered the top-ranking Indian cabinet minister and he presided over cabinet meetings in the absence of the Prime Minister. Mukherjee was sidelined from the INC following th
Janata Dal was an Indian political party, formed through the merger of Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal, Indian National Congress, the Jan Morcha united on 11 October 1988 on the birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan under the leadership of V. P. Singh. V. P. Singh united the entire disparte spectrum of parties ranging from regional parties such as the Telugu Desam Party, the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, the Asom Gana Parishad, together formed the National Front with N. T. Rama Rao as President and V. P. Singh as convenor with additional outside support from the Bharatiya Janata Party and Communist Party of India led Left front they defeated Rajiv Gandhi's Congress in the 1989 parliamentary elections, his government fell after Lalu Prasad Yadav, arrested Advani in Samastipur and stopped his Ram Rath Yatra, going to Ayodhya on the site of the Babri Masjid on October 23, 1990 and the Bharatiya Janata Party withdraw support V. P. Singh lost a parliamentary vote of confidence on November 7, 1990.
In the Indian general election, 1991 the Janata Dal lost power but emerged as the third largest party in Lok Sabha. Indian general election, 1991. Janata Dal-led United Front formed the government after the Indian general election, 1996 with the outside support of the Indian National Congress, but after this the Janata Dal disintegated into various regional parties Biju Janata Dal, Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal and Janata Dal. It first came to power in 1989, after allegations of corruption, known as the Bofors scandal, caused Rajiv Gandhi's Congress to lose the elections; the National Front coalition, formed consisted of the Janata Dal and a few smaller parties in the government, had outside support from the Left Front and the Bharatiya Janata Party. V. P. Singh was the Prime Minister. In November 1990, this coalition collapsed, a new government headed by Chandra Shekhar under Samajwadi Janata Party which had the support of the Congress came to power for a short while. Two days before the vote, Chandra Shekhar, an ambitious Janata Dal rival, kept out of the National Front government, joined with Devi Lal, a former deputy prime minister under V.
P. Singh, to form the Samajwadi Janata Party, with a total of just sixty Lok Sabha members; the day after the collapse of the National Front government, Chandra Shekhar informed the President that by gaining the backing of the Congress and its electoral allies he enjoyed the support of 280 members of the Lok Sabha, he demanded the right to constitute a new government. Though his rump party accounted for only one-ninth of the members of the Lok Sabha, Chandra Shekhar succeeded in forming a new minority Government and becoming Prime Minister. However, Chandra Shekhar's government fell less than four months after the Congress withdrew its support, its second spell of power began in 1996, when the Janata Dal-led United Front coalition came to power, with outside support from the Congress under Sitaram Kesri, choosing H. D. Deve Gowda as their Prime Minister; the Congress withdrew their support in less than a year, hoping to gain power with the support of various United Front constituent groups, I. K. Gujral became the next Prime Minister.
His government too fell in a few months, in February 1998, the Janata Dal-led coalition lost power to the Bharatiya Janata Party. Janata Dal led by Nitish Kumar Lok Janshakti Party led by Ram Vilas Paswan Samta Party, party of George Fernandes and now led by Jaya Jaitly and Brahmanand Mandal Lok Aawaz Dal led by Shambhu Sharan Shrivastava Rashtriya Samata Party led by Arun Kumar Socialist Janata Dal led by V. V. Rajendran Rashtriya Janata Dal led by Lalu Prasad Yadav Janata Dal led by H. D. Deve Gowda Loktantrik Janata Dal led by Sharad Yadav Rashtriya Lok Samata Party led by Upendra Kushwaha Rashtriya Lok Dal led by Ajit Singh Pragatisheel Samajwadi Party led by Shivpal Singh Yadav Hindustani Awam Morcha led by Jitan Ram Manjhi Samajwadi Janata Party, party of Late Chandra Shekhar now led by Kamal Morarka Loktantrik Samajwadi Party led by Raghu Thakur Samajwadi Jan Parishad party of Late Kishen Pattanayak and now led by Adv. Kamal Banerjee Socialist Janata Party led by Manju Mohan Socialist Party led by Bhai Vaidya Socialist Party Janata Dal led by John John Jan Adhikar Party Loktantrik led by Pappu Yadav Biju Janata Dal led by Naveen Patnaik Samajwadi Party led by Mulayam Singh Yadav and Akhilesh Yadav Indian National Lok Dal led by Om Prakash Chautala Jannayak Janata Party led by Ajay Singh Chautala Garib Janta Dal led by Sadhu Yadav Odisha Jan Morcha led by Late Pyarimohan Mohapatra Samata Kranti Dal led by Braja Kishore Tripathy Samras Samaj Party led by Nagmani Socialist Janata Party led by M. P. Veerendra Kumar Janata Party Jan Morcha of Late V. P. Singh and led by Ajeya Pratap Singh Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic led by Devendra Prasad Yadav Odisha Gana Parishad led by Bijoy Mohapatra All India Progressive Janata Dal led by Late Ramakrishna Hegde and Late S. R. Bommai Janata Dal led by Late Surendra Mohan and M. P. Veerendra Kumar Lok Shakti led by Late Ramakrishna Hegde Kerala Janata Dal led by Late Arangil Sreedharan Janata Dal led by Late Chimanbhai Patel and Late Chhabildas Mehta (me
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
Konkan known as the Konkan Coast or Kokan, is a rugged section of the western coastline of India. It is a 720 kilometres long coastline, it consists of the coastal districts of the Western Indian states of Maharashtra and the South Indian state of Karnataka. The ancient Saptakonkana is a larger region; the region is known as Karavali in Karnataka. According to the Sahyadrikhanda of the Skanda Purana, Parashurama shot his arrow into the sea and commanded the Sea God to recede up to the point where his arrow landed; the new piece of land thus recovered came to be known as Sapta-Konkana, meaning "piece of earth", "corner of earth", or "piece of corner", derived from Sanskrit words: koṇa + kaṇa. Xuanzang, the noted Chinese Buddhist monk, mentioned this region in his book as Konkana Desha. Konkan extends throughout the western coasts of Maharashtra and Karnataka, it is bounded by the Western Ghats mountain range in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, the Mayura River in the north and the Gangavalli River in the south.
The Gangavali flows in the district of Uttara Kannada in present-day Karnataka. Its northern bank constitutes the southernmost portion of Konkan; the towns of Karwar, Kumta and Bhatkal fall within the Konkan coast. The exact identity of the Mayura River, the northern limits of the historic Konkan, is indeterminate; the largest city on the Konkan coast is the state capital of Maharashtra. It lies within the Konkan division, an administrative sub-division of Maharashtra which comprises all the coastal districts of the state; these are, from north to south: Palghar district Thane district Mumbai Suburban district Mumbai City district Raigad district Ratnagiri district Sindhudurg district Goa Uttara Kannada Udupi Dakshina Kannada Ethnic groups and communities found in the region which makes a larger Konkani community are the Vaishya Vani, Aagri, Koli, Maratha, Goud Saraswath Brahmins, Daivadnya Brahmins, Rajapur Saraswat Brahmins, Padti, Chitpavan Brahmins, Kudaldeshkar Gaud Brahmins, Namdev Shimpi.
Tribal communities in Konkan include the Katkari, Konkana and Kolcha in southern Gujarat and Nagar Haveli, Maharashtra's Palghar district. The Katkari are found in Ratnagiri districts. Minorities of Muslim community form Konkani Muslims, Bene Israel in Raigad district, Christians form East Indians in Mumbai, Goan Catholics in Goa, Karwari Catholics in Uttara Kannada, Mangalorean Catholics in Udupi and Dakshina Kannada Kunakeshwar People of the Konkan Division Konkani people Konkani language Konkan Railway Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project Malabar CoastKonkan Hotels Konkan travel guide from Wikivoyage Konkan Tourism - A Complete Guide on Tourism
Mohan Dharia was a Union minister, a lawyer and social worker. During his last days he stayed in Pune. Dharia ran a non-government organisation Vanrai, he was elected to the Lok Sabha twice from Pune Lok Sabha constituency, first in 1971 as an Indian National Congress member and became a Minister of State, in 1977 as a Bharatiya Lok Dal member, joined the Morarji Desai Ministry as Union Minister of Commerce. Prior to it, he remained member of the Rajya Sabha twice from INC, first 1964-1970 and 1970- 1971He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian honour in 2005, by Government of India for his contribution in social work. Born in at village Nate Kolaba district, present Mahad Taluka, Raigad district, to Manikchand Dharia, he did his schooling from Konkan Education Society, Mahad, he joined Fergusson College Pune to become a surgeon, but abandoned his studies to join the independence movement in 1942. Thereafter he studied law at Pune University, he started his career as an advocate at the Bombay High Court and in time started his political career.
He was associated with the Praja Socialist Party and participated in National Struggle. He was General Secretary of Maharashtra Pradesh Congress Committee 1962—67 and Member of All India Congress Committee 1962—75. A highlight of Dharia's political career was his staunch opposition to the Thirty-eighth Amendment of the Constitution of India, introduced in 1975 by Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, he called it'a surrender of parliamentary democracy to the coming dictatorship'. His opposition to the imposition of a state of emergency in June 1975 led to his detention by the government with other dissenting leaders such as Morarji Desai, Chandra Shekhar and others, he quit Congress after the emergency after 1975. He held various positions in Public life: Member, Pune Municipal Corporation, 1957—60, Chairman of its Transport Undertaking, 1957–58. Minister of Commerce, Civil Supplies and Co-operation since March, 1977. Lit, Indira Priyadarshini Vrikshamitra Awards, Yashwantrao Chavan Award for Excellence, Rajiv Gandhi Paryavaran Ratna Award, Pune’s Pride Award, Jeevan Gaurav Award, Development Jewel Award, 26th Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration Founder President, Vanrai Trust website