Vidyaranya is variously known as a kingmaker, patron saint and high priest to Harihara I and Bukka Raya I, the founders of the Vijayanagara Empire. He was the 12th Jagadguru of the Śringeri Śarada Pītham from 1380-1386. Vidyaranya helped the brothers establish the empire sometime in 1336, he served as a mentor and guide to three generations of kings who ruled over the Vijayanagara Empire. Vijayanagara, the capital of the empire, had a temple dedicated to Mādhavācārya, he was a reputed Sanskrit-language author. He is identified as Madhavacharya, the author of the Sarvadarśanasaṅgraha, a compendium of different philosophical schools of Hindu philosophy and Pañcadaśī, an important text for Advaita Vedanta. One theory identifies Vidyaranya as the brother of Sayana; this suggests that he was born to Śrīmatīdevī in Pampakṣetra. However, according to the records of the Sringeri Sharada Peetham, Vidyaranya was a different person, Sayana and Madhava were his disciples. According to this account, Vidyaranya was born in c. 1296 CE in Ekasila Nagara.
He was the elder brother of Bharati Tirtha. This account claims that Vidyaranya wrote some Veda bhashyas, his disciples Sayana and Madhava completed these works, yet another theory states that Bharati Tirtha and Vidyaranya were the same person, although the Sringeri records identify them as two different persons. Sayana was younger brother of Sri Vidyaranya, he wrote commentary on vedas, vidyaranya written several commentary on vedas, included in the Sayana Bhasya, he lived 91 years and he served 9years as peethadipathi in Sringeri Muttt. Vidyaranya was the spiritual head of the Sringeri Sharada Peetham during 1377-1386 CE, he attained siddhi in 1391 CE. Vidyaranya served as a prime minister in the Vijayanagara Empire and is said to have played an important role in the establishment of the empire. According to one narrative, the empire's founders Harihara Raya I and Bukka Raya I were two brothers in the service of the Kampili chief. After Kampili fell to the Muslim invasion, they were converted to Islam.
They were sent back to Kampili as the Delhi Sultan's vassals. After gaining power in the region, they approached Vidyaranya, who converted them back to the Hindu faith; the historical authenticity of this narrative is doubtful. The contemporary documents, including the inscriptions issued by the earliest rulers of Vijayanagara, do not mention this account; the contemporary Muslim records refer to Harihara, but do not mention anything about his conversion to Islam, although they contain details of other converts from Deccan. The first works to mention this narrative were written over 200 years after the establishment of Vijayanagara. A local legend goes like this: Once, during a hunt, Harihara saw a big rabbit and sent his hunting dog after it. However, the rabbit escaped. While returning from the hunt, Harihara saw a holy man, narrated the strange incident to him; the holy man was Vidyaranya. The two men went to the place. Vidyaranya told him that the place was sacred, advised him to establish the capital of his new kingdom there.
Vidyaranya's most famous works are Pārāśara-Mādhavīya and the Sarvadarśanasaṅgraha "Compendium of school of philosophies", a compendium of all the known Indian schools of philosophy. To quote Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the Sarvadarśanasaṅgraha "sketches sixteen systems of thought so as to exhibit a ascending series, culminating in the Advaita Vedanta." The sixteen systems of philosophy expounded by him are: Cārvāka Buddhism Arhata or Jainism Ramanuja System Purna-Prajña Darsana or Tatva-vaada or Dvaita Vedanta Nakulisa-Paśupata Shaivism Pratyabhijña or Recognitive System Raseśvara or Mercurial System Vaisheshika or Aulukya Akshapada or Nyaya Jaimini Pāṇiniya Samkhya Patanjala or Yoga Vedanta or Adi ShankaraThe Sarvadarśanasaṅgraha itself doesn’t contain the 16th chapter, the absence of, explained by a paragraph at the end of the 15th chapter. It says: “The system of Sankara, which comes next in succession, and, the crest-gem of all systems, has been explained by us elsewhere, it is therefore left untouched here”.
Vidyaranya tries to refute, chapter by chapter, the other systems of thought prominent in his day. Other than Buddhist and Jaina philosophies, Vidyaranya draws quotes directly from the works of their founders or leading exponents and it has to be added that in this work, with remarkable mental detachment, he places himself in the position of an adherent of sixteen distinct philosophical systems. Sarvadarśanasaṅgraha is one of the few available sources of information about lokayata, the materialist system of philosophy in ancient India. In the first chapter, "The Cārvāka System", he critiques the arguments of lokayatikas. While doing so he quotes extensively from Cārvāka works, it is possible that some of these arguments put forward as the lokayata point of view may be a mere caricature of lokayata philosophy. Yet in the absence of any original work of lokayatikas, it is one of the few sources of information available today on materialist philosophy in ancient India. Vidyaranya's Pañcadaśī is a standard text on the philosophy of the Advaita Vedanta tradition.
It consists of fifteen chapters which are divided into three sections of five chapters each, which are designated as Viveka and Ananda. The text elucidates many Vedantic concepts such as, the five sheaths of an individuality, the relation between Isvara, Jagat and
Pillai Lokacharya was a prominent Sri Vaishnava leader and philosopher who authored several works important to Vishishtadvaita philosophy. The name Ulag-Ariya first became associated with Sri Nampillai when Sri Kanthadai Thozhappar celebrated him as the acharya for the world. Nampillai's disciple was Sri Vadakku Thiruveethippillai. Out of great affection for his acharya, Vadakku Thiruveethippillai named his first son as Pillai Lokacharya. Once Nampillai asked Vadakkuth Thiruveethip pillai's mother Ammi about her welfare, she told him that she was sad as her family was not being furthered because her son was staying away from his wife and was not having a child. Nampillai asked her to bring her daughter-in-law to his presence; when she did, he told her daughter-in-law. He called his disciple Vadakkuth Thiruveethippillai and told him to follow proper gruhastAsrama and that it would not cause any damage to his vairAgya. Vadakkuth Thiruveethippillai obeyed his acharya's words and in time a son was born to him.
While worshipping Lord Renganatha with his disciple's son on his Apthapoorthi day, Lord commanded Sri Nampillai to bless Sri Vadakku Thiruveethippillai to have another son like Lord himself. The second son was named Azhagiya Manavala Perumal Nayanar, after Lord Renganatha. Sri Pillai Lokacharya was born as the amsam of Kanchi Devaraja Perumal in the month of Aippasi under the star Thiruvonam, in the year 1205 CE. In their youth, both brothers learned everything from their acharya Nampillai as well as from their father, they grew up like Sri Lakshmana. In foreword to his vyakhyanam of Sri Vacana Bhushanam, Manavala Mamunigal tells of the following event. Once upon a time Kanchi Devaraja Perumal out of His nirhEduka krupa selected one Manarpakkam Nambi, appearing in his dream taught him some special rahasya meanings, he advised him to go live in Srirangam and wait for Him there where He will teach him in further detail those meanings. Manarpakkam Nambi moved to Srirangam, built a small temple and lived there worshipping Him and keeping the meanings revealed by Him to himself.
One day Pillai Lokacharya came to that temple with his close disciples and seeing the quiet nature of the place began teaching them the meanings of rahasyas. Nambi listening from inside noted that these meanings were the same as taught by Lord Varadaraja to him, he came out and bowing at Pillai Lokacharya's feet, asked him "AvarO neer?" – Are you the one?. Pillai Lokacharya replied " "Yes, what for that?". Manarpakkam Nambi explained his dream to him; this is the avatara rahasyam of Pillai Lokacharya. Pillai Lokacharya took him as his disciple and taught him the meanings of the rahasyas. Nambi told him that Lord Varadaraja had asked him to request Pillai Lokacharya to collect these meanings as a book; the book thus written is Sri Vacana Bhushanam. Manavala Mamunigal speaks of the greatness of this work in several pasurams in his UpadesaratthinamAlai. Mamunigal says that this is the greatest of Pilla Lokacharya's works. Both Sri Pillai Lokacharya and Sri Azhagiya Manavala Perumal Nayanar remained as Brahmachaaris to make sure that their vyraakyam is not hindered.
Because of this only, they were boldly able to advise that for a Sri Vaishnava, leading a marriage life with his wife is not good. Pillai Lokacharya's primary disciples were Sri Azhagiya Manavala Perumal Nayanar, Koorakuloththama Dasa, Manarpakkam Nambi, Kollikavala Dasa, KotturilaNNar and Vilanjsolai Pillai. At a young age Srisailesa and Thirunaaveerudaiyapiran DaatharaNNar became his disciples; the former is the acharya of Sri Manavala Mamunigal and the latter is his father. Mamunigal's father married his daughter. Thiruvaymozhi Pillai learned everything from Koorakuloththama Dasa. Thus, Mamunigal gained the great wealth of sambandham with Pillai Lokacharya through his acharya, his father and his maternal grandfather. While Pillai Lokacharya lived in Srirangam heading Emperumanar's Darsanam, the Islamic invasion of the city occurred. To save the temple and Periya Perumal, His sannidhi was covered with brick stones and a different vigraha was kept in front by Sri Pillai Lokacharya. Pillai Lokacharya left Srirangam along with Nacchimaars ahead of the invasion.
While going through a forest they were attacked by thieves who stole all the jewellery and vessels of Namperumal. Pillai Lokacharya gave them everything he had and rejected the items when they returned them to him. Happy that they left Namperumal with him, he continued on, they reached a small town called Jyothishkudi, near othakadai, Madurai. Here Pillai Lokacharya reached His lotus feet; the year was 1311 CE and the day was jyEshtha suddha dvAdasi. At his death bed he advised his disciples such as Koorakuloththama Dasa and Vilanjsolai Pillai that Srisailesa was working for the king at Madurai and that they should bring him back into the Srivaishnava fold so that he could lead the darsanam, his Samadhi temple still exists, 1 km from the Narasimha temple at Othakadai, near Madurai. While Swamy was about to leave this world and reach Achaaryan's Lotus feet, he started touching the ants and other such insects near him; such was Sri Pillai Lokacharya'
Ramanuja was an Indian theologian and one of the most important exponents of the Sri Vaishnavism tradition within Hinduism. His philosophical foundations for devotionalism were influential to the Bhakti movement. Ramanuja's guru was Yādava Prakāśa, a scholar, a part of the more ancient Advaita Vedānta monastic tradition. Sri Vaishnava tradition holds that Ramanuja disagreed with his guru and the non-dualistic Advaita Vedānta, instead followed the footsteps of Indian Alvārs tradition, the scholars Nāthamuni and Yamunāchārya. Ramanuja is famous as the chief proponent of Vishishtadvaita subschool of Vedānta, his disciples were authors of texts such as the Shatyayaniya Upanishad. Ramanuja himself wrote influential texts, such as bhāsya on the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita, all in Sanskrit, his Vishishtadvaita philosophy has competed with the Dvaita philosophy of Madhvāchārya, Advaita philosophy of Ādi Shankara, together the three most influential Vedantic philosophies of the 2nd millennium.
Ramanuja presented the epistemic and soteriological importance of bhakti, or the devotion to a personal God as a means to spiritual liberation. His theories assert that there exists a plurality and distinction between Ātman and Brahman, while he affirmed that there is unity of all souls and that the individual soul has the potential to realize identity with the Brahman. Ramanuja was born in the village of Tamil Nadu, his followers in the Vaishnava tradition wrote hagiographies, some of which were composed in centuries after his death, which the tradition believes to be true. The traditional hagiographies of Ramanuja state he was born to mother Kānthimathi and father Asuri Kesava Somayāji, in Sriperumbudur, near modern Chennai, Tamil Nādu, he is believed to have been born in the month of Chitra under the star Tiruvadhirai. They place his life in the period of 1017 -- 1137 CE; these dates have been questioned by modern scholarship, based on temple records and regional literature of 11th- and 12th-century outside the Sri Vaishnava tradition, modern era scholars suggest that Ramanuja may have lived between 1077-1157.
Ramanuja married, moved to Kānchipuram, studied in an Advaita Vedānta monastery with Yādava Prakāśa as his guru. Ramanuja and his guru disagreed in interpreting Vedic texts the Upanishads. Ramanuja and Yādava Prakāśa separated, thereafter Ramanuja continued his studies on his own, he attempted to meet another famed Vedanta scholar of 11th-century Yamunāchārya, but Sri Vaishnava tradition holds that the latter died before the meeting and they never met. Ramanuja was the great-grandson of Yamunāchārya through a grand-daughter. However, some hagiographies assert that the corpse of Yamunāchārya miraculously rose and named Ramanuja as the new leader of Sri Vaishnava sect led by Yamunāchārya. One hagiography states that after leaving Yādava Prakāśa, Ramanuja was initiated into Sri Vaishnavism by Periya Nambi called Māhapurna, another Vedānta scholar. Ramanuja renounced his married life, became a Hindu monk. However, states Katherine Young, the historical evidence on whether Ramanuja led a married life or he did renounce and became a monk is uncertain.
Ramanuja became a priest at the Varadharāja Perumal temple at Kānchipuram, where he began to teach that moksha is to be achieved not with metaphysical, nirguna Brahman but with the help of personal god and saguna Vishnu. Ramanuja has long enjoyed foremost authority in the Sri Vaishnava tradition. A number of traditional biographies of Ramanuja are known, some written in 12th century, but some written centuries such as the 17th or 18th century after the split of the Śrīvaiṣṇava community into the Vadakalais and Teṉkalais, where each community created its own version of Ramanuja's hagiography; the Muvāyirappaṭi Guruparamparāprabhāva by Brahmatantra Svatantra Jīyar represents the earliest Vadakalai biography, reflects the Vadakalai view of the succession following Ramanuja. Ārāyirappaṭi Guruparamparāprabhāva, on the other hand, represents the Tenkalai biography. Other late biographies include the Yatirajavaibhavam by Andhrapurna. Modern scholarship has questioned the reliability of these hagiographies.
Scholars question their reliability because of claims which are impossible to verify, or whose historical basis is difficult to trace with claims such as Ramanuja learned the Vedas when he was an eight-day-old baby, he communicated with God as an adult, that he won philosophical debates with Buddhists and others because of supernatural means such as turning himself into "his divine self Sesha" to defeat the Buddhists, or God appearing in his dream when he prayed for arguments to answer Advaita scholars. According to J. A. B. van Buitenen, the hagiographies are "legendary biographies about him, in which a pious imagination has embroidered historical details". Ramanuja grew up in a stable society during the rule of the Chola dynasty; this period was one of pluralistic beliefs, where Vaishnava, Smarta traditions and Jainism thrived together. In Hindu monastic tradition, Advaita Vedānta had been dominant, Ramanuja's guru Yādava Prākāsha belonged to this tradition. Prior to Ramanuja, the Sri Vaishnava sampradaya was an established organization under Yamunāchārya, bhakti songs and devotional ideas a part of south Indian culture because of the twelve Alvārs.
Ramanuja's fame grew because he was considered the first thinker in centuries that disputed Shankara's theories, offered an alternate interpretat
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient, non-theistic, Indian religion. Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of 24 victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, twenty-third being Parshvanatha in 8th century BC and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology; the main religious premises of Jainism are anekāntavāda, aparigraha and asceticism. Devout Jains take five main vows: ahiṃsā, asteya and aparigraha; these principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles.
Parasparopagraho Jīvānām is the motto of Jainism. Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most basic prayer in Jainism. Jainism has Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras; the Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras have different views on ascetic practices and which Jain texts can be considered canonical. Jain mendicants are found in all Jain sub-traditions except Kanji Panth sub-tradition, with laypersons supporting the mendicants' spiritual pursuits with resources. Jainism has between five million followers, with most Jains residing in India. Outside India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Suriname and the United States. Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, Diwali; the principle of ahimsa is a fundamental tenet of Jainism. It believes that one must abandon all violent activity, without such a commitment to non-violence all religious behavior is worthless. In Jain theology, it does not matter how correct or defensible the violence may be, one must not kill any being, "non-violence is one's highest religious duty".
Jain texts such as Acaranga Sūtra and Tattvarthasūtra state that one must renounce all killing of living beings, whether tiny or large, movable or immovable. Its theology teaches that one must neither kill another living being, nor cause another to kill, nor consent to any killing directly or indirectly. Furthermore, Jainism emphasizes non-violence against all beings not only in action but in speech and in thought, it states that instead of hate or violence against anyone, "all living creatures must help each other". Violence negatively affects and destroys one's soul when the violence is done with intent, hate or carelessness, or when one indirectly causes or consents to the killing of a human or non-human living being; the idea of reverence for non-violence is founded in Hindu and Buddhist canonical texts, it may have origins in more ancient Brahmanical Vedic thoughts. However, no other Indian religion has developed the non-violence doctrine and its implications on everyday life as has Jainism.
The theological basis of non-violence as the highest religious duty has been interpreted by some Jain scholars not to "be driven by merit from giving or compassion to other creatures, nor a duty to rescue all creatures", but resulting from "continual self-discipline", a cleansing of the soul that leads to one's own spiritual development which affects one's salvation and release from rebirths. Causing injury to any being in any form creates bad karma which affects one's rebirth, future well being and suffering. Late medieval Jain scholars re-examined the Ahiṃsā doctrine when one is faced with external threat or violence. For example, they justified violence by monks to protect nuns. According to Dundas, the Jain scholar Jinadatta Suri wrote during a time of Muslim destruction of temples and persecution that "anybody engaged in a religious activity, forced to fight and kill somebody would not lose any spiritual merit but instead attain deliverance". However, such examples in Jain texts that condone fighting and killing under certain circumstances are rare.
The second main principle of Jainism is anekāntavāda or anekantatva, a word derived from anekānta and vada. The anekāntavāda doctrine states that reality is complex and always has multiple aspects. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to express it with language. Human attempts to communicate is Naya, explained as "partial expression of the truth". Language is not Truth. From Truth, according to Mahāvīra, language returns and not the other way round. One can experience the truth of a taste, but cannot express that taste through language. Any attempts to express the experience is syāt, or valid "in some respect" but it remains a "perhaps, just one perspective, incomplete". In the same way, spiritual truths are complex, they have multiple aspects, language cannot express their plurality, yet through effort and appropriate karma they can be experienced. Since reality is many-sided the great error, according to Jainism, is ekānta where some relative truth is treated as an absolute truth to the exclusion of others.
The anekāntavāda premise of the Jains is ancient, as evidenced by its mention in Buddhist texts such as the Samaññapha
The Nimbarka Sampradaya known as the Hamsa Sampradāya, Kumāra Sampradāya, Catuḥ Sana Sampradāya and Sanakādi Sampradāya, is one of the four Vaiṣṇava Sampradāyas. It was founded by Nimbarka, teaches the Vaishnava theology of Dvaitadvaita or "dualistic non-dualism." Dvaitadvaita states that humans are both different and non-different from Isvara, God or Supreme Being, is known as Bhedābheda philosophy. According to tradition, the Nimbarka Sampradaya Dvait-advait philosophy was revealed by Śrī Hansa Bhagavān to Sri Sankadi bhagwan, one of the Four Kumaras; the Four Kumaras, Sanandana, Sanātana, Sanat Kumāra, are traditionally regarded as the four mind-born sons of Lord Brahmā. They were created by Brahmā in order to advance creation, but chose to undertake lifelong vows of celibacy, becoming renowned yogis, who requested from Brahma the boon of remaining perpetually five years old. Śrī Sanat Kumāra Samhitā, a treatise on the worship of Śrī Rādhā Kṛṣṇa, is attributed to the brothers, just like the Śrī Sanat Kumāra Tantra, part of the Pancarātra literature.
In the creation-myth of this universe as narrated by the Paurāṇika literature, Śrī Nārada Muni is the younger brother of the Four Kumāras, who took initiation from his older brothers. Their discussions as guru and disciple are recorded in the Upaniṣads with a famous conversation in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, in the Śrī Nārada Purāṇa and the Pañcarātra literature. Nārada Muni is recorded as main teacher in all four of the Vaiṣṇava Sampradāyas. According to tradition, he initiated Śrī Nimbārkācārya into the sacred 18-syllabled Śrī Gopāla Mantra, introduced him to the philosophy of the Yugala upāsana, the devotional worship of the divine couple Śrī Rādhā Kṛṣṇa. According to tradition, this was the first time that Śrī Rādhā Kṛṣṇa were worshipped together by anyone on earth other than the Gopis of Vṛndāvana. Śrī Nārada Muni taught Nimbarka the essence of devotional service in the Śrī Nārada Bhakti Sūtras. Śrī Nimbārkācārya knew the Vedas, Upaniṣads and the rest of the scriptures, but perfection was found in the teachings of Śrī Nārada Muni.
According to the Bhavishya Purana, his eponymous tradition, the Nimbārka Sampradāya, Śrī Nimbārkāchārya appeared in the year 3096 BCE, when the grandson of Arjuna was on the throne. Nimbarka is conventionally dated at the 12th or 13th century, but this dating has been questioned, suggesting that Nimbarka lived somewhat earlier than Shankara, in the 6th or 7th century CE. According to Roma Bose, Nimbarka lived in the 13th century, on the presupposition that Śrī Nimbārkāchārya was the author of the work Madhvamukhamardana. Bhandarkar has placed him after Ramanuja. S. N. Dasgupta dated Nimbarka to around middle of 14th century, while S. A. A. Rizvi assigns a date of c.1130–1200 AD. According to Satyanand, Bose's dating of the 13th century is an erroneous attribution, Malkovsky notes that in Bhandarkar's own work it is stated that his dating of Nimbarka was an approximation based on an flimsy calculation. According to Malkovsky, the latest scholarship has demonstrated with a high degree of clarity that Nimbarka and his immediate disciple Shrinivasa flourished well before Ramanuja, arguing that Shrinivasa was a contemporary, or just after Sankaracarya.
According to Ramnarace, summarising the available research, Nimbarka must be dated in the 7th century CE. According to tradition, Nimbārka was born in Vaidūryapattanam, the present-day Mungi Village, Paithan in East Maharashtra, his parents were Aruṇa Ṛṣi and Jayantī Devī. Together, they migrated to Mathurā and settled at what is now known as Nimbagrāma, situated between Barsānā and Govardhan; the Nimbarka Sampradaya is based on Nimbarka's Dvait-advait philosophy and nonduality at the same time, or dualistic non-dualism. According to Nimbarka, there are three categories of existence, namely Isvara. Cit and acit are different from Isvara, in the sense that they have attributes and capacities, which are different from those of Isvara. At the same time and acit are not different from Isvara, because they cannot exist independently of Him. Isvara exists by Himself, while cit and acit exist in dependence upon Him. Difference means a kind of existence, separate but dependent,. According to Nimbarka, the relation between Brahman, on the one hand, the souls and universe on the other, is a relation of natural difference-non-difference.
Nimbarka emphasises both difference and non-difference, as against Ramanuja, who makes difference subordinate to non-difference, in as much as, for him cit and acit do not exist separately from Brahman, but are its body or attributes. Nimbarka accepts parinamavada, the idea that the world is a real transformation of Brahman, to explain the cause of animate and inanimate world, which he says exist in a subtle form in the various capacities, which belong to Brahman in its natural condition. Brahman is the material cause of the universe, in the sense that Brahman brings the subtle rudiments into the gross form, by manifesting these capacities. For Nimbarka the highest object of worship is Krishna and His consort Radha, attended by thousands of gopi's, or cowherdesses, of the celestial Vrindavan. Devotion