Bond County, Illinois
Bond County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,768, its county seat is Greenville. Bond County is included in MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Bond County was formed in 1817 out of Madison County, it was named for Shadrach Bond, the delegate from the Illinois Territory to the United States Congress, who thereupon became the first governor of Illinois, serving from 1818 to 1822. The county's primary city, had a post office from 1819 and was incorporated as a town in 1855 and as a city in 1872. A few possible reasons have been put forth for the naming of the town; some think the town was named after Greenville, North Carolina, named after Revolutionary War general Nathanael Greene. Others say that Greenville was named by early settler Thomas White because it was "so green and nice." A third possibility is that Greenville was named after the town's first merchant. In 1824, a vote taken on slavery in Bond County had received 240 votes against and 63 votes for slavery.
While Illinois was not a slave state, it was adjacent to slave states and Kentucky, did allow the continued use of "indentured servants," a process many slaveowners used to keep their slaves in a free state. In Bond County, at one point 14 slaves were registered to eight owners. One slave, Silas Register, took his last name from the act of being registered at the county clerk's office. Register was the last known Bond County slave. A few of the slaves are buried in the county with the families they were indentured to. One former slave, was free after her owners moved out of the state and worked in the town so that she could buy her husband, Stephen, at auction in Missouri. During the 1840s, Bond County played host to a few people conducting slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad. Teacher T. A. Jones lived in Reno and in 2008, a letter in which he told of his Underground Railroad activities was discovered in a staircase in Sparta. Slaves were spirited from Missouri, sometimes through Carlyle to Bond County.
Rev. John Leeper was able to disguise his Underground Railroad activities due to his milling business. Dr. Henry Perrine helped with the secret railroad activities. Rev. George Denny's house was found in the 1930s to conceal a secret chamber, used in the Railroad. Greenville University was founded as Almira College in 1855. In 1941, college president H. J. Long "declared the founding of Almira and Greenville ran parallel, for both were founded on prayer."When Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas gave speeches in Greenville in 1858 during a campaign for the United States Senate, Douglas said: "Ladies and gentlemen it gives me great and supreme gratification and pleasure to see this vast concourse of people assembled to hear me upon this my first visit to Old Bond." The Illinois State Register reported of the occasion: "I've seen many gatherings in Old Bond county but I never saw anything equal to this and I never expect to."On November 21, 1915, the Liberty Bell passed through Greenville on its nationwide tour returning to Pennsylvania from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco.
After that trip, the Liberty Bell will not be moved again. The Greenville Public Library was established as a Carnegie library and is on the National Register of Historic Places. Hogue Hall at Greenville College appears on the National Register. On April 18, 1934, during the Great Depression, a group of 500 protesters marched to the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission to lodge complaints about the delivery of emergency supplies from the state and federal governments. Ronald Reagan visited Greenville on the campaign trail in the 1980s and gave a speech on the courthouse lawn. Barack Obama, the junior Senator from Illinois elected as President in November 2008 visited Greenville while campaigning for his Senate seat in 2004, in a visit hosted by the Bond County Democrats. Women in Bond County could vote for the first time in 1914. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 383 square miles, of which 380 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles is water. Montgomery County – north Fayette County – east Clinton County – south Madison County – west Interstate 70 U.
S. Route 40 Illinois Route 127 Illinois Route 140 Illinois Route 143 In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Greenville have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 91 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in February 1905 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.00 inches in February to 4.31 inches in May. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 17,768 people, 6,427 households, 4,340 families residing in the county; the population density was 46.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,089 housing units at an average density of 18.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.9% white, 6.1% black or African American, 0.5% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.6% were German, 12.2% were English, 10.1% were Irish, 8.4% were American.
Of the 6,427 households, 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.6% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families, 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2
Clinton County, Illinois
Clinton County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 37,762, its county seat is Carlyle. In 1960, the United States Census Bureau placed the mean center of U. S. population in Clinton County. Clinton County is part of MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 1805, prior to the establishment of the county, the territorial government established a post road from its capital to St. Louis, passing through the county. In 1808 a wagon road was laid out through the future Clinton County, it extended from the Goshen Settlement to the Ohio salt works and crossed the Kaskaskia River at Carlyle. Clinton County was created on 27 December 1824, from portions of Washington and Bond Counties, it was named for the seventh Governor of DeWitt Clinton, who helped build the Erie Canal. Crossing the Kaskaskia became much easier when the bridge now known as the General Dean Suspension Bridge was built in 1859, at a cost of $40,000. Before the bridge was constructed, crossings involved a mud bridge.
The Illinois General Assembly set aside $20,000 for bridge restoration in 1951, in 1953 the bridge was named after William F. Dean. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 503 square miles, of which 474 square miles is land and 29 square miles is water. Eldon Hazlet State Recreation Area and South Shore State Park are in Clinton County, its southern border is the Kaskaskia River. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Carlyle have ranged from a low of 19 °F in January to a high of 88 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in July 1980. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.17 inches in January to 4.44 inches in June. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 37,762 people, 14,005 households, 9,760 families residing in the county; the population density was 79.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 15,311 housing units at an average density of 32.3 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 93.4% white, 3.5% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.2% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 54.8% were German, 9.8% were Irish, 5.8% were English, 5.6% were American. Of the 14,005 households, 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families, 25.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age was 39.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $55,278 and the median income for a family was $66,682. Males had a median income of $45,119 versus $34,051 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,392. About 5.2% of families and 7.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.2% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over.
As part of German Catholic Central Illinois, nineteenth-century Clinton County was opposed to the “Yankee” Civil War and the Northern Illinois residents who supported it and the Republican Party. The county was solidly Democratic for the six decades after the Civil War, turning Republican only due to opposition to Woodrow Wilson’s post-World War I policies towards Germany, its first flirt with Republicanism was short-lived: in 1924 Clinton was the nation's southeasternmost county – and the solitary one in Illinois – to give a plurality to Robert M. La Follette Sr. and in 1928 its residents voted powerfully for coreligionist Al Smith despite a landslide loss nationally. 1936, despite a landslide win for Franklin D. Roosevelt, saw Clinton County, like many other German Catholic counties in the Midwest, show a more permanent trend away from the Democratic Party: owing to a strong vote for Union Party candidate William Lemke, Roosevelt only won a plurality, with powerful local opposition to World War II Wendell Willkie and Thomas E. Dewey won over 62 percent of the county's vote in the two elections held whilst World War II was in progress.
Since only Catholic John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson during his 1964 landslide have obtained a majority in the county for the Democratic Party, although county namesake Bill Clinton did win pluralities in both 1992 and 1996. Since 2000, opposition to the Democratic Party's liberal views on social issues has caused a powerful swing towards the Republican Party: Donald Trump won the county against namesake Hillary Clinton by 48.6 percent in 2016 – the worst performance by a Democrat. National Register of Historic Places listings in Clinton County, Illinois Specific General Official website Clinton County IL Genealogy Web Project
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
St. Louis is an independent city and major inland port in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois; the Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world; the city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, the 22nd-largest in the United States. Before European settlement, the area was a regional center of Native American Mississippian culture; the city of St. Louis was founded in 1764 by French fur traders Pierre Laclède and Auguste Chouteau, named after Louis IX of France. In 1764, following France's defeat in the Seven Years' War, the area was ceded to Spain and retroceded back to France in 1800. In 1803, the United States acquired the territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase.
During the 19th century, St. Louis became a major port on the Mississippi River, it separated from St. Louis County in 1877, becoming an independent city and limiting its own political boundaries. In 1904, it hosted the Summer Olympics; the economy of metropolitan St. Louis relies on service, trade, transportation of goods, tourism, its metro area is home to major corporations, including Anheuser-Busch, Express Scripts, Boeing Defense, Energizer, Enterprise, Peabody Energy, Post Holdings, Edward Jones, Go Jet and Sigma-Aldrich. Nine of the ten Fortune 500 companies based in Missouri are located within the St. Louis metropolitan area; this city has become known for its growing medical and research presence due to institutions such as Washington University in St. Louis and Barnes-Jewish Hospital. St. Louis has two professional sports teams: the St. Louis Cardinals of Major League Baseball and the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League. One of the city's iconic sights is the 630-foot tall Gateway Arch in the downtown area.
The area that would become St. Louis was a center of the Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River, their major regional center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900 to 1500. Due to numerous major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries, the city was nicknamed as the "Mound City"; these mounds were demolished during the city's development. Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people, whose territory extended west, the Illiniwek. European exploration of the area was first recorded in 1673, when French explorers Louis Jolliet and Jacques Marquette traveled through the Mississippi River valley. Five years La Salle claimed the region for France as part of La Louisiane; the earliest European settlements in the area were built in Illinois Country on the east side of the Mississippi River during the 1690s and early 1700s at Cahokia and Fort de Chartres. Migrants from the French villages on the opposite side of the Mississippi River founded Ste.
Genevieve in the 1730s. In early 1764, after France lost the 7 Years' War, Pierre Laclède and his stepson Auguste Chouteau founded what was to become the city of St. Louis; the early French families built the city's economy on the fur trade with the Osage, as well as with more distant tribes along the Missouri River. The Chouteau brothers gained a monopoly from Spain on the fur trade with Santa Fe. French colonists used African slaves as domestic workers in the city. France, alarmed that Britain would demand French possessions west of the Mississippi and the Missouri River basin after the losing New France to them in 1759–60, transferred these to Spain as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain; these areas remained in Spanish possession until 1803. In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, St. Louis was attacked by British forces Native American allies, in the Battle of St. Louis; the founding of St. Louis began in 1763. Pierre Laclede led an expedition to set up a fur-trading post farther up the Mississippi River.
Before Laclede had been a successful merchant. For this reason, he and his trading partner Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent were offered monopolies for six years of the fur trading in that area. Although they were only granted rights to set-up a trading post and other members of his expedition set up a settlement; some historians believe that Laclede's determination to create this settlement was the result of his affair with a married woman Marie-Thérèse Bourgeois Chouteau in New Orleans. Laclede on his initial expedition was accompanied by Auguste Chouteau; some historians still debate. The reason for this lingering question is that all the documentation of the founding was loaned and subsequently destroyed in a fire. For the first few years of St. Louis's existence, the city was not recognized by any of the governments. Although thought to be under the control of the Spanish government, no one asserted any authority over the settlement, thus St. Louis had no local government; this led Laclede to assume a position of civil control, all problems were disposed i
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
Montgomery County, Illinois
Montgomery County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 30,104, its county seat is Hillsboro. Montgomery County was formed in 1821 out of Madison counties, it was named in honor of Richard Montgomery, an American Revolutionary War general killed in 1775 while attempting to capture Quebec City, Canada. Perrin's 1882 History of Montgomery County relates that the County was named in honor of Gen. Montgomery, but goes on to say that "others are dubious as to whence it received its name." According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 710 square miles, of which 704 square miles is land and 6.0 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Hillsboro have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 91 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in February 1905 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.00 inches in February to 4.31 inches in May.
Sangamon County - north Christian County - northeast Shelby County - east Fayette County - southeast Bond County - south Madison County - southwest Macoupin County - west Interstate 55 Illinois Route 16 Illinois Route 48 Illinois Route 108 Illinois Route 127 Illinois Route 185 Litchfield Municipal Airport is located in Montgomery County, two nautical miles southwest of the central business district of Litchfield, Illinois. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 30,104 people, 11,652 households, 7,806 families residing in the county; the population density was 42.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,080 housing units at an average density of 18.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.1% white, 3.2% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 27.8% were German, 11.2% were Irish, 10.1% were English, 9.8% were American.
Of the 11,652 households, 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.7% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families, 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 41.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,864 and the median income for a family was $56,945. Males had a median income of $40,749 versus $29,426 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,700. About 10.9% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.7% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. Coffeen Hillsboro Litchfield Nokomis Witt Chapman Honey Bend Van Burensburg Zanesville Zenobia South Fillmore Township Otto Funk Violinist who achieved fame by walking from New York to San Francisco in the depression-era, "playing the fiddle every step of the way."
When he died in 1934 at the age of 65, he was accorded the biggest funeral in the history of Montgomery County. National Register of Historic Places listings in Montgomery County, Illinois Specific GeneralHistory of Montgomery County, Perrin, 1882 Official website Historical Society of Montgomery County Illinois
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti