George Lewis "Tex" Rickard was an American boxing promoter, founder of the New York Rangers of the National Hockey League, builder of the third incarnation of Madison Square Garden in New York City. During the 1920s, Tex Rickard was the leading promoter of the day, he has been compared to P. T. Barnum and Don King. Sports journalist Frank Deford has written that Rickard "first recognized the potential of the star system." Rickard operated several saloons and casinos, all named Northern and located in Alaska and Canada. Rickard was born in Missouri, his youth was spent in Sherman, where his parents had moved when he was four. His father died and his mother moved to Henrietta, Texas while he was still a young boy. Rickard became a cowboy after the death of his father. At the age of 23, he was elected marshal of Texas, he acquired the nickname "Tex" at this time. On July 2, 1894, Rickard married the daughter of a Henrietta physician. On February 3, 1895, their son, Curtis L. Rickard, was born. Leona Rickard died on March 11, 1895 and Curtis Rickard died on May 4, 1895.
In November 1895, Rickard went to Alaska, drawn by the discovery of gold there. Thus he was in the region when he learned of the nearby Klondike Gold Rush of 1897. Along with most of the other residents of Circle City, Alaska, he hurried to the Klondike, where he and his partner, Harry Ash, staked claims, they sold their holdings for nearly $60,000. They opened the Northern, a saloon and gambling hall in Dawson City, Canada. Rickard lost everything—including his share of the Northern—through gambling. While working as a poker dealer and bartender at the Monte Carlo saloon and gambling hall, he and Wilson Mizner began promoting boxing matches. In spring 1899, with only $35, Rickard left to chase the gold strikes in Alaska. While in Nome, he met Wyatt Earp, a boxing fan and had officiated a number of matches during his life, including the infamous match between Bob Fitzsimmons and Tom Sharkey in San Francisco on December 2, 1896; the two became lifelong friends, though for a brief period of time, they were competing saloon owners in Nome, where Rickard owned the Northern hotel and bar.
In 1902, Rickard married Edith Mae Haig of California. They had one daughter, who died in 1907. Edith Rickard died on October 1925 at her home in New York City. By 1906, Rickard was running the Northern casino in Goldfield, Nevada. In Goldfield, he promoted professional boxing match between Battling Nelson; the gate receipt of $69,715 set a record. For the A year Rickard opened the Northern Hotel in Ely, Nevada. Rickard organized the Ely Athletic club and was the owner of several mining properties in the Ely area. In December 1909, Rickard and John Gleason won the right to stage the world heavyweight championship fight between James J. Jeffries and Jack Johnson. Rickard planned to hold the fight on July 4, 1910 in San Francisco, however opposition from Governor James Gillett and Attorney General Ulysses S. Webb caused Rickard to move it to Reno, Nevada. Rickard and Gleason made a profit of about $120,000 on the fight, won by Johnson. On February 18, 1911, Rickard announced that he was "through with the business of prize fighting" and set sail for Argentina.
There, he acquired between 270,000 to 327,000 acres in Paraguay to start a cattle ranch. Rickard managed the ranch for the Farquhar syndicate, whose land holdings in South America total over 5 million acres. At its peak, the ranch consisted of about 1 million acres and had between 20,000 and 50,000 head of cattle. In 1913, Rickard's ranch was involved in a political controversy between Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil. Two of his employees were killed by Bolivian soldiers stationed in the disputed territory; that same year, Rickard accompanied Theodore Roosevelt on part of the Roosevelt–Rondon Scientific Expedition. The cattle business failed by the end of 1915 and Rickard's loss was stated to be about $1 million. In 1916, Rickard returned to the United States. On February 3, Jess Willard agreed to Rickard's offer to fight Frank Moran in New York City; the fight was held on March 1916 at Madison Square Garden. The $152,000 in gate receipts set a new record for an indoor event and the purse was the largest awarded for a no decision.
Rickard promoted the July 4, 1919 fight between world heavyweight champion Jess Willard and Jack Dempsey in Toledo, Ohio. The fight only drew 20,000 to 21,000 spectators and the total receipts were estimated to be $452,000. After expenses, Rickard made a profit of $100,000. After the Willard–Dempsey fight, Rickard began bidding for a title match between Dempsey and Georges Carpentier; the Jack Dempsey vs. Georges Carpentier fight took place on July 2, 1921 in a specially built arena in Jersey City, New Jersey; the bout, which drew a record crowd of 90,000, was the first boxing fight to produce a million dollar gate as well as the first world title fight to be carried over on radio. Rickard's profit on the fight was reported to be $550,000. On July 12, 1920, shortly after the Walker Law reestablished legal boxing in the state of New York, Rickard secured a ten-year lease of Madison Square Garden from its owner, the New York Life Insurance Company, he promoted a number of championship as well as amateur boxing bouts at the Garden.
His largest gate at the Garden came from the Jack Dempsey–Bill Brennan fight on December 14, 1920. The Benny Leonard–Ritchie Mitchell and Johnny Wilson–Mike O'Dowd fights drew well. In addition to boxing, Rickard hosted a number of other events, including six-day bicycle races, constructed
Fritzie Zivic, born as Ferdinand Henry John Zivcich, was an American boxer who held the world welterweight championship from October 4, 1940, until July 29, 1941. His managers included Luke Carney, after 1942, Louis Stokan. Zivic was born the youngest son of immigrant parents; as a young man, he followed the example of his four elder brothers, who boxed, became known as the "Fighting Zivics". His brothers Pete and Jack, the first and second born, went to the 1920 Antwerp Olympics in 1920. Referring to his youth in the rough and crowded Ninth Ward of Lawrenceville, Zivic said, "You either had to fight or stay in the house. We went out." Against one of his most skilled early opponents, Zivic defeated Charley Burley, fellow Pittsburgh boxer, for the only time on March 21, 1938, in their hometown. Characteristic of Zivic's boxing, he dominated the in-fighting. Burley started well, but in the rounds, the more experienced Zivic scored with rights hooks to the midsection and pulled Burley in during clinches to reduce Burley's long range game.
In two other meetings, in June 1938, July 1939, Zivic lost in ten round unanimous decisions. The well managed Burley would amass an impressive record of eighty-three with only twelve losses in his career. Zivic lost to Billy Conn, 1939 world light heavyweight champion, on December 28, 1936 before 5,163 in a ten-round split decision at Duquesne Gardens in Pittsburgh. In a close bout, the referee scored for Zivic with 5 rounds to 4 for Conn, but both judges scored for Conn. About a minute into the third, Conn struck Zivic with a right to the chest that slowed him somewhat for the rest of the fight, though his effort was still considerable. In the first five rounds, Conn took considerable punishment, the scoring favored Zivic, if not unanimously. Conn showed more energy, footwork, in the rounds his long, punishing left scored consistent points against Zivic in long range fighting. Conn, at 6' 2", enjoyed around two inches of reach advantage over Zivic, which he used more in rounds; the bout included no knockdowns but in the fourth and fifth rounds, Zivic caught Conn on the ropes and belted him about head and body til it appeared a knockout was a possible outcome.
From the sixth to the tenth, Conn fought more from a distance and in the eighth and ninth boxed brilliantly, using feints and footwork and his long, solid left. Zivic went to the body with hooks and crosses but failed to fatigue Conn who fought on and gained points. In an action packed tenth, Zivic first went inside and fought toe to toe with Conn getting him against the ropes, but Conn went back to boxing at long range and removed some of the loss in points he had suffered during the infighting, keeping the round close. Zivic defeated Johnny Jadick, former junior welterweight champion, on February 11, 1937 in a six-round knockout at Duquesne Garden in Pittsburgh. In a decisive victory, Zivic had Jadick down for a nine count in the first round, but let up some in the next three, he put Jadick down again at the end of the second for a count of five. Jadick took the count of ten from a blow by 1:16 into the sixth round. Zivic had lost to Jadick in a ten-round points decision in Washington in February 1935.
On January 20, 1939, Zivic defeated Jackie Burke, former holder of the Utah's Intermountain Welterweight Title, Pacific Southwest Welterweight Title, in a ten-round mixed decision at the Colliseum in St. Louis. Uppercuts to the head of Burke during the frequent infighting determined the outcome of the fight, though both boxers got in telling blows, there were no knockdowns. In a close bout, the referee scored 51 to 49 for Zivic, though one judge scored a draw, the remaining judge scored 53-47 in Zivic's favor, he notably defeated Sammy Angott, reigning NBA lightweight champion, in a non-title bout on August 29, 1940, in a ten-round unanimous decision at Forbes Field in Pittsburgh. The bout was part of an elimination match to determine who would face Henry Armstrong for his world welterweight title. Zivic took the last six of the ten rounds. According to Zivic his purse of $3,200 for the win, was the largest he had yet received. In the most significant win of his career, Zivic upset Henry "Hammering Hank" Armstrong on October 4, 1940 in a fifteen-round decision before 12,081 at Madison Square Garden, taking the world welterweight title despite being a 4-1 underdog.
He started by scoring with short right uppercuts in the early rounds. By the ninth, Armstrong's left eye was a slit, his right nearly as swollen, allowing Zivic to dance away when Armstrong attempted to mount a desperate clumsy attempt at a knockout in the final round. Zivic mounted a slow effective attack, but held no wide margin, as the referee and both judges awarded him eight of the fifteen rounds in the close bout; the Associated Press gave Zivic nine rounds with Armstrong six. Zivic did not take a points lead until the sixth and seventh when he banged away with short, right uppercuts. According to Zivic's account, the first bout with Armstrong included questionable fouls. Zivic claimed Armstrong started out fighting that way, noting, "Henry's givin' me the elbows and the shoulders and the top of the head, I can give that stuff back pretty good, but I don't dare to or maybe they'll throw me out of the ring." By the seventh round, Zivic had had enough, began responding in kind. At least one source noted that the referee, aware of the rough fighting that could be called as fouls gave up, allowed the combatants to fight using whate
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
New York Rangers
The New York Rangers are a professional ice hockey team based in New York City. They are members of the Metropolitan Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League; the team plays its home games at Madison Square Garden in the borough of Manhattan, an arena they share with the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association. They are one of three NHL teams located in the New York metropolitan area; the Rangers are one of the Original Six, along with the Boston Bruins, Chicago Blackhawks, Detroit Red Wings, Montreal Canadiens and Toronto Maple Leafs, to compete in the NHL until the league's expansion in 1967, after the team was founded in 1926 by Tex Rickard. The team attained success early on under the guidance of Lester Patrick, who coached a vibrant team containing Frank Boucher, Murray Murdoch, Bun and Bill Cook to Stanley Cup glory in 1928, making them the first NHL franchise in the United States to win the trophy; the team would go onto win two additional Stanley Cups in 1933 and 1940.
Following this initial grace period, the franchise struggled between the 1940s and 1960s, whereby playoff appearances and success was infrequent. The team enjoyed a mini renaissance in the 1970s, where they made the Stanley Cup finals twice, losing to the Bruins in 1972 and the Canadiens in 1979; the Rangers subsequently embraced a rebuild for much of the 1980s and early 1990s, which paid dividends, where the team, led by Mark Messier, Brian Leetch, Adam Graves, Mike Richter, captured their fourth Stanley Cup in 1994. The team was unable to duplicate that success in the years that followed, entered into another period of mediocrity, enduring a franchise-record seven-year postseason drought from 1998 to 2005, languished for the majority of the 2000s, but reached another Stanley Cup finals in 2014, being led by Martin St. Louis. However, they have since entered into another period of rebuilding. Several former members of the Rangers have been inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame, four of whom—Buddy O'Connor, Chuck Rayner, Andy Bathgate, Messier—have won the Hart Memorial Trophy while playing for the team.
George Lewis "Tex" Rickard, president of Madison Square Garden, was awarded an NHL franchise for the 1926–27 season to compete with the now-defunct New York Americans, who had begun play at the Garden the previous season. The Americans proved to be an greater success than expected during their inaugural season, leading Rickard to pursue a second team for the Garden despite promising the Amerks that they were going to be the only hockey team to play there; the new team was nicknamed "Tex's Rangers". Rickard's franchise began play in the 1926–27 season; the first team crest was a horse sketched in blue carrying a cowboy waving a hockey stick aloft, before being changed to the familiar R-A-N-G-E-R-S in diagonal. Rickard managed to get future legendary Toronto Maple Leafs owner Conn Smythe to assemble the team. However, Smythe had a falling-out with Rickard's hockey man, Col. John S. Hammond, was fired as manager-coach on the eve of the first season—he was paid a then-hefty $2,500 to leave. Smythe was replaced by Pacific Coast Hockey Association co-founder Lester Patrick.
The new team Smythe assembled turned out to be a winner. The Rangers won the American Division title their first year but lost to the Boston Bruins in the playoffs; the team's early success led to players becoming minor celebrities and fixtures in New York City's Roaring Twenties' nightlife. It was during this time, playing at the Garden on 48th Street, blocks away from Times Square, that the Rangers obtained their now-famous nickname "The Broadway Blueshirts". On December 13, 1929, the New York Rangers became the first team in the NHL to travel by plane when they hired the Curtiss-Wright Corporation to fly them to Toronto for a game against the Toronto Maple Leafs, which they lost 7–6. In only their second season, the Rangers won the Stanley Cup, defeating the Montreal Maroons three games to two. One of the most memorable stories that emerged from the finals involved Patrick playing in goal at the age of 44. At the time, teams were not required to dress a backup goaltender, so when the Rangers' starting goaltender, Lorne Chabot, left a game with an eye injury, Maroons head coach Eddie Gerard vetoed his original choice for a replacement.
An angry Patrick lined up between the pipes for two periods in Game 2 of the finals, allowing one goal to Maroons center Nels Stewart. Frank Boucher scored the game-winning goal in overtime for New York. After a loss to the Bruins in the 1928–29 finals and an early struggle in the early 1930s, the Rangers, led by brothers Bill and Bun Cook on the right and left wings and Frank Boucher at center, defeated the Maple Leafs in the 1932–33 best-of-five finals three games to one to win their second Stanley Cup, exacting revenge on the Leafs' "Kid line" of Busher Jackson, Joe Primeau and Charlie Conacher; the Rangers spent the rest of the 1930s playing close to 0.500 hockey. Lester Patrick was replaced by Frank Boucher. In 1939–40 season, the Rangers finished the regular season in second place behind Boston; the two teams met in the first round of the playoffs. The Bruins gained a two-games-to-one series lead from New York, but the Rangers recovered to win three-straight games, defeating the first-place Bruins four games to two.
The Rangers' first round victory gave them a bye until the finals. The Detroit Red Wings defeated the New York Americans in their first round best-of-three series two games to one (even as the Americans had analytical a
The Millrose Games is an annual indoor athletics meet held each February in New York City. They started taking place at the Armory in Washington Heights in 2012, after having taken place in Madison Square Garden from 1914 to 2011; the games were started when employees of the New York City branch of Wanamaker's department store formed the Millrose Track Club to hold a meet. The featured event is the Wanamaker Mile; the Millrose Games began in 1908 at a local armory the same year when its parent, the Millrose Athletic Association, was formed as a recreational club by the employees of the John Wanamaker Department Store. "Millrose" was the name of the country home of Rodman Wanamaker in Pennsylvania. In 1914, after overflowing the armory the year before, the Millrose Games moved to Madison Square Garden, until 2011 was the oldest continuous sporting event held there. For 10 years beginning in 1916, the Wanamaker 1 1/2 Mile race was a highlight of the. Run for the last time in 1925, the final edition was won by Paavo Nurmi, the nine-time Olympic gold medalist from Finland.
In 1926, the distance was shortened, the Wanamaker Mile was born. It has been run at 10 p.m. a carryover from the days beginning in the 1930s when legendary sports announcer Ted Husing would broadcast the race live on his 10 p.m. radio show. Marking its 81st running last year, the Wanamaker Mile has been won by 44 different men, including such luminaries as Glenn Cunningham, Kip Keino, Tony Waldrop, Filbert Bayi, Steve Scott, Noureddine Morceli, Bernard Lagat, Marcus O'Sullivan, Ron Delany, and, of course, the Irish legend whose name is synonymous with the event: Eamonn Coghlan. Known as the “Chairman of the Boards” for his dominance on the old wooden Millrose track, the Irishman won the mile here an astonishing seven times, a feat surpassed only by Bernard Lagat, who won his eighth Wanamaker Mile in 2010; some of the most memorable moments in Millrose history include Ray Conger's 1929 upset win over Nurmi in the Wanamaker Mile. For 70 of its first 96 years, the role of Millrose meet director was a father-son affair: Fred Schmertz took the helm in 1934, handing the reins to son Howard in 1975.
In 2003, the title of Meet Director Emeritus was bestowed on the younger Schmertz. In May 2011 Norbert Sanders, the President of the Millrose Games, announced that, starting January 2012, the games would be moved to the Armory in Washington Heights, at 168th Street, that a new all-day Saturday schedule would replace the Friday evening format; the games, operated by the New York Road Runners, are notable for their rigid anti-doping policies. In 2017, Millrose race director Ray Flynn told an ESPN reporter, "We have a mandate that we don't invite any athlete that has had any drug history in their past. We want to keep our meet free of any athlete that has a violation." The most prolific winner in event history is Loren Murchison, a sprinter who won 13 titles between 1919 and 1926. He is followed by pole vaulter Bob Richards, hurdler Greg Foster and 500-600-800m runner Mark Everett, hurdler Harrison Dillard and miler Eamonn Coghlan. Coghlan's total includes two Masters Mile wins. Four women share the honor of most Millrose wins at eight apiece: 400-meter runner Diane Dixon, whose eight victories include five straight from 1988–1992.
202 athletes share the distinction of being Olympic champions. Over the course of its history, numerous world records have been set at the Millrose Games. Official website Millrose Games & Wanamaker Mile
A model aircraft is a small sized unmanned aircraft or, in the case of a scale model, a replica of an existing or imaginary aircraft. Model aircraft are divided into two basic groups: flying and non-flying. Non-flying models are termed static, display, or shelf models. Flying models range from simple toy gliders made of card stock or foam polystyrene to powered scale models made from materials such as balsa wood, plastic, carbon fiber, or fiberglass and are skinned with tissue paper or mylar covering; some can be large when used to research the flight properties of a proposed full scale design. Static models range from mass-produced toys in white metal or plastic to accurate and detailed models produced for museum display and requiring thousands of hours of work. Many models are available in kit form made of injection-moulded polystyrene. Aircraft manufacturers and researchers make wind tunnel models not capable of free flight, used for testing and development of new designs. Sometimes only part of the aircraft is modelled.
Static model aircraft are scale models built using plastic, metal, fiberglass or any other suitable material. Some static models are scaled for use in wind tunnels, where the data acquired is used to aid the design of full scale aircraft. Models are available that have been built and painted. Most of the world's airlines allow their fleet aircraft to be modelled as a form of publicity; these include Delta Air Lines, Air France, British Airways, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aeroméxico, FedEx, Polar Air Cargo, Air New Zealand, China Airlines, Singapore Airlines, South African Airways, American Airlines, United Airlines, Japan Airlines, Royal Jordanian, Korean Airlines, Asiana Airlines. In the early days, airlines would order large models of their aircraft and supply them to travel agencies as a promotional item. In addition and airplane makers hand out desktop model airplanes to airport and government officials as a way of promoting their airline, celebrating a new route or an achievement. Former Puerto Rico governor Alejandro García Padilla, for example, has models of JetBlue, Lufthansa and Seaborne Airlines which were given to him by those airlines after starting or increasing flights to San Juan during his tenure.
Static model aircraft are available commercially in a variety of scales from as large as 1:18 scale to as small as 1:1250 scale. Plastic model kits requiring assembly and painting are available in 1:144, 1:72, 1:50, 1:48, 1:32, 1:24 scale depending on the size of the original subject. Die-cast metal models are available in 1:400, 1:200, 1:72, 1:600, 1:500, 1:300, 1:250, 1:48. A variety of odd scales are available, but less common. Scales are not random, but are based upon simple divisions of either the Imperial system, or the Metric system. For example, 1:48 scale is 1/4" to 1-foot and 1:72 is 1" to 6 feet, while metric scales are simpler, such as 1:100th, which equals 1 centimeter to 1 meter. 1:72 scale was first introduced in the Skybirds wood and metal model aircraft kits in 1932. Skybirds was followed by Frog which produced 1:72 scale aircraft in 1936 under the "Frog Penguin" name. According to Fine Scale Modeler magazine, 1:72 was popularized by the US War Department during the Second World War when it requested models of single engine aircraft at that scale.
The War Department requested models of multi-engine aircraft at a scale of 1:144. The War Department was hoping to educate Americans in the identification of aircraft; these scales provided the best compromise between detail. After WWII, manufacturers continued to favor these scales, however kits are available in 1:48, 1:35, 1:32, 1:24 scales; the French firm Heller SA is one of the few manufacturer to offer models in the scale of 1:125, while 1:50th and 1:100th are more common in Japan and France which both use Metric. Herpa and others produce promotional models for airlines in scales including 1:200, 1:400, 1:500, 1:600, 1:1000 and more. A few First World War aircraft were offered at 1:28 by Revell, such as the Fokker Dr. I and Sopwith Camel. A number of manufacturers have made 1:18th scale aircraft to go with cars of the same scale. Aircraft scales have been different from the scales used for military vehicles, figures and trains. For example, a common scale for early military models was 1:76, whereas companies such as Frog were producing aircraft with a scale of 1:72.
Military vehicles have adapted to the aircraft standards of 1:72. This has resulted in a substantial amount of duplication of the more famous subjects in a large variety of sizes, which while useful for forced perspective box dioramas has limited the number of possible subjects to those that are more well known. Less produced scales include 1:64, 1:96, 1:128. Many older plastic models do not conform to any established scale as they were sized to fit inside standard commercially available boxes, leading to the term "Box Scale" to describe them; when reissued, these kits retain their unusual scales. The most common form of manufacture for kits is injection molded polystyrene plastic, using carbon steel molds. Today, this takes place in China, the Philippines, South Korea, Eastern Europe. Injection molding allows a high degree of precision and automation not available in the other manufacturing processes used for models but the molds are expensive and require large production r