The Mond Crucifixion is a painting by Italian renaissance artist Raphael. An early work influenced by Perugino, it was an altarpiece in the church of San Domenico, Città di Castello, near Raphael's hometown of Urbino; the painting shows Jesus on the cross, looking peaceful though he is dying. There are two angels catching his blood in chalices. On Jesus' left kneels Mary Magdalene, with John the Evangelist standing behind her. On his right Mary stands, St. Jerome, to whom the altar was dedicated, is kneeling. At the foot of the cross is the inscription RAPHAEL/ VRBIN / AS /. P. in silver letters. The painting was bequeathed to the National Gallery by Ludwig Mond; the sun and moon at the top are present despite the Council of Constantinople prohibition of such symbology for its reference to other religions. The painting was analyzed in the National Gallery London and the typical pigments of the Renaissance period were identified, he painted the Crucifixion among other pigments with natural ultramarine, lead-tin-yellow, verdigris and ochres
Morgan Library & Museum
The Morgan Library & Museum – the Pierpont Morgan Library – is a museum and research library located at 225 Madison Avenue at East 36th Street in the Murray Hill neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. It was founded to house the private library of J. P. Morgan in 1906, which included manuscripts and printed books, some of them in rare bindings, as well as his collection of prints and drawings; the library was designed by Charles McKim of the firm of McKim and White and cost $1.2 million. It was made a public institution in 1924 by J. P. Morgan's son John Pierpont Morgan, Jr. in accordance with his father's will. The building was designated a New York City landmark in 1966 and was declared a National Historic Landmark that same year. Today the library is a complex of buildings which serve as scholarly research center; the scope of the collection was shaped in its early years as a private collection by Belle da Costa Greene, J. P. Morgan's personal librarian, who became the library's first director and served from the time that it became public until her retirement in 1948.
Her successor Frederick Baldwin Adams, Jr. managed the Library until 1969 and was world-renowned for his own personal collections. The most internationally significant part of the collection is its small but select collection of illuminated manuscripts, medieval artworks such as the Stavelot Triptych and the metalwork covers of the Lindau Gospels. Among the more famous manuscripts are the Morgan Bible, Morgan Beatus, Hours of Catherine of Cleves, Farnese Hours, Morgan Black Hours, Codex Glazier; the manuscript collection includes authors' original manuscripts, including some by Sir Walter Scott and Honoré de Balzac, as well as the scraps of paper on which Bob Dylan jotted down "Blowin' in the Wind" and "It Ain't Me Babe". It contains a large collection of incunabula and drawings of European artists—Leonardo, Raphael, Rubens, Gainsborough, Dürer, Picasso. Other holdings include material from ancient Egypt and medieval liturgical objects, Émile Zola, William Blake's original drawings for his edition of the Book of Job.
The collection still includes a few Old Master paintings collected by Morgan between 1907 and 1911, but this has never been the collection's focus, Ghirlandaio's masterpiece Portrait of Giovanna Tornabuoni was sold to Thyssen when the Great Depression worsened the Morgan family's finances. Other notable artists of the Morgan Library and Museum are Jean de Brunhoff, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, John Leech, Gaston Phoebus, Rembrandt van Rijn, John Ruskin. In 2018, the Morgan acquired the drawing Bathers by Renoir, a unexhibited work; the Morgan has one of the world's greatest collections of ancient Near Eastern cylinder seals, small stone cylinders finely engraved with images for transfer to clay by rolling. It contains many music manuscripts and a considerable collection of Victoriana, including one of the most important collections of Gilbert and Sullivan manuscripts and related artifacts. Of interest to Australians is a copy of the letter written by Andrea Corsali from India in 1516; this letter, one of five in existence, contains the first description of the Southern Cross, illustrated by Corsali in this letter and, named "croce" by him.
One other copy of the letter is in the British Library and two are in Australia. The fifth is in the Library of Princeton University; the letter is readily available in Ramusio's Viaggi, a compendium of letters of exploration, published in Venice in three volumes from 1555. The first building constructed to house Morgan's library – the "McKim Building" – was designed in the Classical Revival style by Charles Follen McKim of the noted firm of McKim, Mead & White in 1903. Morgan commissioned a house to be built for his daughter a block away at the same time, it is located at 33 East 36th Street, at the time just to the east of Morgan's residence, a brownstone house at 219 Madison Avenue built in 1880. McKim took his inspiration from its Nymphaeum; the building was constructed from 1902-1907 and has a facade of Tennessee marble and a Palladian arch entrance which features two lionesses sculpted by Edward Clark Potter, who would create the two lions that guard the New York Public Library's main building.
In the entrance are roundels and panels by Andrew O'Connor and Adolph Weinman. The interior of the building is richly decorated, with a polychrome rotunda which leads to three public rooms, which were Morgan's private study, the librarian's office, the library itself; the rotunda itself has a domed ceiling with murals and plasterwork inspired by Raphael, created by H. Siddons Mowbray. Morgan's study, now the West Library, has been called "one of the greatest achievements of American interior decoration," while the East Library features triple-tiers of bookcases. Morgan's residence was torn down in 1928, after his death, to be replaced by an annex building which featured
Young Woman with Unicorn
Portrait of Young Woman with Unicorn is a painting by Raphael, which art historians date to 1505 or 1506. It is in the Galleria Borghese in Rome; the painting was oil on panel, was transferred to canvas during conservation work in 1934. It was in the course of this work that overpainting was removed, revealing the unicorn, removing the wheel and palm frond, added by an unknown painter during the mid-17th century; the composition of the picture--placing the figure in a loggia opening out onto a landscape, the three-quarter length format-- was inspired by the Mona Lisa, painted by Leonardo between 1503 and 1506. Christof Thoenes observes: "However unabashedly Raphael adopts the pose, compositional framework and spatial organization of the Leonardo portrait...the cool watchfulness in the young woman's gaze is different" from the "enigmatic ambiguity" of Mona Lisa. The work was of uncertain attribution until recent times. In the 1760 inventory of the Gallery, the subject of the painting was identified as Saint Catherine of Alexandria and attributed to Perugino.
A restoration of the painting in 1934–36 confirmed art historian Roberto Longhi's attribution of the work to Raphael, the removal of heavy repainting revealed the unicorn, traditionally a symbol of chastity in medieval romance, in place of a Saint Catherine wheel. Restoration work on the painting in 1959 revealed through radiography the image of a small dog, a symbol of conjugal fidelity, under the unicorn; this alteration is believed to have been made by Raphael. Giulia Farnese Barchiesi and Marina # Minozzi, The Galleria Borghese: The Masterpieces, Galleria Borghese, Rome, n.d. Thoenes, Raphael 1483-1520: The Invention of the High Renaissance, Koln: Taschen, 2012
St. Michael (Raphael)
St. Michael is an oil painting by Italian artist Raphael. Called the Little St. Michael to distinguish it from a larger treatment of the same theme, St. Michael Vanquishing Satan, it is housed in the Louvre in Paris; the work depicts the Archangel Michael in combat with the demons of Hell, while the damned suffer behind him. Along with St. George, it represents the first of Raphael's works on martial subjects. An early work of the artist, the painting was executed for Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, in 1504 or 1505 on the back of a draughtboard commissioned to express appreciation to Louis XII of France for conferring the Order of Saint Michael on Francesco Maria I della Rovere, Guidobaldo's nephew and heir. Whatever the impetus for its creation, by 1548 it hung in the collection at the Palace of Fontainebleau. In 2006's Early Work of Raphael, Julia Cartwright suggests it may betray the influence of Timoteo Viti in the gold tinting to the green wings of Michael, while the sinners in the background suggest that Raphael may have consulted an illustrated volume of Dante's Inferno.
The punishments depicted reflect Dante's treatment of thieves. A little more than a decade after completing the little St. Michael, Raphael was commissioned to revisit the theme, producing St. Michael Vanquishing Satan for Pope Leo X in 1518. Media related to Saint Michael with the Dragon by Raffaello Sanzio at Wikimedia Commons
A predella is the platform or step on which an altar stands. In painting, the predella is the painting or sculpture along the frame at the bottom of an altarpiece. In Christian medieval and Renaissance altarpieces, where the main panel consisted of a scene with large static figures, it was normal to include a predella below with a number of small-scale narrative paintings depicting events from the life of the dedicatee, whether the Life of Christ, the Life of the Virgin or a saint. There would be three to five small scenes, in a horizontal format, they are significant in art history, as the artist had more freedom from iconographic conventions than in the main panel. As the main panels themselves became more dramatic, during Mannerism, predellas were no longer painted, they are rare by the middle of the 16th century. Predella scenes are now separated from the rest of the altarpiece in museums. Examples of predellas include: Duccio – the predella of his Maestà – one of the earliest predellas. Lorenzo Monaco – Incidents in the Life of Saint Benedict Luca Signorelli – The Adoration of the Shepherds Andrea Mantegna – San Zeno Altarpiece Stanley Spencer – Sandham Memorial Chapel, Hants.
Pre-Raphealite, Dante Rossetti, revisited the predella in his second Beata Beatrix. Media related to Predellas at Wikimedia Commons
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the largest, work of his career; the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome, much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality, he was influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was known from his collaborative printmaking. After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models.
His career falls into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria a period of about four years absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region, where his father Giovanni Santi was court painter to the Duke; the reputation of the court had been established by Federico da Montefeltro, a successful condottiere, created Duke of Urbino by Pope Sixtus IV – Urbino formed part of the Papal States – and who died the year before Raphael was born. The emphasis of Federico's court was rather more literary than artistic, but Giovanni Santi was a poet of sorts as well as a painter, had written a rhymed chronicle of the life of Federico, both wrote the texts and produced the decor for masque-like court entertainments, his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the small court of Urbino he was more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Federico was succeeded by his son Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, who married Elisabetta Gonzaga, daughter of the ruler of Mantua, the most brilliant of the smaller Italian courts for both music and the visual arts. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture. Growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Court life in Urbino at just after this period was to become set as the model of the virtues of the Italian humanist court through Baldassare Castiglione's depiction of it in his classic work The Book of the Courtier, published in 1528. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but visited, they became good friends, he became close to other regular visitors to the court: Pietro Bibbiena and Pietro Bembo, both cardinals, were becoming well known as writers, would be in Rome during Raphael's period there.
Raphael mixed in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a full humanistic education however, his mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1, 1494 by his father, who had remarried. Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, he continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master. He had shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been "a great help to his father". A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity, his father's workshop continued and together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello the court painter, Luca Signorelli, who until 1498 was based in nearby Città di Castello. According to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice "despite the tears of his mother".
The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, has been disputed—eight was early for an apprenticeship to begin. An alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. Most modern historians agree that Raphael at least worked as an assistant to Perugino from around 1500. Vasari wrote that it was impossible to distinguish between their hands at this period, but many modern art historians claim to do better and detect his hand in specific areas of works by Perugino or his workshop. Apart from stylistic closeness, their techniques are similar as well, for example having paint applied thickly, using an oil varnish medium, in shadows and darker garments, but thinly on flesh areas. An excess of resin in the varnish causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters; the Perugino workshop w
Portrait of Emilia Pia da Montefeltro
The Portrait of Emilia Pia da Montefeltro is a picture from around 1504–1505, attributed to the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael and housed by the Baltimore Museum of Art, United States The rear of the work has an inscription saying "Emilia Pia da Montefeltro" and a seal with a fragmentary line interpreted as "ntico tedescho di V", i.e. the Fondaco dei Tedeschi in Venice. The painting was part of the ducal collection of Urbino, brought to Florence in 1625 as a part of Vittoria della Rovere's dowry, it was in Vienna in Erlenbach, near Zurich, was sold to the Kleinberger Gallery in New York, USA, whence it arrived to the current seat. The identification with the subject is confirmed by a medal attributed to Adriano Fiorentino. However, the attribution to Raphael remains disputed, in a similar way than the Portrait of Elisabetta Gonzaga of the Uffizi. Emilia Pia was in fact a confidant of Elisabetta Gonzaga, her portrait was executed to emulate the former's. La donna gravida De Vecchi, Pierluigi.
Raffaello. Milan: Rizzoli