Camera di San Paolo
The Camera di San Paolo or Camera della Badessa is a room in the former Monastery of San Paolo, in Parma, northern Italy. It is painted with frescoes over the fireplace. Giovanna Piacenza, in her first decade as abbess of the monastery, ordered improvements and decorations. In 1514, the vault of her private apartment was decorated by Alessandro Araldi, with biblical and mythological subjects. This, a few years led to a similar but more up-to-date project for the adjacent chamber, this time assigned to Correggio, who had moved to Parma around 1519, it is not known how the painter and Giovanna came into contact, although Correggio at the time had familiarity with another Benedictine monastery, that of San Benedetto Po in what is now the province of Mantua. The work shows influence from the contemporary Romean Renaissance painting style, in particular the Raphael Rooms in the Vatican Palace, Mantegna's Belvedere Chapel, now lost, although no visit to Rome by Correggio is documented. There are some affinities with Leonardo da Vinci's style, such as that in the Sala delle Asse, which can be explained by a voyage by the artist to Milan.
The decoration, completed in 1520, began a period for Correggio as one of the most celebrated painters in Italy, with works such as the domes in Parma Cathedral and San Giovanni Evangelista. The work itself became an immediate landmark in illusionistic painting, influencing local artists such as Parmigianino, in particular in his work in the Rocca of Fontanellato. In 1524 an enclosure rule was forced on the convent, preventing male visitors, for some two centuries the existence of the chamber's decoration remained unknown. In 1774 the painter and art historian Anton Raphael Mengs analyzed the work, which thenceforth became known as an important example of late Renaissance painting in Italy; the iconography of the frescoes has been the subject of debate, at present has not yet been conclusively explained. The chamber was part of a complex of six rooms, forming the personal apartment of abbess Giovanna Piacenza; the function of the chamber in particular is not known: a lounge, or a dining room.
The base is square, above is a late-Gothic-style vault designed in 1514 by Giorgio da Erba. The vault is an example of illusionistic painting; the ribs of the vault are in turn painted to resemble bamboo, divide each vault segment in four zones, each corresponding to a wall. At the centre of the vault is the coat of arms of abbess Giovanni, formed by three crescent moons in gilded stucco, around, a series of knotted pink belts. Festoons of vegetables are connected to one for each vault sector; each festoon ends with an oval opening in which, above a bright sky background, are groups of puttos with symbols of hunting. Below, along the walls, are trompe l'oeil lunettes depicting statues inside niches, with simulated lighting from below; the lower zone contains a series of ram heads connected by painted drapery, which in turn support objects such as plates and others. Above the fireplace, Correggio painted the Roman goddess Diana on a chariot, towed by deers; the goddess is both an allusion to Giovanna's personal qualities, and, as the goddess of the Moon, to her coat of arms.
The architrave of the fireplace has the Latin inscription "IGNEM GLADIO NE FODIAS", meaning "Do not distub the flame with sword": an assertion of the abbess' independence from the ecclesiastical authorities who were disputing her tenure of the convent. Page at Correggio Art Home website
Vision of St. John on Patmos
The Vision of St. John the Evangelist at Patmos is a series of frescoes by the Italian late Renaissance artist Antonio Allegri da Correggio, it occupies the interior of the dome, the relative pendentives, of the Benedictine church of San Giovanni Evangelista of Parma, Italy. The centre of the cupola is occupied by an illusionistic space based on series of concentric planes indicated by the clouds, from which the apostles stretch out. Starting from the border of the dome, the clouds thin out and open to a shiny light Christ descending towards the floor of the nave; the scene is a faithful rendering of John's Book of Revelation. The figure of St. John leans from the drum of the dome; this part of the fresco was hidden to the people present in the church, but visible to the monks in the choir and under the dome. In the four pendentives Correggio painted, the Four Evangelists and the Four Doctors of the Church; these are: St. Matthew with an angel. Assumption of the Virgin Valerio Terraroli, Elemond Arte, 1992
Madonna of the Basket (Correggio)
The Madonna of the Basket or the Madonna della Cesta is a 1525 painting by Antonio Correggio. As of 2015, it is in the National London. Http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/correggio-the-madonna-of-the-basket
Venus and Cupid with a Satyr
Venus and Cupid with a Satyr is a painting by the Italian High Renaissance artist Antonio Allegri da Correggio. It is now in the Musée du Louvre in Paris; this painting was in the 16th century in the private collection of count Nicholas Maffei. It is likely that one of the members of the Maffei family has commissioned two paintings that they arrived in the 17th century in the collection of the Gonzaga family, with whom the Maffei were relatives. In fact, The son of count Nicholas Maffei count Frederick Maffei married Isabel, daughter of Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga today last representative and head of the House, Maffei-Gonzaga is Prince Luke Maffei-Gonzaga It depicts Venus sleeping with her son Eros. Behind them, a satyr is caught while discovering the goddess; the picture is also seen as portraying Jupiter and Antiope as, according to mythology and Ovid, Jupiter had turned himself into a satyr to rape the nymph. The painting was connected to the Venus with Mercury and Cupid, now in the National Gallery of London.
It, or a copy of it, can be seen in the 1628 painting of the gallery of Cornelis van der Geest, by Willem van Haecht
Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
The Holy Family with Saint Jerome
The Holy Family with Saint Jerome is a 68 by 56 cm oil on poplar panel painting by Correggio. It dates to around 1515 and is now displayed in the East Closet of Hampton Court Palace as part of the Royal Collection, it has similarities with the Holy Family with the Infant Saint John the Baptist and so it dates to around the time Correggio painted the frescoes in the Camera di San Paolo or slightly earlier. It shows the Holy saint Jerome, it can be identified with the "canvas... painted with the Madonna with the Child in her arms, saint Jerome and saint Joseph, with a carved golden frame 72 V" mentioned on a list of paintings owned by Vincenzo I Gonzaga as of 23 January 1627. It is unknown whether or not it entered the Gonzaga collection thanks to Vincenzo I, but given his interest in Correggio it seems the most plausible hypothesis - he acquired the same artist's Madonna and Child with Saint Francis and the Rest on the Flight into Egypt, for example; the Flemish art dealer Daniel Nys was tasked by Charles I with acquiring the Gonzaga collection and recognised it as a work by Correggio despite its lack of a signature.
His correspondence mentions a Madonna by Correggio with the head of St. Joseph which for unknown reasons was one of the works which had not reached Nys at Venice - this seems to be The Holy Family with Saint Jerome; the fact that Nys wrote in 1628 lamenting the work's absence and stating "it must be found" shows the high value he placed on it. The painting reached Britain and entered Charles' collection - his coat of arms is on its reverse, though it is not mentioned as being by Correggio in the inventory of Charles' collection, it was re-identified as a work by Correggio in 1870 by Jean Paul Richter and his attribution has been followed by all subsequent art historians. Giuseppe Adani, Correggio pittore universale, Silvana Editoriale, Correggio 2007. ISBN 9788836609772
Madonna of St. Jerome (Correggio)
The Madonna and Child with Sts Jerome and Mary Magdalen is an oil on canvas painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Correggio dating from around 1528 and housed in the Galleria Nazionale of Parma, Italy. The canvas was commissioned in 1523 by Briseide Colla for a private chapel on the right side of the church of Sant'Antonio Abate in Parma. Contemporary art historian and painter Giorgio Vasari described the work's il mirabile colorito, it was studied by El Greco. In the early 18th century, the church needed costly restoration works and several collectors, including the Kings of Poland and France and the Holy Roman Emperor, offered to buy the work. However, in 1749 it was transferred into the Cathedral of Parma and was bought by the Duchy of Parma. During the French occupation of northern Italy, it was brought to France; the painting was placed on display in the Parma gallery. A 1724 copy of the painting hangs in the chapel of Strasbourg. Adani, Giuseppe. Correggio pittore universale. Correggio: Silvana Editoriale.
Page at Correggio Art Home website Page at Galleria nazionale di Parma website